An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15360 entries, 13214 authors and 1892 subjects. Updated: September 23, 2021

Browse by Publication Year 1800–1809

189 entries
  • 537

Traité des membranes en général et diverses membranes en particulier.

Paris: Richard, Caille & Ravier, 1800.

Bichat conceived the idea of a science of anatomy and pathology based upon an accurate classification of the various tissues of the body, their distribution in the various organs and parts, and their particular susceptibilities to disease (Corner). He is regarded as the founder of modern histology and tissue pathology. English translation, Boston, 1813.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), PATHOLOGY
  • 311

Leçons d’anatomie comparée. 5 vols.

Paris: Baudouin, 18001805.

Cuvier played a leading part in the development of paleontology and stimulated the study of comparative anatomy. He ranks with von Baer as one of the founders of modern morphology. Vols. 1-2 ed. by C. Duméril, and vols. 3-5 ed. by G.L. Duvernoy, but Cuvier took full responsibility for the contents of this work. The posthumous second edition, revised and expanded by Georges Cuvier's younger brother, Georges-Frédéric Cuvier  to 8 vols., appeared from 1835-1846.

  • 597

Recherches physiologiques sur la vie et la mort.

Paris: Gabon et Cie, 1800.

When Volta questioned the validity of experiments claiming to show responsiveness of an ex vivo heart, devoid of blood flow and nervous connections, Bichat obtained permission to experiment upon the freshly killed bodies of those guillotined during the French Revolution. His trials on both laboratory animals and human cadavers led him to conclude that cardiac excitation by electricity would occur only when the organ was stimulated by direct contact. English translation of second edition, Philadelphia, 1809.

  • 1768

Historiae Aegypti compendium, Arabice et Latine. Partim ipse vertit, partim a Pocockio versum edendum curavit, notisque illustravit J. White.

Oxford: typ. Academicis, Impensis Editoris, 1800.

Arabic-Latin bilingual text, edited by White, incorporating a translation begun by Edward Pococke the Younger (1648-1727). Abd al-Latif gave a good description of the fauna and flora of Egypt, its inhabitants and some of its diseases. He was the first writer, according to Hirsch, to dispute the accuracy of Galen. The first printed version of his work consisted of the Arabic text alone (Tübingen, 1789). Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY, Biogeography, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Egypt, Geography of Disease / Health Geography, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Islamic or Arab Medicine, ZOOLOGY, Zoology / Natural History, Islamic
  • 5837

Mémoire sur l’ophtalmie régnante en Egypte.

Cairo: Imprimerie nationale, 18001801.

The great military surgeon Larrey served during the Napoleonic campaign in Egypt, where he was the first to observe the contagiousness of trachoma shortly after the successful invasion in 1798. The disease spread to Europe under the name of “military ophthalmia” or “Egyptian ophthalmia”. This pamphlet was printed at Napoleon's press in Cairo, the first printing press established in Egypt. Reprinted in Larrey’s, Rélation historique et chirurgicale de I’expedition de l'Armée d’Orient, Paris, 1803.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Egypt, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Trachoma, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Napoleon's Campaigns & Wars, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye › Conjunctivitis › Trachoma, TROPICAL Medicine
  • 5646

Researches, chemical and philosophical, chiefly concerning nitrous oxide.

London: J. Johnson, 1800.

Davy discovered the anesthetic properties of nitrous oxide and suggested its use during surgical operations. This suggestion was applied until 1844 when the American dentist Horace Wells volunteered to have the effects of nitrous oxide demonstrated on him by Gardner Quincy Colton, a member of a traveling circus. Wells felt nothing, and was the first patient to be operated on under anesthesia, having his tooth extracted later that year by his associate, John Riggs. See No. 5660. Digital facsimile of Davy's book from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Nitrous Oxide
  • 5424

A prospect of exterminating the small-pox, being the history of the variolae vaccinae, or kine-pox, commonly called the cow-pox; as it has appeared in England: With an account of a series of inoculations performed for the kine-pox in Massachusetts. [Part II:] A prospect of exterminating the small pox part II, being a continuation of a narrative of facts concerning the progress of the new inoculation in America; together with practical observations on the local appearance, symptoms, and mode of treating the variola vaccina, or kine pock; including some letters to the author, from distinguished characters, on the subject of this benign remedy, now passing with a rapid step through all ranks of society in Europe and America.

Cambridge, MA: William Hilliard & University Press, 18001802.

Waterhouse introduced Jennerian vaccination into the U.S.A. He vaccinated his own child as his first case. See J. B. Blake, Benjamin Waterhouse and the introduction of vaccination. A reappraisal. Philadelphia, 1957. Digital facsimile of pt 1 from U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link; of part 2 from at this link.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox › Vaccination, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Massachusetts
  • 4490

Doit-on admettre une nouvelle espèce de goutte sous la dénomination de goutte asthénique primitive? an VIII

Paris: J. Brosson, 1800.

Landré-Beauvais gave the first reasonably accurate description of rheumatoid arthritis.

Subjects: RHEUMATOLOGY › Arthritis, RHEUMATOLOGY › Gout (Podagra)
  • 7291

Account of flint weapons discovered at Hoxne in Suffolk.

Archaeologia, 13, 204-205, 1800.

Frere described the discovery of several flint artifacts, which he believed to be “weapons of war,” associated with “some extraordinary bones, particularly a jaw-bone of enormous size of some unknown animal” (p. 204). The flints, which included handaxes, were excavated at a brick-field in Hoxne, from a layer of gravelly soil about 12 feet beneath the surface. Frere speculated that the flints were possibly of great antiquity: “The situation in which these weapons were found may tempt us to refer them to a very remote period indeed; even beyond that of the present world . . . the manner in which they lie would lead to the persuasion that it was a place of their manufacture and not of their accidental deposit” (p. 205). 

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 7749

Of the imagination, as a cause and as a cure of disorders of the body; exemplified by fictitious tractors, and epidemical convulsions. Read to the Literary and Philosophical Society of Bath.

Bath, England: Printed by R. Crutwell, 1800.

The first clinical demonstration of the placebo effect, specifically in the context of Perkins' metallic tractors. Haybarth  demonstrated the placebo effect caused by the tractors by obtaining the same results with wooden ones. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY, PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE › Placebo / Nocebo, Quackery
  • 9084

An epitome of the natural history of the insects of India, and the islands in the Indian seas: Comprising upwards of two hundred and fifty figures and descriptions of the most singular and beautiful species, selected chiefly from those recently discovered, and which have not appeared in the works of any preceding author. The figures are accurately drawn, engraved, and coloured, from specimens of the insects; the descriptions are arranged according to the system of Linnaeus; with references to the writings of Fabricius, and other systematic authors.

London: Printed for the Author by T. Bensley, 1800.

"For Insects of India Donovan described and figured specimens in his own cabinet, that were originally collected by the late Duchess of PortlandMarmaduke Tunstall, a Governor Holford (many years resident in India), a Mr. Ellis, George Keate, a Mr. Yeats, and a Mr. Bailey. He also studied the collections of John FrancillonMr. Drury and Alexander Macleay. His patron was Joseph Banks. It is the first illustrated publication dealing with the entomology of India. The exact publication date, stated on the title page as being 1800, is also unclear as most plates are later; for example, the plate for Cicada indica is dated Feb 1, 1804. Many of the butterflies figured are from the Americas. In the works of Fabricius on which the Epitome was based "Indiis" confusingly refers to the West Indies or northern South America" (Wikipedia)

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, NATURAL HISTORY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 9090

The natural history of British shells, including figures and descriptions of all the species hitherto discovered in Great Britain, systematically arranged in the Linnean manner, with scientific and general observations on each. 5 vols.

London: Printed for the Author...., 18001804.

Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), ZOOLOGY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Malacology
  • 13392

Der botanische Garten der Universität zu Halle im Jahre 1799.

Halle: C. A. Kümmel, 1800.

Digital facsimile from at this link. Followed by Erster Nachtrag zu der Beschreibung des botanischen Gartens der Universität zu Halle (1801). Digital facsimile of the 1801 Nachtrag from at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens
  • 403

Anatomie générale, appliquée à la physiologie et à la médecine. 4 vols.

Paris: Brosson, Gabon & Cie, 1801.

Bichat revolutionized descriptive anatomy. Where Morgagni and others had conceived of whole organs being diseased, Bichat showed how individual tissues could be separately affected. He covered tissue pathology, system by system in the Anatomie générale, showing that tissues from different organs are similar and subject to the same diseases, and identifying 21 different types of tissues. This was done essentially without a microscope, but marks the beginning of modern histology. The above work and No. 404 are remarkable in their total reliance on verbal description to convey anatomical detail, since neither work contains a single illustration. Translated into English by George Hayward as General anatomy, applied to physiology and medicine. 3 vols., Boston: Richardson and Lord, 1822. Digital facsimile of the French edition from the Internet Archive at this link. Digital facsimile of the English translation also from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), PHYSIOLOGY
  • 1118

Le sang, est-il identique dans tous les vaisseaux qu’il parcourt?

Paris: L'Auteur, 1801.

Like de Bordeu, and more definitely, Legallois anticipated the conception of internal secretions. He surmised from the identity in composition of all varieties of arterial blood and the diversity of venous blood in different parts of the body, that this diversity is acquired, in each case from the loss of some substance from the organ from which the vein proceeds.

Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion, HEMATOLOGY, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 1838.2

The American herbal, or materia medica.

Walpole, NH: Thomas & Thomas, 1801.

The first herbal both produced and printed in the United States, as opposed to those which were reprints of European works. Includes information on native American remedies. Digital facsimile from the Medical Heritage Library, Internet Archive, at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Ethnobotany, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , NATIVE AMERICANS & Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines
  • 1487

On the mechanism of the eye.

Phil. Trans., 91, 23-28, 1801.

Includes the first description of astigmatism, with measurements and optical constants.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1489

Abbildungen des menschlichen Auges.

Frankfurt: a.M., Varrentrapp u. Wenner, 1801.

Soemmerring is best remembered for his fine anatomical illustrations, of which those devoted to the human eye are a good example. In 1791 he made important observations on the macula lutea: "De foramine centrali limbo luteo cincto retinae humanae," Comment. Soc. reg. Sci. Gotting., 1795-98 (1799), 13, 3-13; on p. 4 he states that he made these observations on January 27, 1791. French translation in Demours, No. 5842.1.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1988.1

Versuche des Galvanismus zur Heilung einiger Krankheiten.

Berlin: Myliussi, 1801.

Grapengiesser was the first physician to use Volta’s “pile”, the first battery, which Volta first described in print in 1800. Grapengiesser “noted that in paralyzed muscle excitability could be so poor that 150 elements were necessary to produce contraction. He placed conductors on moistened skin and found by trial and error that the best results were obtained with the zinc pole placed over the nerve trunk and the other pole over the branches of the nerve. He also noted that contraction occurred on the make and break of the circuit”. (Licht).

Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology, THERAPEUTICS › Medical Electricity / Electrotherapy
  • 215.5

Système des animaux sans vertèbres.

Paris: L'Auteur, 1801.

The “Discours d’ouverture” contains Lamarck’s first published statement of the theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics. See No. 316.

  • 3580

Icones herniarum. Editae a S. T. Soemmerring.

Frankfurt: Varrentrapp & Wenner, 1801.

Camper illustrated his own work, and was an outstanding anatomical artist. His illustrations of hernias are of great value.

Subjects: Illustration, Biomedical, SURGERY: General › Hernia
  • 3361

Farther observations on the effects which take place from the destruction of the membrana tympani of the ear; with an account of an operation for the removal of a particular species of deafness.

Phil. Trans., 91, 435-50, 1801.

Sir Astley Cooper reported three cases of Eustachian obstruction deafness relieved by perforation of the membrana tympani (myringotomy), an operation first performed by Eli, a quack, in 1760. Cooper’s earlier paper on the subject appeared in vol. 90 of the Phil. Trans. He also demonstrated air and bone conduction by watch (precursor of Rinne’s test). For this work he received the Copley Medal.

Subjects: OTOLOGY › Otologic Surgery & Procedures
  • 3880

Accroissement singulier en grosseur des os d’un homme âgé de 39 ans. In: Mélanges de chirurgie, 407-11.

Paris: E. Gay , 1801.

Saucerotte described before the Académie de Chirurgie in 1772 a case of what is now known to have been acromegaly. This is the first known clinical description of the disease, and is one of the five cases included in Pierre Marie’s classic account (No. 3884). Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary, SURGERY: General
  • 3678

A treatise on the human teeth, concisely explaining their structure and cause of disease and decay.

New York: Johnson & Stryker, 1801.

First American book on the teeth, a pamphlet of 26pp. It was intended for the lay public and listed sound rules of oral hygiene, explained the nature of dental diseases and their treatment, and stressed preventive maintenance of the teeth. In 1792 Skinner founded at the New York Dispensary the first in-hospital dental clinic in the United States. He also offered his services free of charge to the Hospital and Alms House of New York City, establishing the first dental clinic for the poor in America. Reprinted New York, Argosy, 1967.

  • 4922

Traité médico-philosophique sur l’aliénation mentale ou la manie.

Paris: Richard, Caille & Ravier, 1801.

Pinel founded the French School of Psychiatry. He was among the first to treat the insane humanely; he dispensed with chains and placed his patients under the care of specially selected physicians. Garrison considered the above book one of the foremost medical classics, giving as it did a great impetus to humanitarian treatment of the insane. English translation, Sheffield, 1806. The second French edition, Paris, Brosson, 1809 was very substantially enlarged by Pinel. 

  • 4969.1

De l’éducation d’un homme sauvage, ou des premier développemens physiques et moraux du jeune sauvage de l’Aveyron.

Paris: Goujon fils, 1801.

A pupil of Pinel, Itard pioneered in the attempt to educate a young “wild boy” who had lived since infancy entirely apart from human contact. In adapting the methods of teaching deaf-mutes to his extraordinary pupil, Itard created a new system of pedagogy which profoundly influenced modern educational methods. He was very optimistic in the above work issued nine months after he had started working with the boy. By his second account, Rapport sur les nouveaux développemens et I’état actuel du sauvage de I’Aveyron, Paris, 1807, Itard regretfully concluded that the boy was incapable of learning speech and that some of the effects of prolonged isolation are irreversible, especially when the isolation occurs during the crucial period of early childhood. English translation of first work as An historical account of the discovery and education of a savage man, or of the first developments physical and moral, of the young savage caught in the woods near Aveyron, in the year 1798. London, 1802.

Itard's accounts became the subject of a very sensitive 1970 film by François Truffault entitled l'Enfant sauvage. Filmed in Aveyron, France, and often using Itard's language for narration, the film captured the spirit of Itard's experience.

Digital facsimile of the 1801 work from BnF Gallica at this link. Both of Itard's works were reprinted with supplementary material as Rapports et mémoires sur les sauvage de l'Aveyron l'idiotie et la surdi-mutité part Itard avec une appréciation de ces rapports par Delasiauve. Préface par Bourneville. Éloge d'Itard par Bousquet. Paris: Aux Bureaux du Progrès Médical & Félix Alcan, 1894.

Subjects: OTOLOGY › Deaf-Mute Education, PSYCHOLOGY
  • 2926
  • 5581

The principles of surgery. 3 vols.

Edinburgh & London: T. Cadell & W. Davis, 18011808.

John Bell, the Scottish anatomist and brother of Charles Bell, is regarded as a founder of surgical anatomy. He was first to ligate the gluteal artery (Vol. I, pp, 421-26), and tied the common carotid and internal iliac. His illustrations were his own work, and were of a high standard.

Subjects: SURGERY: General , SURGERY: General › Notable Surgical Illustrations, VASCULAR SURGERY › Ligations
  • 5834.1

Ophthalmologische Beobachtungen und Untersuchungen oder Beyträge zur richtigen Kenntniss und Behandlung der Augen im gesunden und kranken Zustande. Erstes Stück.

Bremen: F. Wilmans, 1801.

Himly used hyoscyamine to dilate the pupil to facilitate removal of the lens. (p. 97).

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures
  • 5835

Saggio di osservazioni e d’esperienze sulle principali malattie degli occhi.

Pavia: B. Comino, 1801.

This beautifully illustrated work was the first textbook on the subject to be published in the Italian language. Its author has been called “the father of Italian ophthalmology”. English translation, London, 1806.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye
  • 5836

Ueber Nachstaar und Iritis nach Staaroperationen.

Abhandl. k. k. med.-chir. Josephs-Acad. Wien, 2, 209-92., 1801.

Inflammation of the iris was named iritis by Schmidt. In 1801, with Himly, he founded the first journal devoted to ophthalmology, the Ophthalmologische Bibliothek. Digital facsimile of Schmidt's 1801 work from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures
  • 6163

Drey Wahmehmungen von Schwangerschaften ausserhalb der Gebähr-mutter.

Beobacht. k. k. med-chir. Josephs Acad. Wien, 1, 59-96, 1801.

Interstitial pregnancy first reported.

  • 6750.3

Repertorium commentationum a societatibus litterariis editarum. 16 vols.

Göttingen: Dieterich, 18011821.

A classified subject index to the contents of learned society journals to the end of the 18th century. Vols. 10-16 deal with medicine and surgery. Reprinted, New York, Franklin, 1961.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Periodicals
  • 7683

A concise and descriptive catalogue of all the natural and artificial curiosities in the museum of W. H. Yate, Esq. at Bromesberrow-Place near Glocester: being the extensive and valuable collection of the late Dr. Greene, of Lichfield, with many additions, collected by the present proprietor.

Gloucester, England: Printed by R. Raikes, and sold by Washbourn, Hough, Roberts, and Bullock, Glocester, and at Broomesberrow Place, 1801.

Publication date is estimated. Digital facsimile from the Beinicke Library, Yale University, at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS, MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern
  • 1315
  • 404

Traité d’anatomie descriptive. 5 vols.

Paris: Gabon et Cie, 18011803.

Bichat was the creator of descriptive anatomy. He introduced the terms “animal” and “vegetative” system. This was his last work, unfinished at his death. Vol. 4 was prepared by Bichat's student and cousin, Mathieu-François Buisson, and vol. 5 by Philibert-Joseph Roux. Vol. 3, pp. 319-68 includes Bichat's Nerfs de la vie organique. Digital facsimiles of all 5 vols are available from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 8148

The statistical breviary; shewing, on a principle entirely new, the resources of every state and kingdom in Europe; illustrated with stained copperplate charts, representing the physical powers of each distinct nation with ease and perspicuity. To which is added, a similar exhibition of the ruling powers of Hindoostan.

London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Wallis, 1801.

In this work Playfair invented the pie chart. It has also been suggested that Playfair, often short of funds, may have colored the charts in all the copies himself—the process he characterized as "staining" in the title. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Pie chart from Playfair's Statistical Breviary (1801), showing the proportions of the Turkish Empire located in Asia, Europe and Africa before 1789

Subjects: DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics, DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics › Graphic Display of, GRAPHIC DISPLAY of Medical & Scientific Information
  • 8372

Observations on the increase and decrease of different disease, and particularly of the plague.

London: T. Payne, 1801.

Heberden observed that the number of deaths from dysentery sharply decreased over the 18th century, but that deaths attributed to apoplexy increased. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Dysentery, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans), NEUROLOGY › Neurovascular Disorders › Stroke
  • 8579

Abstract of the answers and returns made pursuant to an act, passed in the forty-first year of His Majesty King George III. Intituled, “An act for taking an account of the population of Great Britain, and the increase or diminution thereof.” 2 vols. in 3.

London: H. M. Stationery Office, 18011802.

The first census of England, Scotland and Wales. The study of population was one of the major concerns of political economy at this time and the first census came at a crucial point in the debate. When Malthus published his Essay on Population in 1798 demographic knowledge was necessarily limited. Rickman, a British government official and statistician, drafted the bill that became the 1800 Census Act, establishing for the first time a national decennial census of Britain’s general population.  After the Census Bill passed Rickman helped to carry out the first four British censuses, which included not only a population count, but also the collection and analysis of parish register returns. Once the first census results were known Malthus extensively revised and expanded his Essay, incorporating insights gained from the census and other sources, and published it virtually as new work in 1803. Digital facsimile of the first census reports from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics
  • 9897

The medical assistant, or Jamaica practice of physic: Designed chiefly for the use of families and plantations.

Kingston, Jamaica: Printed by Alexander Aikman, 1801.

Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Caribbean, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Caribbean › Jamaica, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines, Slavery and Medicine
  • 12053

Observations sur la maladies appelée peste, le flux dissentérique, l'ophtalmie d'Égypte, et les moyens de s'en préserver. Avec des notions sur la fièvre jaune de Cadix, et les projet et plan d'un hôpital, pour le traitement maladies épidémiques et contagieuses.

Paris: chez l'Auteur, 1801.

At the time of publication Assalini, a military surgeon with Napoleon, characterized himself on the title page as "Docteur en Médecine et Chirugien de 1re classe de la Garde des Consuls..." Digital facsimile from at this link.

Translated into English by Adam Neale as: Observations on the disease called the plague, the dysentery, the ophthalmy of Egypt, and on the means of prevention. : With some remarks on the yellow fever of Cadiz, and the description and plan of an hospital for the reception of patients affected with epidemic and contagious diseases. London: J. Mawman, 1804. Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Egypt, HOSPITALS, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Trachoma, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans), INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Yellow Fever › History of Yellow Fever, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Napoleon's Campaigns & Wars
  • 13451

Histoire naturelle d'une partie d'oiseaux nouveaux et rares de l'Amérique et des Indes: Ouvrage destiné par l'Auteur à faire partie de son ornithologie d'Afrique.

Paris: J. E. Gabriel Dufour, 1801.

Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link.

  • 13453

Essais sur l'histoire naturelle des quadupedes de la province du Paraguay...Ecrits depuis 1783 jusqu'en 1796 (an 4 de la Republique Française); Avec une appendice sur quelques reptiles, en formant suite nécessaire aux Oeuvres de Buffon; Traduits sur le manuscrit inédit de l'auteur par M. L. E. Moreau-Saint-Méry.

Paris: Charles Pougens, 1801.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link. Published as Apuntamientos par ala historia natural de los Páxaros del Paragüay y Rio de la Plata. 2 vols. Madrid: La Imprenta de la Viuda de Ibarra, 1802. Digital facsimile of the Spanish edition from Google Books at this link.

  • 105.1

Biologie: oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur für Naturforscher und Aerzte. 6 vols.

Gottingen: J. F. Röwer, 18021822.

Simultaneously with Lamarck, Treviranus coined the term “biology” for the study of living things, and he was the first to use it in a book title. This massive work was a summary of all basic knowledge about the structure and function of living matter. Treviranus wrote that any living creature has the ability to adapt its organization to changing external conditions. Thus both Haeckel and Weismann considered Treviranus to be a precurser of evolution theory, even though Treviranus never explained how changes in organic structures occurred nor how they could become hereditary. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

  • 2028.4

Die Transfusion des Blutes und Einspriitzung der Arzneyen in die Adem. Historisch und in Rücksicht auf die practische Heilkunde bearbeitet. 2 vols.

Copenhagen: F. Brummer, 18021803, 1828.

Schell was the author of the first 2 vols, which were the first major work on transfusion since the 17th century and an excellent early history of the subject. Scheel reviewed both transfusion and intravenous injection. J.F. Dieffenbach wrote the third volume, Die Transfusion des Blutes und die Infusion der Arzeneien in die Blutgefässe, published in Berlin, 1828. Digital facsimile of the third volume from at this link.

Subjects: THERAPEUTICS › Blood Transfusion, THERAPEUTICS › Blood Transfusion › History of Blood Transfusion
  • 1838.3

Sur l’opium.

Ann. Chim. 45, 257-85, 1802.

Isolation of alkaloids from opium.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Opium
  • 1676

Epidemiologia española. 2 vols.

Madrid: Mateo Repullés, 1802.

A chronological history of epidemics occurring in Spain to the end of the 18th century. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Spain, EPIDEMIOLOGY › History of Epidemiology
  • 1694

Natural and political observations and conclusions upon the state and condition of England, 1696. Pages 405-449 in An estimate of the comparative strength of Great-Britain; and of the losses of her trade from every war since the revolution; with an introduction of previous history. A new edition, corrected and continued to 1801. To which is now annexed Gregory King's celebrated state of England.

London: J. Stockdale, 1802.

King has been called the first great economic statistician, surpassing Petty. King was an engraver, herald, surveyor, and Secretary to the Commissioners for the Public Accounts, but he is best known for his 1696 estimates of the wealth and population of England. Writing in 1696, but calculating for the year 1688, he put the population at approximately 5.5 million, and his work was not published at the time because it was considered strategic information. It was rediscovered and first published, with a life of King by antiquarian and political writer George Chalmers as an appendix to the 1802 edition of Chalmers's work.  It first appeared as a separate treatise issued by Stockdale in 1804. Reprinted in Two Tracts by Gregory King.(a) Natural and Political Observations and Conclusions upon the State and Condition of England. (b) Of the Naval Trade of England Ao. 1688 and the National Profit then arising thereby. Edited with an introduction by George E. Barnett. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1936.) Digital facsimile of the 1802 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics
  • 1488

On the theory of light and colours.

Phil. Trans., 92, 12-48, 1802.

Young, the “Father of physiological optics”, established the wave theory of light, explaining the phenomena of interference and dispersion.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, Optics
  • 2207
  • 3053
  • 4491

Commentarii de morborum historia et curatione.

London: T. Payne, 1802.

Samuel Johnson called Heberden “the last of our learned physicians”. The above work included all his important papers, which had earned him his great reputation, and which are dealt with elsewhere in this database (see Nos. 2887, 2291, 5438, 5831). Heberden's book was published posthumously by Heberden’s son, and at once acquired a European reputation; “it had the distinction of being the last important medical treatise written in Latin” (Rolleston). An English translation also appeared in 1802. Chap. 78 reports two cases of anaphylactoid (abdominal) purpura. Henoch (No. 3065) and Schönlein (No. 3058) established this condition as a distinct entity. In his chapter De nodis digitorum Heberden described a form of rheumatic gout in which nodules (“Heberden’s nodes”) appeared at the interphalangeal joints of the fingers. Heberden's introduction to the book, written in 1767, was not published until the 4th edition (1816).

Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris, HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, Medicine: General Works, RHEUMATOLOGY › Gout (Podagra)
  • 3811

Sopra un tumor freddo nell’anterior parte del collo detto broncocele.

In his Collezione d’osservazione e riflessioni di chirurgia, Roma , 3, 270-73, 1802.

One of the earliest accounts of exophthalmic goitre. The author noted cardiac disturbances in thyroid enlargement.

Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 5425

Practical observations on vaccination: or inoculation for the cow pock.

Philadelphia: J. Humphreys, 1802.

Coxe did much to destroy ignorant prejudice against vaccination; he was the first in Philadelphia to practice it. Like Waterhouse, he inoculated his own child as his first case.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States › American Northeast, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox › Vaccination
  • 7067

Harmonie hydro-végétale et météorologique, ou recherches sur les moyens de recréer avec nos forêts la force des températures et la régularité des saisons, par des plantations raisonnées. 2 vols.

Paris: Les Frères Levrault, 1802.

Rauch was particularly concerned with deforestation, which not only affected the agriculture and scenery of the countryside, but also the whole ecological balance of crops, flora and fauna, and human interaction with the ecological system. He discussed the interrelationships between climate, terrain and vegetation, and suggested ways to establish a state of 'harmony' between the environment and man. He included topics such as the ecological balance found in mountain regions, and  suggested in the final chapter, that a ministerial department "of the interior" be set up in order to monitor ecological issues and supervise relevant matters at a local level were included. In his extensively revised second edition of 1818, which bore the title Régenération de la nature végétale.... (2 vols.) his attention turned to the idea of "regeneration" he argued that it is necessary to reverse the process of human destruction of the environment, particularly the world-wide destruction of forests, in order to return the planet to a state better supportive of life. He Rauch began with a consideration of the relationship of forests to weather conditions, surveyed the effects of deforestation world-wide on climate, and animal and human populations, and set out steps to be taken: what sorts of vegetation should be planted where, renewal of water sources, and the establishment of governmental agencies in France and all over the globe to observe the environment and take action. He urged the agencies, for example, to consider changes over short periods of time ("to what extant animals and birds are scarcer in the last thirty years" in a particular area), and to attempt regulation of factory fuel sources. In his closing argument he urges the obligation "to conserve the noble economy," and "to conserve that from which we benefit." Digital facsimile of the 1802 edition from Google Books at this link. Digital facsimile of the 1818 edition from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Agriculture / Horticulture, BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment
  • 7971

Ausführliche Beschreibung und Abbildung der beiden sogenannten Stachelschweinmenschen aus der bekannten engelischen Familie Lambert, oder, the porcupine man.

Altenburg: Im literarischen Comtoir, 1802.

Tilesius continued the study of the Lambert family of sufferers from ichthyosis hystrix begun by Machin and Baker (see No. 4013). Notably Tilesius illustrated the bizarre condition with several color plates. In 2016 one of his illustrations was available from the Wikipedia at this link.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 8188

Histoire médicale de l'Armée d'Orient.

Paris: Croullebois & Bossange, 1802.

Napoleon appointed Desgenettes physician-in-chief for his expedition into Egypt. Desgenette's Histoire contained 19 separate chapters written by expedition personel. Digital facsimile of the 1802 from the Internet Archive at this link. Digital facsimile of the expanded third edition (1835) from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Egypt, Geography of Disease / Health Geography, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Napoleon's Campaigns & Wars
  • 8204

Mémoire sur le commerce des nègres au Kaire et sur les maladies auxquelles ils sont sujets en y arrivant.

Paris & Strasbourg, France: Amand Koenig, 1802.

Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link. Also published in Mémoires sur l'Egypte: ... Publiés dans les années VII, VIII et IX, Volume 4, (An X) pp. 125-156.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Egypt, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Napoleon's Campaigns & Wars, Slavery and Medicine
  • 9089

The natural history of British fishes, including scientific and general descriptions of the most interesting species, and an extensive selection of accurately finished coloured plates. Taken entirely from original drawings, purposely made from the specimens in a recent state, and for the most part whilst living. 5 vols.

London: Printed for the Author...., 18021808.

"the paint is laid on so thickly that it is frequently impossible to see the engraved lines underneath. The already rich colouring is heightened by the addition of burnished highlights, albumen overglazes and metallic paints to give an overall effect reminiscent of the work of a miniaturist. Surprisingly, these techniques were often combined to produce a very pleasing and delicate effect: the multiple ruses of the colourist triumph over the draughtsman's numerous failures. Donovan overreached himself and died penniless ." (Dance, Art of natural History p. 87)

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), ZOOLOGY › Ichthyology, ZOOLOGY › Illustration
  • 9581

An entire, new, and original work; being a complete treatise upon spinae pedum; containing several important discoveries. Illustrated with copperplates exhibiting the different species of spinae.

Edinburgh: Printed by H. Inglis, for the Author & London: Longman, Rees, 1802.

The first original British work on podiatry, with several illustrations, one hand-colored. Disappointed at being refused a medical degree, Lion, a German Jewish émigré, wrote this book, taking the unusual step of having his name published in both English and Hebrew characters on the title page. “His odd and arrogant writing led to the book being generally derided by the lay and professional press. In fact it is first class and was based completely on his personal experiences and observations. Stripped of its padding it can be seen to be a great improvement on Laforest’s book…. The greatest praise we can give to Lion’s book is to say that every chiropodial writer since has used and borrowed from Upon Spinæ Pedum” (Dagnall, “The history of chiropodial literature,” Journal of the Society of Chiropodists, 20, 1965). Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Jews and Medicine, Podiatry
  • 11186

Natural theology: Or, evidences of the existence and attributes of the Deity, collected from the appearances of nature.

London: R. Faulder, 1802.

Subjects: RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences › Natural Theology
  • 12078

The outlines of the veterinary art, or the principles of medicine as applied to a knowledge of the structure, functions, and oeconomy of the horse, the ox, the sheep, and the dog, and to a more scientific and successful manner of treating their various diseases, the whole illustrated by anatomical plates. 2 vols.

London: T. N. Longman & O. Rees, 1802.

Includes the earliest record in the English of the origin and growth of veterinary literature. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: VETERINARY MEDICINE, VETERINARY MEDICINE › History of Veterinary Medicine
  • 13356

Instruction des Officiers de Santé en Chef de l'Armée sur les maladies internes et externes des troupes à Sainte-Domingue, et sur leur traitement.

Cap-François, Saint-Domingue: P. Roux, Imprimeur du Gouvernement, 1802.

The date of this undated work has been inferred. The 40-page pamphlet issued during the early stages of the French expedition to the island, provided instructions by the chief medical officers of the army for medical personel in hospitals and in the field, concerning the external and internal diseases of the troops in Saint-Domingue, and their treatment.

  • 13434

Catalogue des livres de la bibliothèque de feu C. L. L'Héritier de Brutelle... par G. Debure, l'aîné. Avec un extrait de l'eloge du Citoyen l'Héitier par le Citoyen Cuvier...

Paris: G. Debure, 1802.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries
  • 982

An experimental inquiry into the principles of nutrition, and the digestive process.

Philadelphia: Eaken & Mecum, 1803.

Young, one of the first American experimental physiologists, showed the solvent principle in the gastric juice to be an acid, but wrongly inferred that it was phosphoric acid. He also deduced the association and synchrony between gastric juice and saliva. Reprinted, Urbana, Ill., 1959.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, NUTRITION / DIET
  • 2097

Sur la colique, vulgairement appelée colique des peintres, des plombiers, du plomb, etc.

Paris: P. F. Rigot, 1803.

  • 1764

Medical ethics; or, a code of institutes and precepts, adapted to the professional conduct of physicians and surgeons.. To which is added an appendix; containing a discourse on hospital duties ...

Manchester: J. Johnson and R. Bickerstaff, 1803.

First published for private circulation, 1794. The British and American medical professions have adopted much of “Percival” in their ethical codes. Digital facsimile of the 1803 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: DEATH & DYING, Ethics, Biomedical
  • 3054

An account of an haemorrhagic disposition existing in certain families.

Med. Reposit., 6, 1-4, 1803.

Otto recognized and adequately described hemophilia, noting that females are not affected but may transmit the disease. His paper is one of the first great contributions to medicine in North America. Reproduced in Major, Classic descriptions of disease, 3rd ed., 1945, p. 522.

  • 1989

An introduction to electricity and galvanism.

London: A Phillips, 1803.

One of the first works in the English language entirely devoted to medical electricity. Carpue also played a key role in the development of rhinoplasty. See No. 5737.

Subjects: THERAPEUTICS › Medical Electricity / Electrotherapy
  • 1989.1

An account of the late improvements in galvanism…

London: Cuthell & Martin, 1803.

Nephew of Galvani (see No. 593), Aldini developed and promoted animal electricity. His sensational experiments on the body of a criminal executed at Newgate, conducted with Carpue (No. 1989) were significant for the prehistory of the later development of cardiac electrostimulation. He also was among the first to treat melancholy (schizophrenia) with electricity, precursing modern shock therapy.

Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology › History of Electrophysiology, PSYCHIATRY
  • 4308

Memoria chirurgica sui piedi torti congenita dei fanciulli.

Pavia: G. Comini, 1803.

First accurate description of the pathological anatomy of congenital club-foot. English translation, Edinburgh, 1818.

Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Hereditary Disorders of the Skeleton, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Hereditary Disorders of the Skeleton › Clubfoot, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Foot / Ankle, Podiatry
  • 4308.1
  • 5582

Practical observations in surgery.

London: T. Cadell, jun., 1803.

Hey is remembered for “Hey’s saw” and “Hey’s internal derangement of the knee,” a phrase that he coined. He was an outstanding surgeon in his day; he founded and was senior surgeon of the General Infirmary, Leeds. He devised a type of amputation of the foot (“Hey’s amputation”). His book includes the description of the falciform ligament of the saphenous opening, “Hey’s ligament”. Hey described subacute osteomyelitis of the tibia before Brodie (No. 4311). He may have become interested in the knee after banging his own knee while getting out of a bath in 1773. He remained lame for the rest of his life. 

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments, ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Foot / Ankle, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Knee, SURGERY: General
  • 3678.1

Praktische Darstellung aller Operationen der Zahnheilkunst.

Berlin: La Garde, 1803.

This work contains one of the earliest histories of dentistry.

Subjects: DENTISTRY, DENTISTRY › History of Dentistry
  • 3679

The natural history of the human teeth

London: T. Cox, 1803.

Fox’s classic treatise on the teeth is the first to include explicit directions for correcting dental irregularities. It is the first work on orthodontics.

Subjects: DENTISTRY › Orthodontics
  • 4923

Rhapsodieen über die Anwendung der psychischen Curmethode auf Geisteszerrüttungen.

Halle: Curt, 1803.

The versatile Reil, physician and physiologist, was an early advocate of humane treatment for the insane. He was instrumental in the establishment of the first journal devoted to mental disease – the Magazin für Nervenheilkund; he was the founder of modern psychiatry.

  • 4440

Observations pratiques relatives à la résection des articulations affectées de carie.

Paris: Farge, 1803.

Excision and arthrodesis in joint disease. Moreau was the first to excise the elbow. English translation, Glasgow, 1806. See No. 4438.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Amputations: Excisions: Resections
  • 5838

Ueber die Krankheiten des Thränenorgans.

Vienna: J. Geissinger, 1803.

Schmidt was Professor of Ophthalmology at Vienna. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 5266

An account of the native Africans in the neighbourhood of Sierra Leone; to which is added, an account of the present state of medicine among them. 2 vols.

London: John Hatchard & John Mawman, 1803.

In his travels in Africa, Winterbottom, physician to the Colony of Sierra Leone (now Republic of Sierra Leone) on the west coast of Africa, saw sleeping sickness, which he described in vol. 2, pp. 29-31, as a species of lethargy. He also noticed that slave-dealers would not buy slaves whose neck glands showed signs of enlargement. Digital facsimile of vol. 1 from the Internet Archive at this link;  digital facsimile of vol. 2 from the Hathi Trust at this link.;

Subjects: AFRICAN AMERICANS & MEDICINE & BIOLOGY, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Sierra Leone, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tsetse Fly-Borne Diseases, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tsetse Fly-Borne Diseases › Sleeping Sickness (African Trypanosomiasis), Slavery and Medicine, TROPICAL Medicine , VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 7367

Travels in Turkey, Asia-Minor, Syria, and across the desert into Egypt during the years 1799, 1800, and 1801, in company with the Turkish Army, and the British Military Mission.To which are annexed, observations on the plague, and on the diseases prevalent in Turkey, and a meteorological journal.

London: T. Gillet for Richard Phillips, 1803.

Wittman described the plague and other epidemics that afflicted both the Ottoman and British armies. In the Appendix he provided medical suggestions for treatment, together with a history of the plague. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Middle East, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Turkey, EPIDEMIOLOGY, Geography of Disease / Health Geography, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans), MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Napoleon's Campaigns & Wars, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 8006

Tratado histórico y práctico de la vacuna que contiene en compendio el orígen y los resultados de las observaciones y experimentos sobre la vacuna, con un exámen imparcial de sus ventajas, y de las objeciones que se le han puesto, con todo lo demás que concierne á la práctica del nuevo modo de inocular. [Translated From the French by] Francisco Xavier de Balmis.

Madrid: En la Imprenta Real, 1803.

On November 30, 1803 Spanish physician Francisco Javier de Balmis and his team embarked from Spain, on an expedition to vaccinate the people of Spanish America against smallpox. This three year voyage, which became known as the Balmis Expedition, is considered the first international health care expedition. Of it Edward Jenner wrote, " I don’t imagine the annals of history furnish an example of philanthropy so noble, so extensive as this." On the ship Maria Pita Balmis sailed with a deputy surgeon, two assistants, two first-aid practitioners, three nurses, Isabel López de Gandalia, the rectoress of Casa de Expósitos, an orphanage in La Coruña, and 22 orphan boys, eight to ten years old, who served as successive carriers of the disease. The mission carried the vaccine to the Canary Islands, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, the Philippines and China. The ship carried also scientific instruments and copies of Balmis's translation into Spanish of Traité historique et pratique de la vaccine (1801) by Jacques-Louis Moreau de la Sarthe. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Latin America, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox › Vaccination, Latin American Medicine, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 8025

Practical rules for the management and medical treatment of negro slaves in the sugar colonies. By a professional planter.

London: Vernor and Hood, 1803.

Collins, a British doctor and planter, spent fourteen years in the Caribbean island of Saint Vincent. Written from the utilitarian perspective of a master, this handbook on slave medicine was intended to maximize the output of the plantation by minimizing labor losses due to disease. Collins emphasized providing appropriate diet, clothing, and housing while reducing or eliminating extreme forms of physical punishment. This book is an example of slave management as occupational medicine. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 8922

The temple of nature; or the origin of society. A poem, with philosophical notes.

London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Johnson, 1803.

Erasmus Darwin's last poem, which mainly expounds his theories of evolution. He traces the progress of life form its origin as microscopic specks in premeval seas to its culmination in a civilized human society. The first canto shows life's origin and its evolution from aquatic to land forms. The second deals with reproduction--asexual, hermaphroditic and finally sexual reproduction with all its advantages. The third canto traces the progress of the mind, from its origin as a mere meeting-place of nerves to its present complexity in man. In the fourth canto Darwin descrbies the struggle for existence and the survival of the fittest. The essay-length scientific notes (last 124pp.) contain summaries of theories of spontaneous generation, etc. Erasmus Darwin's theory of evolution has been compared to Lamarckism.

Subjects: BIOLOGY, EVOLUTION, LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology
  • 9310

Elements of botany, or outlines of the natural history of vegetables.

Philadelphia: Printed for the author, 1803.

The first American textbook of botany. Digital facsimile of the revised 1804 London edition from the Hathi Trust at this link.

  • 9657

Histoire médicale de l'Armée Française, a Saint-Domingue, en l'an dix; ou mémoire sur la fièvre jaune, avec un apperçu de la topographie médicale de cette colonie.

Paris: Gabon, 1803.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 10445

An epistle to a friend, on the means of preserving health, promoting happiness; and prolonging the life of man to its natural period. Being a summary view of inconsiderate and useless habits that derange the system of nature, thereby causing premature old age and death : with some thoughts on the best means of preventing and overcoming disease.

Philadelphia: From the Press of the Late R. Aitken & Jane Aitken, 1803.

Written by the first great American painter. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , Hygiene
  • 11709

Mémoires sur la respiration par Lazare Spallanzani, traduits en français, d'après son manuscrit inédit, par Jean Senebier.

Geneva: Chez J. J. Paschoud, 1803.

Spallanzani's experimental data laid the groundwork for modern conceptions of respiratory physiology. In concluding that the blood transported carbon dioxide as a product of tissue oxidation, Spallanzani discovered parenchymatous respiration--usually accredited to the biochemist Liebig half a century later. Spallanzani demonstrated that the tissues consume oxygen and give off carbon dioxide.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 12399

Flora Boreali-Americana, sistens caracteres plantarum quas in America septentrionali collegit et detexit Andreas Michaux, Instituti Gallici Scientiarum, necnon Societatis Agriculturae Caroliniensis socius. Tabulis Aeneis 51 ornata [after Pierre-Joseph Redouté]. 2 vols.

Paris & Strassburg: Apud fratres Levrault, 1803.

"The French government sent Michaux to the United States to collect North American seeds, shrubs, and trees ; he landed at New York City on 1 October, accompanied by his son [François-André Michaux] and a gardener. In 1786 he established a nursery at Hackensack, N.J., and the following year another at Charleston, S.C., from both of which he shipped many boxes of seeds and thousands of trees to the park at Rambouillet, France.

"Between 1786 and 1792 he botanized through much of the United States from New York to Florida and as far west as West Virginia and eastern Kentucky; in the same period he also visited Spanish Florida and the Bahamas. In 1792 Michaux decided to pursue his botanical studies in Lower Canada. On 2 June he met the retired fur trader Peter Pond near New Haven, Conn.; Pond informed him that the fur-trade canoes to the west, which Michaux may have considered accompanying, had left Montreal at the end of April. Michaux eventually proceeded to Montreal, where he arrived on 30 June. He remained there into July, botanizing and meeting several members of the fur-trading merchant class, including Joseph Frobisher and Alexander Henry, whom he undoubtedly questioned about the flora of the west. He then went to Quebec, where he spent several days with Dr John Mervin Nooth, discussing Nooth’s scientific inventions, inspecting his garden, herborizing, and preparing a voyage to James Bay.

"Late in July, Michaux, accompanied by a mixed-blood interpreter, left Quebec for the Rivière Saguenay. On 5 August he arrived at Tadoussac, where he hired three Indian guides, and on the 7th the party started up the Saguenay in two bark canoes. On the 10th they reached the fur-trade post of Chicoutimi, and six days later Lac Saint-Jean, where Michaux explored extensively the shores and the surrounding forest. Following the Rivière Mistassini and small rivers and lakes, he arrived at Lac Mistassini on 4 September. Two days later, after proceeding about 25 miles down the Rivière de Rupert, which flows into James Bay, he was forced by bad weather and the late season to turn back, about 400 miles short of his objective.

"As on all his voyages, Michaux daily recorded in a journal the conditions of travel, the day’s progress, and the plants he had observed or discovered ; as well, when possible, he noted their most northerly limits. He observed, for example, that the great rapids on the Mistassini marked the limit of Potentilla tridentata, or three-toothed cinquefoil, and that Gaultheria procumbens, or wintergreen, disappeared ten leagues up the same river from Lac Saint-Jean. One of the last specimens he collected was Primula mistassinica, or bird’s-eye primrose, found along the Rivière de Rupert, and named by him. Michaux also wrote of his admiration for his guides’ ability to manipulate the canoes and added that, although he never feared drowning, “these voyages are frightening for those not accustomed to them, and I would advise the Little Masters of London or Paris . . . to stay home.”

"Michaux arrived at Montreal in October 1792. On 2 December he was back at New York City, and in January 1793 he shipped to France seeds he had collected. In May he met Edmond Charles Genet, minister plenipotentiary to the United States of the French revolutionary government, who hoped to promote the revolution in Lower Canada; Michaux gave him several memoranda containing his observations on former French colonies in North America, including Canada. Genêt persuaded Michaux to undertake a secret political mmission to Kentucky, the nature of which is still largely unclear. From 1793 to 1796 he continued to botanize in the United States, travelling as far west as the Mississippi River. He was increasingly hampered by the French government’s failure since 1789 to support him financially, and in 1796 he was finally obliged to abandon his project. On 13 August he left Charleston, but one month later his ship was wrecked off the coast of Holland ; his herbarium was damaged, some of his manuscripts were lost, and Michaux himself almost perished. He reached Paris in January 1797 to discover that, of the thousands of trees he had sent since his arrival in North America, few had survived the ravages of the revolution. Moreover, he was unsuccessful in efforts to recover the arrears of his salary or to obtain financial support for a return trip to North America.

"In October 1800 Michaux was engaged as a naturalist in a scientific expedition bound for Australia under the direction of Captain Nicolas Baudin. Always more comfortable working alone, Michaux left ship at Île de France (Mauritius) in April 1801 and proceeded to Madagascar, where he died of fever – according to some historians, on 13 Nov. 1802 near Tamatave, but, according to a member of the expedition, on 11 Oct. 1803 at Tananarive." (Judith F. M. Hoeniger, ).

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY, BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Canada, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12942

Rélation historique et chirurgicale de I’expedition de l'Armée d’Orient, en Egypte et en Syrie.

Paris: Demonville et Soeurs, 1803.

Larrey's history of his experiences with Napoleon and Napoleon's armies during the Egypt campaign. Includes a reprint of Larrey's treatise on trachoma, which was first published at Napoleon's press in Cairo.
Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 13026

A poetical petition against tractorising trumpery and the Perkinistic institution: In four cantos. Most respectfully addressed to the Royal College of Physicians.

London: Printed for T. Hurst and J. Ginger by T. Bensley, 1803.

This medical satire in doggerel verse, which was ostensibly an attack on Perkins' metallic tractors, or "Perkinism" was actually written in support of them. The work was best known for its second and greatly expanded illustrated edition--the form in which it was reprinted in England and America through the 1830s: Terrible Tractoration!! A poetical Petition against galvanising Trumpery, and the Perkinistic Institution. In four Cantos. Most respectfully addressed to the Royal College of Physicians, by Christopher Caustic … Second Edition, with great Additions issued by the same publishers later in 1803.
Digital facsimile of the 1803 London second edition from the Hathi Trust at this link,
Digital facsimile of the first American edition (1804) reprinting the second London edition with additional illustrations, from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.

Subjects: LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology › Poetry , Quackery
  • 13611

Observations et réflexions sur le scorbut, d'après celui qui a régné parmi les troupes françaises formant la garnison d'Alexandrie (en Egypte), pendant le Blocus et le Siége de cette ville, en l'an IX (1801), par les Armées combinées des Turcs et des Anglais.

Lyon, 1803.

The author was a military surgeon on Napoleon's Egyptian campaign. Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link. (32pp.)

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Egypt, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Napoleon's Campaigns & Wars, NUTRITION / DIET › Deficiency Diseases › Scurvy
  • 145.54

Recherches chimiques sur la végétation.

Paris: Nyon, 1804.

In this foundation work on phytochemistry, Saussure analysed the chief active components of plants, their synthesis and decomposition. He specified the relationships between vegetation and the environment. He showed that plants grown in closed vessels took their entire carbon content from the enclosed gas, and thus demolished the old theory that plants derive carbon from the so-called “humus” of the soil.

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, BOTANY
  • 2071.1

An essay, medical, philosophical, and chemical, on drunkenness, and its effects on the human body.

London: T. N. Longman & O. Rees, 1804.

The first book on alcoholism, expanded from Trotter's MD dissertation: Dissertatio medica inauguralis, quædam de ebrietate, ejusque effectibus in corpus humanum complectens, quam ... pro gradu doctoris ... (Edinburgh: Apud Balfour et Smellie, 1788). Digital facsimile of the 1804 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction › Alcoholism
  • 3251

Dissertation sur les maladies des fosses nasales et de leurs sinus.

Paris: Mme. Veuve Richard, 1804.

First important work on diseases of the nose and nasal sinuses.

Subjects: OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Rhinology
  • 2975

Sull’aneurisma: riflessioni ed osservazioni anatomico-chirurgiche.

Pavia: tipog. Bolzani, 1804.

Scarpa distinguished true from false aneurysms. He introduced the concept of arteriosclerosis. English translations, Edinburgh, 1808 and 1819. Digital facsimile from Heidelberg University Library at this link.

  • 4409.1

A case of fracture of the os humeri, in which the broken ends of the bone not uniting the usual manner, a cure was effected by means of a seton.

Med. Repos.(2nd Ser.), 1, 122-24, 1804.

The first paper on orthopedic surgery published in the United States. Physick introduced the use of the seton in the treatment of ununited fractures.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations
  • 5481

Neue Ansichten der Hundswuth, ihrer Ursachen und Folgen, nebst einer sichem ehandlungsart der von tollen Thieren gebissenen Menschen.

Jena: C. E. Gabler, 1804.

Zinke transmitted rabies from a rabid dog to a normal one, and to a rabbit and a hen, by injection of saliva and proved the disease to be infectious. Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Animal Bite Wound Infections, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Animal Bite Wound Infections › Rabies, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 5736

Degli innesti animali.

Milan: stemp. e. fond. del Genio, 1804.

Baronio was among the first to attempt transplantation and experimental surgery in animals. He successfully carried out full-thickness skin grafts after detachment from the body, and the first purely scientific research in the history of plastic surgery. Baronio devoted an entire chapter (pp. 27-32) to the transplantation of teeth from one person to another, an operation that he credited to John Hunter. "The transplanting of teeth from one person to another is performed according to the English surgeon without great difficulty, provided that the tooth to be transplanted is fresh and has a root suitable for the alveolus of the recipient. . . . One can reduce the length or diameter of the root by filing it down, and there is certain proof that a fresh tooth, however much its root has been filed down, will take as well as one which hasn't been filed. Such a wonderful operation, despite its simplicity, is practically unknown in Italy . . . whilst in England, on the contrary, there was a time when it was so common that ladies were ashamed to appear in society if they were lacking a tooth. . . . But it often happened that those people willing to sell their good teeth were infected with poison, either venereal or scrofulous, and through them these diseases were transmitted to those who had the misfortune to come upon diseased donors. Thus it was that the transplanting of teeth fell into disrepute. . . " (Baronio, On Grafting in Animals [1985], translated by Joan Bond Sax, pp. 48-49).

Digital facsimile of the 1804 edition from the Medical Heritage Library at the Internet Archive at this link.


  • 6327

Morborum puerilium epitome.

London: T. Payne, 1804.

English translation, Uttoxeter, 1805. Like his father, Heberden junior was a great clinician. It is probable that the above was compiled from notes left by Heberden senior.

  • 11317

Catalogue of the natural productions and curiosities, which compose the collections of the Cabinet of Natural History, opened for public exhibition, at No. 38, William-Street, New-York.

New York: Printed by Isaac Collins and Son, 1804.

One of the first natural history museums in the U.S., supported by subscription. According to the text, David Hosack and Wright Post were among the supporters of the project. The copy at the U.S. National Library of Medicine bears Hosack's signature. Digital facsimile of Hosack's copy at NLM at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern
  • 12687

Memoirs of the life of Dr. Darwin, chiefly during his residence in Lichfield: With anecdotes of his friends, and criticisms on his writing.

London: Printed for J. Johnson, 1804.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, EVOLUTION, LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology › Poetry
  • 13225

Surgical observations, containing a classification of tumours, with cases to illustrate the history of each species; - an account of diseases which strikingly resemble the venereal disease; - and various cases illustrative of different surgical subjects.

London: T. N. Longman & O. Rees, 1804.

Abernethy published the first classification of tumors based on pathologic anatomy. "Abernethy is best known for his lectures and writings on surgery and for the first attempt at classification of tumors, some of which he considered hereditary." "His classification divided tumors into several types of sarcomas, such as: common vascular, adipose, pancreatic, cystic, mammary, tuberculated, medullary, and carcinomatous, each illustrated by one or more of his 'cases.'


  1. Common Vascular or Organized Sarcoma
  2. Adipose Sarcoma
  3. Pancreatic Sarcoma
  4. Cystic Sarcoma
  5. Mastoid or Mammary Sarcoma
  6. Tuberculated Sarcoma
  7. Medullary Sarcoma
  8. Carcinomatous Sarcoma

"With his accurate observations, Abernethy provided much information concerning tumors upon which later scientists could build. However, almost 150 years later, with highly sophisticated equipment, we are still trying to solve the enigma of cancer" (Krush, Anne J., "The Classification of Tumors by John Abernethy Early in the Nineteenth Century," Transactions Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies. [1980] 290).

Digital facsimile from at this link.

  • 4492

A clinical history of diseases. Part first: being 1. A clinical history of the acute rheumatism. 2. A clinical history of the nodosity of the joints.

London: Cadell & Davies, 1805.

The first monograph on acute rheumatism. 

  • 312

Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie.

Göttingen: H. Dieterich, 1805.

Blumenbach, physiologist and anthropologist, was Professor of Medicine at Göttingen. He was the first to show the value of comparative anatomy in the study of anthropology; his classic text went through many editions; it was translated into English in 1807.

  • 313

Oeuvres de Vicq-d'Azyr recueillie et publiées avec des notes et un discours sur sa vie et ses ouvrages par Jacq[ues] L[ouis]- Moreau [de la Sarthe]. 6 vols. and atlas.

Paris: L. Duprat-Duverger, 1805.

Vicq d’Azyr has been called the greatest comparative anatomist of the 18th century. The mammillo-thalamic tract is named the “bundle of Vicq d’Azyr”. See No. 401.2. Digital facsimile of from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, Collected Works: Opera Omnia
  • 2159.1

Remarks on the management of the scalped-head.

Phil. med. surg. J., 2, pt.2, 27-30., 18051806.

Treatment for the quintessential American war injury suffered by troops and settlers alike on the American frontier.

  • 4674

Mémoire sur la maladie qui a régné à Genève au printemps de 1805.

J. Méd. Chir. Pharm., 11, 163-82, 1805.

First definite description of cerebrospinal meningitis. Partial English translation in No. 2241.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Switzerland, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Meningitis, NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions › Cerebrospinal Meningitis
  • 106

Die Zeugung.

Bamberg & Würzburg: J. A. Goebhardt, 1805.

Oken maintained that all organic beings originate from, and consist of, cells, and that organisms are produced by an agglomeration of these cells.

Subjects: BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › Cell Biology
  • 1839

Darstellung der reinen Mohnsäure (Opiumsäure); nebst einer chemischen Untersuchung des Opiums, mit vorzüglicher Hinsicht auf einen darin neu entdeckten Stoff.

J. Pharm. (Lpz.), 14, 47-93, 1805.

Isolation of morphine from opium. This was the first isolation of an active ingredient from a plant. 

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Opiates, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Opium › Morphine
  • 145.55

Essai sur la géographie des plantes; accompagné d’un tableau physique des régions équinoxiales.

Paris: Levrault, Schoell, 1805.

One of the first works on the geographical distribution of plants. Humboldt was a pioneer student of geographical–ecological plant associations. The sheets of this work were reissued as Vol. I of the authors' Voyage aux régions équinoxiales du nouveau continent, fait en 1700, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804, with an extra half-title and general title and the plate colored. Digital facsimile of the 1805 edition from the Internet Archive at this link. English translation: Essay on the geography of plants, edited with an introduction by Stephen T. Jackson, translated by Sylvie Romanowski. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, BOTANY, Biogeography, Biogeography › Phytogeography, NATURAL HISTORY
  • 3430

Mémoire et observation sur l’entérotomie.

Ann. Soc. Méd. prat. Montpellier, 6, 34-54, 1805.

The first recorded colostomy for intestinal obstruction was performed by Fine in 1797. The patient survived 3.5 months.

Subjects: Colon & Rectal Diseases & Surgery, SURGERY: General
  • 3430.1

An essay on wounds of the intestines.

Philadelphia: Thomas T. Stiles, 1805.

The first serious attempt at repairing intestinal injuries in America, and the first use of dogs for experimental surgery in America.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Esophagus: Stomach: Duodenum: Intestines, SURGERY: General › Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery
  • 6850

Fragmenta de viribus medicamentorum positivis sive in sano corpore humano observatis. 2 vols.

Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1805.

Hahnemann's first published homeopathic book, his first title on Materia Medica and Repertory, and the first collection of drug provings on the healthy body. The book lists the health effects of 27 drugs in common use as recorded in the medical literature along with Hahnemann's own observations from taking the drugs himself. 

Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Homeopathy
  • 6851

Heilkunde der Erfahrung.

Hufeland's Journal der practischen Arzneykunde und Wundarzneykunst, 22, Part 3, 5-99 , 1805.

Also published as a monograph, Berlin: In commission bei L. W. Wittich. 1805.  

Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Homeopathy
  • 9085

An epitome of the natural history of the insects of New Holland, New Zealand, New Guinea, Otaheite, and other islands in the Indian, Southern, and Pacific oceans: Including the figures and descriptions of one hundred and fifty-three species of the more splendid, beautiful, and interesting insects, hitherto discovered in those countries, and which for the most part have not appeared in the works of any preceding author. The figures are correctly delineated from specimens of the insects; and with the descriptions are arranged according to the Linnæan system, with reference to the writings of Fabricius and other entomologists.

London: Printed for the Author...., 1805.

"Apart from occasional excursions in England and Wales Donovan never left London. His Insects of New Holland is based on specimens collected by Joseph Banks and William Bayly an astronomer on the second and third voyages of James Cook, specimens in the collection of Dru Drury and other private collections as well as his own museum. It is the first publication dealing exclusively with the insects of Australia. In the preface Donovan writes "There is perhaps, no extent of country in the world, that can boast a more copious or diversified assemblage of interesting objects in every department of natural history than New Holland and its contiguous island". Most of the plates depict butterflies together with exotic plants. Donovan often used thick paints, burnished highlights, albumen overglazes and metallic paints. These covered the engravings (from his own copper plates, Donovan personally undertook all steps of the illustration process for his books, the drawing, the etching and engraving and the handcolouring) which are not visible. At other times the fineness of his engraving and etching is apparent giving his illustrations the appearance of being watercolours" (Wikipedia).

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 10155

Notice historique et raisonnée sur C. Bourgelat, fondateur des ecoles vétérinaires; où l’on trouve un aperçu statistique sur cet établissement. Par L. F. Grognier.

Paris: Mme. Huzard & Lyon: Reymann, 1805.

Bourgelat, a French lawyer, observed that certain diseases were devastating French herds, and forsaking his law practice, devoted his time to seeking out a remedy for the epizootic (rinderpest). In the process Bourgelat founded the first veterinary college in the world at Lyons in 1761. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 12049

Mémoire sur les hôpitaux civils de Paris, dans lequel on traite de la situation de chacun d'eux, comparé avec les anciens, des améliorations qui y ont été opérées, de celles dont ils son susceptibles, et de la forme de leur administration. Avec des notes historiques sur leur origine et leur accroissement successif; et sur les moyens de former un seul hôpital capable de recevoir tous les malades indigens d'une ville du premier order.

Paris: De l'Imprimerie de Prault, 1805.

Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link.

  • 12483

Travels in Europe, Asia Minor, and Arabia.

London: T. Cadell & W. Davies, 1805.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Middle East, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Saudi Arabia, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12855

Traité des maladies de la bouche d'après l'état actuel des connoissances en medécine et en chirurgie, qui comprend la structure et les fonctions de la bouche, l'histoire de ses maladies, les moyens d'en conserver la santé et la beauté et les operations particulières à l'art du dentiste.

Paris: L. Duprat-Duverger, 1805.

Gariot promoted himself as "Dentist to King of Spain."

"The invention of articulators for holding the casts of artifical teeth is attributed to ...J. B. Gariot. Gariot designed his first model in 1805 from impressions of the gum in a lifelike position. This invention allowed artifical teeth to be propertly arranged. Some 35 years passed, however, before certain essential improvements on articulators were introduced that made them more practical and useful" (Harmarneh, "Dental exhibition & reference collection at the Smithsonian Institution," Health Services Reports, 97 (1972) 297.

Digital facsimile of the original French edition from Google Books at this link. Translated into English by J. B. Savier for the American Library of Dental Science, with notes by the editors as: Treatise on the diseases of the mouth; comprising the structure and functions of the mouth, the history of its diseases, the means of preserving it in beauty and health, and operations appretaining to the dental art. Baltimore, 1843. Digital facsimile of the English translation from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: DENTISTRY, DENTISTRY › Dental Instruments & Apparatus
  • 12993

Essai historique et littéraire sur la médecine des Arabes.

Montpellier: Auguste Ricard, 1805.

The first European history of Arab or Islamic medicine. Amoreux was professor in the faculty of medicine in Montpellier (an Arabist medical center in the Renaissance), and also the librarian. He stated in the introduction that he was motivated to write this book because previous historians of medicine such as LeClerc did not cover this aspect of the history of medicine. Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link.

Subjects: ISLAMIC OR ARAB MEDICINE › History of Islamic or Arab Medicine
  • 1554

Abbildungen des menschlichen Hoerorganes

Frankfurt: a.M., Varrentrapp u. Wenner, 1806.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1455

Abbildungen der menschlichen Organe des Geschmackes und der Stimme.

Frankfurt: Varrentrapp & Wenner, 1806.

Subjects: Speech, Anatomy and Physiology of, Taste / Gustation, Anatomy & Physiology of
  • 1695

Analyse et tableaux de l’influence de la petite vérole sur la mortalité à chaque âge, et de celle qu’un préservatif tel que la vaccine peut avoir sur la population et la longevité.

Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1806.

Duvillard showed statistically the effect of smallpox vaccination on the mortality rate. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox › Vaccination
  • 1490

Observations anatomiques sur quelques parties de l’oeil et des paupières. IN: Mémoires et observations sur l’anatomie, la pathologie, et la chirurgerie, pp. 193-207.

Paris: Nyon, 1806.

Although Tenon did not discover the fibrous capsule and the interfascial space of the orbit, they are named after him.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 2672.1

Lichtleiter, eine Erfindung zur Anschauung innerer Theile und Krankheiten nebst der Abbildung.

J. pract. Heilk, 24, 1 St., 107-24, 1806.

Bozzini introduced a speculum in which the idea of illumination and reflection by mirrors was utilized. English translation in Urology, 1974, 3, 119-23. Bozzini published his work in book form, Der Lichtleiter, Weimar, 1807, which is translated in Quart. Bull. Northw. Univ. med. Sch., 1949, 23, 332-54.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments
  • 2737

Essai sur les maladies et les lésions organiques du coeur et des gros vaisseaux.

Paris: Migneret, 1806.

Corvisart really created cardiac symptomatology and made possible the differentiation between cardiac and pulmonary disorders. He was first to explain heart failure mechanically and to describe the dyspnoea of effort. His translation of Auenbrugger’s book on percussion resulted in the universal adoption of that procedure. Corvisart was Napoleon’s favorite physician. English translation, 1812, reproduced 1962.

  • 3362

The anatomy of the human ear … with a treatise on the diseases of the organ.

London: R. Phillips, 1806.

Saunders was the first to advise paracentesis in acute middle-ear suppuration.

Subjects: OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Diseases of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Otologic Surgery & Procedures
  • 3986
  • 4019

Description des maladies de la peau observées à l’hôpital Saint Louis.

Paris: Barrois, 1806.

The largest and most spectacular of the early classics of dermatology, with hand-colored illustrations unsurpassed for their quality of execution. The illustrations are also the first on the subject in a French book. This book also contains the first description of mycosis fungoides (pian fungoide, framboesia mycoides), one of several conditions to which the name of Alibert has been attached.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses › Fungal Skin Infections › Mycosis Fungoides
  • 3582
  • 983

Anatomisch-chirurgische Abhandlung über den Ursprung der Leistenbrüche

Würzburg: Baumgärtner, 1806.

Includes description of “Hesselbach’s hernia” and “triangle”. He wrote a further volume on the subject in 1814.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, SURGERY: General › Hernia
  • 3679.1

The history and treatment of diseases of the teeth, the gums, and the alveolar processes, etc.

London: T. Cox, 1806.

Fox was a surgeon practicing dentistry. By some of the authorities his book is considered more valuable than Hunter’s (No. 3676). This is the first book to illustrate diseases of the teeth.

Subjects: DENTISTRY, DENTISTRY › Dental Pathology
  • 6604.92

Essays on the anatomy of expression in painting.

London: Longman, 1806.

Bell’s artistic and literary skills combined with his knowledge of anatomy and physiology to make this work a tour de force of art history and the anatomical and physiological basis of facial expression.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomy for Artists, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 7658

Catalogue of the Leverian Museum : part I[-VI] ... the sale of the entire collection by Messrs. King and Lochee will commence on Monday, the 5th of May, 1806 at twelve o'clock.

London: Hayden, Printer, 1806.

Auction catalogue in six parts. Digital facsimile from Biodiviersity Heritage Library at this link. Facsimile reprint, London: Harmer Johnson and John Hewett, 1979 with a 69-page manuscript appendix of an extra five days and a manuscript index of the buyers' names. The sale lasted sixty-five days without intermission, excepting Sundays and the King's birthday. The reprint also included a reproduction of the 1790 Companion to the museum (No. 7657).

Subjects: MUSEUMS, MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern
  • 10379

A catalogue of the medical library, belonging to the Pennsylvania Hospital; exhibiting the names of authors and editors, in alphabetical order, and an arrangement of them under distinct heads. Also, a list of articles contained in the anatomical museum; and the rules of the museum and of the library.

Philadelphia: Printed for the Hospital, 1806.

Probably the first catalogue of a medical museum in the United States and also possibly the first catalogue of an institutional medical library. The library was open to users for a one time payment of $30, later raised to $40. Paid members received a copy of the printed library catalogue. Thmae lending rules were very strict, and limited to a maximum of two loaned books at a time. A folio could be borrowed for 4 weeks, quartos for 3 weeks, octavos and duodecimos for two weeks. The librarian required a hefty cash deposit for all books loaned, at least one-third more than the book's value, to be refunded only if books were returned "undefaced." Plus a fine of 12.5 cents per week was levied for late returns. After three months books were considered lost, and deposits forfeited. Certain books, that were apparently much in demand, would not be lent out of the hospital. Those are listed on p. vii. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link. Much expanded edition, 1818.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, HOSPITALS, MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological , U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Pennsylvania
  • 10745

Traité de la première dentition et des maladies souvent très-graves qui en depéndent.

Paris: Méquignon, 1806.

The first book on pediatric odontology, later called pedodontics. English translation, New York, 1841.

Subjects: DENTISTRY › Pedodontics
  • 11410

La découverte d'un nouveau principe végétal dans le suc des asperges.

Ann. Chim. (Paris), 57, 88-93, 1806.

Isolation of Asparagine, the first amino acid to be isolated.

  • 11630

Dissertation sur le café; son historique, ses propriétés, et le procédé pour en obtenir la boisson la plus agréable, la plus salutaire et la plus économique; Par Ant.-Alexis Cadet-de-Vaux...Suivie de son analyse; par Charles-Louis Cadet.

Paris: [Bureau du Journal d'Economie Rurale, Mme. Huzard and Xhrouet], 1806.

Cadet de Vaux discussed the history of coffee, including the origins of the coffee bean and plant, the proper climate for growing coffee, coffee drinking culture and its introduction to Europe. He also described the beneficial properties of coffee, listing ailments that could be cured by drinking coffee. Charles-Louis Cadet, Antoine-Alexis's nephew, described how to brew the perfect cup of coffee, also mentioning different methods of making coffee, like cold coffee or with alcohol. He also provided a chemical analysis of coffee. Digital facsimile from BnFGallica at this link.

Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Coffee
  • 12134

The American dispensatory, containing the operations of pharmacy; Together with the natural, chemical, pharmaceutical and medical history of the different substances employed in medicine; illustrated and explained, according to the principles of modern chemistry: Comprehending the improvements in Dr. Duncan's second edition of the Edinburgh new dispensatory. The arrangement simplified, and the whole adapted to the practice of medicine and pharmacy in the United States. With several copperplates, exhibiting the new system of chemical characters, and representing the most useful apparatus.

Philadelphia: Thomas Dobson, 1806.

Coxe's "formulary" was the first attempt at standarization of drugs and their preparation in the United States. Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACOLOGY › Pharmacopeias › Dispensatories or Formularies
  • 13161

Dissertation sur la fièvre-jaune qui a régné épidémiquement à Saint-Domingue, et qui a fait tant de ravages dans l'Armée expéditionnaire, en l'an X et en l'an XI, et sur les causes qui l'ont rendue si funeste.

Paris: De l'Imprimerie de Didot Jeune, 1806.

Describes the yellow fever epidemic that swept through French troops on the island of Saint Domingue (Haiti) in 1802. In the midst of the slave uprising that led to the island’s independence, Napoleon sent an expeditionary force of thirty thousand soldiers to Saint Domingue in order to restore order. This force was virtually wiped out by malaria. As a result, the French failed to regain control over the island, and Saint Domingue subsequently declared independence. The author was Chirurgien-Major in the hospitals and artillery corps at Cap-français, and formerly physician of the expeditonary force at Saint-Dominique. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Haiti, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › Yellow Fever, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Napoleon's Campaigns & Wars
  • 1602.1

The code of health and longevity; or, a concise view of the principles calculated for the preservation of health, and the attainment of long life. 4 vols.

Edinburgh: Archibald Constable & Co., 1807.

One of the most comprehensive works on gerontology ever written, with a bibliography of 1800 references, supplemented by abstracts, translated excerpts from ancient authors, national data, etc.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Subjects, GERIATRICS / Gerontology / Aging, Hygiene
  • 199

Ueber die Bedeutung der Schädelknochen.

Jena: J. C. G. Göpferdt, 1807.

Oken’s vertebral theory of the skull.

Subjects: BIOLOGY
  • 3581

The anatomy and surgical treatment of inguinal and congenital hernia. London, Cox, 1804. The anatomy and surgical treatment of crural and umbilical hernia.

London: Longman, 1807.

Cooper’s first book, luxuriously produced, in which he described for the first time the transversalis fascia, with full appreciation of its importance in hernia, as well as the superior pubic ligament with bears his name. Cooper made a study of femoral hernia and described “Cooper’s ligament”. He also studied diaphragmatic hernia. The second edition of 1827, entitled The anatomy and surgical treatment of abdominal hernia included his description of “Cooper’s hernia” (hernia femoralis fasciae superficialis).

Subjects: SURGERY: General › Hernia
  • 4020

On an eruptive disease of children.

Dublin med. phys. Essays, 1, 146-53, 18071808.

First description of ecthyma terebrans, “pemphigus gangrenosa”.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 5583

A system of operative surgery. 2 vols.

London: Longman, 18071809.

Famous as anatomist, physiologist, and neurologist, Charles Bell was also, like his brother John, an eminent surgeon. His artistic talent was even greater than that of his brother. (See No. 5588.)

Subjects: SURGERY: General
  • 5839

An account of the ophthalmia which has appeared in England since the return of the British Army from Egypt.

London: Longman, 1807.

Vetch described trachoma.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Trachoma, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye › Conjunctivitis › Trachoma, TROPICAL Medicine
  • 6163.1

A compendium of the theory and practice of midwifery.

New York: Collins & Perkins, 1807.

First significant textbook on obstetrics written by an American. Bard gave an excellent description of the mechanism of labor, and of pre-eclampsia. Woodcut illustrations were engraved by American physician and illustrator Alexander Anderson (1775-1870). Anderson was not credited in the book.  Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 265.1

Kort bericht der trapsgewijze verbeteringen aan achromatische verrekijkers.

Natuurk. Verh. Maatsch. Wetensch. Haarlem, 3, 133-52, 1807.

Van Deijl introduced an achromatic objective.

Subjects: Microscopy
  • 7049

The planter's and mariner's medical companion: treating, according to the most successful practice, I. The diseases common to warm climates and on ship board. II. Common cases in surgery, as fractures, dislocations, &c. &c. III. The complaints peculiar to women and children. To which are subjoined a dispensatory, shewing how to prepare and administer family medicines, and a glossary giving an explanation of technical terms.

Philadelphia: John Bioren, 1807.

Ewell, then practicing in Savannah, Georgia, wrote this self-help book for southern residents, directing his book toward plantation owners. It was "the constant friend of a large number of slave-masters. In emergencies it was not uncommon for planters to sit with book in hand by the bedside of a sick Negro, look up the symptoms, compare the remedies and then administer the drug. Not infrequently their wives would minister to sick slaves" (Morais, The history of the Negro in medicine [1968]  16-17.),. The book underwent at least 11 editions, under different titles. Digital facsimile of the Baltimore, 1811 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 7452

Voyage aux régions équinoxiales du nouveau continent, fait en 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804. 34 vols.

Paris, 18071834.

In 1799 Humboldt and Bonpland embarked on a six-year tour of research through South America and Mexico, a trip which would afterwards be called, justifiably, "the scientific discovery of America."  The two amassed exhaustive data in a wide array of fields from meteorology to ethnography, and gathered 60,000 plant specimens, 6,300 of which were previously unknown in Europe. Their American travel journals— issued under the general title Voyage aux régions équinoxiales du nouveau continent, fait en 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804— were published in thirty-four volumes between 1807 and 1834. Digital facsimiles are available from the Internet Archive and Bnf Gallica. 

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, BOTANY, Biogeography, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › South America, NATURAL HISTORY, NATURAL HISTORY › Art & Natural History, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists, ZOOLOGY
  • 8814

An account of the diseases of India, as they appeared in the English fleet, and in the naval hospital at Madras, in 1782 and 1783; with observations on ulcers, and the hospital sores of that country, &c. & c. To which is prefixed a view of the diseases of an expedition and passage of a fleet and armament to India, in 1781.

Edinburgh: W. Laing & London: Longman, Hurst..., 1807.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Navy, Maritime Medicine, TROPICAL Medicine , VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 11802

The Oriental voyager, or descriptive sketches and cursory remarks on a voyage to India and China in His Majesty's ship Caroline, performed in the years 1803–4–5–6. Interspersed with extracts from the best modern voyages and travels. The whole intended to exhibit a topographical and picturesque sketch of all the principal places which are annually or occasionally visited by our East Indian and China fleets....

London: For James Asperne, 1807.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 11857

La zooiatria. 3 vols.

Milan: Pirotta e Maspero, 18071810.

Pozzi was the firector of the newly formed Royal Veterinary School, Milan, and professor of pathology and hygiene.  Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 11904

Voyage de découvertes aux Terres Australes exécuté par ordre de sa Majesté, l'Empereur et Roi, sur les corvettes le Géographe, le Naturaliste, et la goëllette le Casuarina pendant les années 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804 ...rédigé par Péron et continue par M. L. de Freycinet. (Atlas par MM. Lesueur et Petit.) Historique. 3 vols & Atlas, containing 38 plates, 15 maps.

Paris: l'Imprimerie Impériale, 18071817.

Vol. 1. Historique, by François Péron. 1807

Vol. 2. Historique [by Francois Péron, completed by L. de Freycinet] 1816.

Vol. 3. Navigation et géographie, [by L. Freycinet.] 1815. 

Atlas historique [by C. A. Leseur & N. Petit] 1817.

[The following summary of the complex authorship and history of this voyage is a conflation of selections from various articles from the Wikipedia, accessed 3-2020:]

In October 1800  Napoleon selected the French explorer, cartographer, naturalist and hydrographer Nicolas Baudin (1754-1803) to lead what became known as the Baudin expedition to map the coast of Australia (New Holland). To make the voyage and conduct research Baudin had two ships, Géographe and Naturaliste captained by Hamelin, and a suite of nine zoologists and botanists, including Jean Baptiste Leschenault de la Tour. Baudin left Le Havre on 19 October 1800, stopped off in St. Croix, Tenerife, then sailed straight to the Ile de France arriving on 15 March 1801, 145 days later. The voyage, overlong with early rationing left sailors and scientists feeling discouraged, but the colony was happy to build up the crews in case of conflict and to make use of the new skills they brought with them. Baudin reached Australia in May 1801, and would explore and map the western coast and a part of the little-known southern coast of the continent. The scientific expedition proved a great success, with more than 2500 new species discovered. The French also met Aboriginal peoples and treated them with great respect.

In April 1802 Baudin met Matthew Flinders, also engaged in charting the coastline, in Encounter Bay in present-day South Australia. Baudin then stopped at the British colony at Sydney for supplies, and from there he sent home the Naturaliste, carrying all of the specimens that had been collected by both ships up to that time. Realizing that the Géographe could not venture into some of the shallow waters along the Australian coast that he was intending to survey, he bought a new ship — Casuarina — named after the wood it was made from, and placed it under the command of Louis de Freycinet, who would 15 years later make his own circumnavigation in the corvette l'Uranie. Baudin then headed back to Tasmania, before continuing along the southern and western coasts of Australia to Timor, mapping as he went. In very poor health, Baudin then turned for home, stopping at Mauritius, where he died.

During the voyage, which charted significant stretches of the Australian coast between 1801 and 1803, the naturalist François Péron clashed repeatedly with Baudin. When Stanislas Levillain and René Maugé died, Péron rose to prominence as the sole remaining zoologist. (Baudin had already lost numerous officers, sailors, savants and artists who deserted in Mauritius.) With the aid of the artist Charles Alexandre Lesueur, Péron was largely responsible for gathering some 100,000 zoological specimens—the most comprehensive Australian natural history collection to date. Although he died before he could fully study his specimens, Péron made a major contribution to the foundations of the natural sciences in Australia and was a prescient ecological thinker. He was also a pioneer oceanographer who conducted important experiments on sea water temperatures at depth.

Baudin died before he could return to France, and it was Péron who began writing the official account of the expedition: Voyage de découvertes aux Terres Australes. In doing so, he committed a great injustice to his former commander's memory by magnifying his faults and frequently distorting the historical record. In the wake of the resumed fighting between France and Britain, Péron also drafted a secret Mémoire sur les établissements anglais à la Nouvelle Hollande, which advocated a French conquest of Port Jackson with the aid of rebellious Irish convicts.[1]

Péron died of tuberculosis in his hometown of Cérilly in 1810. He was just thirty-five years old. The task of completing the official account of the expedition fell to Louis de Freycinet.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: NATURAL HISTORY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12875

Of the cause of the yellow fever; and the means of preventing it in places not yet infected with it: Addressed to the Board of Health in America.

London: Printed by and for Clio Rickman, 1807.

This 13-page pamphlet was probably the only medical publication by the English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist, and revolutionary, Thomas Paine. Paine's essay was first published in newspapers in 1806.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Yellow Fever
  • 13348

De l'établissement des principaux jardins de botanique.

Ann. Musèe Hist. nat. (Paris), 9, 149-205, 1807.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link. Edited English translation by Roger L. Williams as "On the establishment of the principal gardens of botany: A bibliographical essay by Jean-Philippe-François Deleuze," Huntia, 14 (2011) 147-176. Digital fracsimile from at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens › History of Botanical Gardens
  • 314

Beyträge zur vergleichenden Anatomie. 2 vols. in 3.

Leipzig: C. H. Reclam, 18081812.

Digital facsimile facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

  • 927

Über den Bau der Lungen.

Berlin: in den Vossischen Buchhandlung, 1808.

In 1804 the Berlin Akademie der Naturwissenschaften offered a prize for the best essay on the structure and function of the lungs. The prize was won by Reisseisen, while Soemmerring received honorable mention. The texts of both works were published in one volume; Soemmerring’s essay was entitled “Ueber die Structur, die Verrichtung und den Gebrauch der Lungen”. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 4635

An essay on hydrocephalus acutus, or dropsy in the brain.

Edinburgh: Mundell, Doig & Stevenson, 1808.

Acute hydrocephalus first described.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions
  • 2449

Entozoorum, sive verminum intestinalium, historia naturalis. 2 vols.

Amsterdam, 18081810.

A system of helminthology. Rudolphi gave the name “echinococcus” to the common vesicular hydatid, describing three species.

Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths
  • 3168

Observations on the inflammatory affections of the mucous membrane of the bronchiae.

London: J. Callow, 1808.

Badham distinguished acute and chronic bronchitis from pneumonia and pleurisy, with which it had previously been confused. He gave the disease its present name. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Pneumonia, PULMONOLOGY, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Diseases
  • 3679.2

Rapport sur les dents artificielles terro-métalliques.

Paris, 1808.

Fonzi, an Italian dentist living in Paris, produced the first sets of individual porcelain teeth mounted on a base. "While previously the entire mineral denture, both base and teeth, had been fired as a single piece, Fonzi in 1808 published a method for the manufacture of individual teeth with platinum hooks fired into them. . . . With the invention of these “Dents terro-metalliques” . . . which could be soldered to a metal bar, the determining step towards modern dental prosthetics had been taken (Hofmann-Axthelm, History of Dentistry, p. 256). Fonzi also discovered a method using a combination of procelain paste and various metallic oxides, of partially imitating the semitransparent tint peculiar to natural teeth. His artificial teeth could be manufactured in a range of natural colors. See Guerini, Life and Works of Giuseppangelo Fonzi (1925).

Subjects: DENTISTRY › Prosthodontics
  • 5840

Essays on the morbid anatomy of the human eye. 2 vols.

Edinburgh: G. Ramsay & Co, 18081818.

Wardrop was the first to classify the various inflammations of the eye according to the structures attacked. He was also the first to use the term “keratitis”.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye
  • 6164

Accounts of the pulvis parturiens, a remedy for quickening child-birth.

Med. Reposit., 2 Hex., 5, 308-09, 1808.

The first use of ergot in the induction of labor in America. Reprinted in H. Thoms: Classic Contributions to Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1935, pp. 21-23.

  • 6750.2

Literatura medica digesta sive repertorium medicinae practicae, chirurgiae atque rei obstetriciae. 4 vols.

Tubingen: J. G. Cotta, 18081809.

A revised edition, with 40,000 additional citations, of Nos. 6750 and 6750.1. A supplement (1 vol.) was published in 1813.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics
  • 7682

A catalogue of the anatomical preparations, casts, drawings, machines, instruments, &c. in White's Museum, Lying-in hospital.

Manchester: J. Harrop, 1808.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological
  • 7685

Catalogue of the principal objects of curiosity [in the collection of Edward Donovan] contained in the London Museum and Institute of Natural History, Catherine Street, Strand, now open to the inspection of the public.

London: Rivington, 1808.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern, NATURAL HISTORY
  • 9498

American ornithology; or, the natural history of the birds of the United States: Illustrated with plates engraved and colored from original drawings taken from nature. 9 vols.

Philadelphia: Bradford & Inskeep, 18081814.

Considered the "father of American ornithology," Wilson was the greatest American ornithologist before Audubon. Wilson died with the 7th volume in press, and the 8th and 9th volumes were completed by Wilson's friend George Ord, who included a memoir of Wilson in the final volume. Because of the limitation of Wilson's travels and his early death, the work was incomplete, but it was by far the most extensive work about American birds to date, and the color plates set a new standard for works produced in America, even though Wilson's artistry was sometimes crude, and his depictions of birds were stiff and out of scale. The set has been called "the first truly outstanding American color plate book of any type" (Bennett). Digital facsimile of the complete set from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , NATURAL HISTORY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 10067

The pharmacopoeia of the Massachusetts Medical Society,

Boston, MA: E. & J. Larkin, 1808.

The first state pharmacopeia issued in the United States. Jackson and Warren were the "Committee for the Pharmacopoeia." Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › Pharmacopeias, Societies and Associations, Medical, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Massachusetts
  • 11955

A catalogue of plants in the Botanic Garden, at Liverpool.

Liverpool: James Smith, 1808.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens
  • 12857

Recherches historiques sur l'art du dentiste chez les anciens.

Paris: Croullebois, Méguigon, Gabon, 1808.

An early, if relatively brief (24pp.), effort at a study of contributions of ancient Greek and Roman writers to dentistry. Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link.

Subjects: DENTISTRY › History of Dentistry
  • 13040

Catalogue des livres de la bibliothèque de feu M. E.P. Ventenat…Suivi de la description de différens herbiers, graines, fruits étrangers, etc., et objets de curiosité.

Paris: Tilliard Frères, 1808.

Besides Ventenat's library of botanical works lots 603-11 included Ventenat’s collections of botanical specimens (lot 603 contained 14- 15,000 specimens from all over the world!). The auction catalogue was prefaced by a life of Ventenat. The auctioneer supplied indices of authors and of anonymous works. 

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Botany / Materia Medica, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries
  • 13355

Tableau historique des maladies internes de mauvais caractère qui ont affligé la grande armée dans la campagne de Prusse et de Pologne, et notamment de celles qui ont été observées dans les hôpitaux militaires et les villes de Thorn, Bromberg, Fordon et Culm, dans l'hiver de 1806 à 1807, le printems et l'été de 1807, suivi de réflexions sur les divers modes de traitement de ces maladies adoptés par les médecins français et allemands.

Berlin: Louis Quien, 1808.

Digital facsimile from at this link.

  • 984

Ueber die Divertikel am Darmkanal.

Arch. Physiol. (Halle), 9, 421-53., 1809.

“Meckel’s diverticulum”.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 1603

A treatise on medical police, and on diet, regimen, &c. In which the permanent and regularly recurring causes of disease in general, and those of Edinburgh and London in particular, are described; with a general plan of medical police to obviate them, and a particular one adapted to the local circumstances of these cities. 2 vols.

Edinburgh: Printed by John Moir and sold by Thomas Bryce & London: John Murray, 1809.

First notable work on the subject in English. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 1388

Saggio sopra la vera struttura del cervello dell’uomo e degl’animali e sopra le funzioni del sistema nervoso.

Sassari, Italy: Stamp. Privileg, 1809.

Includes description of “Rolando’s substance”, “tubercle”, and “funiculus”. Rolando described ablation experiments for brain localization similar to Flourens (No. 1391). They were largely unknown until Magendie published a French translation of them in his J. Phys. exper. path., 1823, 3, 95-113, which was reprinted by Flourens in No. 1493. Rolando was correct in allocating motor activity to the cerebral hemispheres; however his views on cerebellar function were replaced by those advanced by Flourens.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1454

Abbildungen der menschlichen Organe des Geruches.

Frankfurt: a.M., Varrentrapp u. Wenner, 1809.

Subjects: Olfaction / Smell, Anatomy & Physiology of
  • 3252

The pathology of the membranes of the larynx and bronchia.

Edinburgh: Mundell, Doig & Stevenson, 1809.

Cheyne’s important book deals mainly with the lesions of croup.

Subjects: OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Laryngology
  • 216

Philosophie zoologique. 2 vols.

Paris: Dentu et l'Auteur, 1809.

Lamarck was one of the greatest of the comparative anatomists. This work is considered the greatest exposition of his argument that evolution occurred by the inheritance of characteristics acquired by animals as a result of the use or disuse of organs in response to external stimuli. English translation by H. Elliot, 1914. Digital facsimile of the 1809 edition from Google Books at this link.

  • 3583

Sull’ernie. Memorie anatomico-chirurgiche.

Milan: d. reale Stamperia, 1809.

This splendidly illustrated work with life-size plates includes the description of “Scarpa’s fascia” (creasteric fascia) and Scarpa’s triangle of the thigh.

Subjects: Illustration, Biomedical, SURGERY: General › Hernia
  • 2739

An account of a peculiar disease of the heart.

Med.-chir., Trans. 1, 37-46, 1809.

Account of nine cases of rheumatic endocarditis.

Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Rheumatic Heart Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Endocarditis
  • 2929

A case of aneurism of the carotid artery.

Med.-chir. Trans., 1, 1-12, 222-33, 1809.

Cooper ligated the common carotid artery on Nov. 1, 1805; the patient died, but a second case (June 22, 1808) proved successful. (See also No. 2955).

Subjects: VASCULAR SURGERY › Ligations
  • 2928
  • 5584

Surgical observations on the constitutional origin and treatment of local diseases.

London: Longman, 1809.

A pupil of John Hunter, Abernethy became a leading surgeon in London. He was most industrious, and it is said that not even on his wedding day did he fail to give his usual daily lecture at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital. His book was, in the view of D’Arcy Power, epoch-making; on pp. 234-92 he recorded the first successful ligation of the external iliac artery for aneurysm, an operation carried out by Abernethy in 1796. 

Subjects: SURGERY: General , VASCULAR SURGERY › Ligations
  • 5585

A dictionary of practical surgery.

London: John Murray, 1809.

Cooper was surgeon on the field at Waterloo, and was later appointed to the chair of surgery at University College, London. His great dictionary went through seven editions during his lifetime and was translated into French, German and Italian.

Subjects: SURGERY: General
  • 2738
  • 2889

Observations on some of the most frequent and important diseases of the heart.

Edinburgh: Bryce & Co, 1809.

Burns described endocarditis and reported three cases of mitral stenosis. He recognized the thrill present in the latter condition and seems to have understood the mechanism of a cardiac murmur. He also described unilateral paralysis of the diaphragm resulting from pressure on the phrenic nerve by a thoracic aneurysm. Burns was also among the first to suggest (see p. 136) that angina pectoris is an expression of coronary obstruction. Biography by J. B. Herrick, 1935.

Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aneurysms, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Auscultation and Physical Diagnosis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Endocarditis
  • 7610

Directions for preserving animals and parts of animals for anatomical investigation; and concerning extraneous fossils.

London: Printed by J. Adlard, 1809.

"The following Directions, framed by the late Mr. John Hunter, are intended to facilitate, and render effectual, the Endeavours of such Friends to scientific Inquiries as shall be inclined to futher the designs of the Court [of Assistants], but are not well acquainted with the Arts of preparing, and preserving, animal substances, for anatomical Investigation" (p. 4). Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological
  • 9064

Memoria sobre a canella do Rio de Janeiro offerecida ao Principe do Brazil nosso senhor: pelo Senado da Camara da mesma cidade no anno de 1798.

Rio de Janeiro: Na Impressão regia, 1809.

The earliest monograph on medicine published in Brazil. Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Brazil, Latin American Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines
  • 9578

Examen de l'action de quelques végétaux sur la moelle épinière. Lu a l'Institut, le vingt-quatre avril 1809.

Bull. De la Soc. Philomat., I, 368-405., 1809.

In 1809 Magendie presented to the Académie des Sciences and to the Société Philomatique the results of his first experimental work, which he carried out in collaboration with the botanist and physician Alire Raffeneau-Delille. In a series of experiments on various animals the two investigators studied the toxic action of several botanic drugs, particularly upas, nux vomica, and St.-Ignatius's bean. These experiments marked the beginning of experimental pharmacology. They were the first experimental comparisons of the similar effects produced by drugs of different botanical origin.

Magendie believed that the toxic or medicinal action of natural drugs depends on the chemical substances they contain, and that it  be would to obtain these substances in the pure state. As early as 1809 he suspected the existence of strychnine, later isolated, in accord with his predictions, by Pierre Joseph Pelletier  in 1819. Moreover, in 1817, in collaboration with Pelletier, Magendie discovered emetine, the active principle of the root of Carapichea ipecacuanha or ipecac.

See also Magendie's follow-up paper: Mémoire sur les organes de l'absorption chez les mammifères. Lu à l'Institut, le sept Août 1809.

Digital facsimile of the offprint of the April 1809 paper from BnF Gallica at this link.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Ipecacuanha, TOXICOLOGY
  • 9583

A treatise on the origin, nature, & treatment of corns, and those affections of the joints of the toes termed bunyons.

Printed for the Author by J. Barfield, 1809.

Guthery characterized himself on the title page as "Chirurgo-Podist to the Royal Family." Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Podiatry
  • 10267

Recueil général des lois, réglemens, décisions et circulaires sur le service des hôpitaux militaires. 2 vols.

Paris: De l'Imprimerie Royale, 1809.

On the organization and administration of French military hospitals during the Napoleonic era, and probably the most comprehensive account published up to this time on the administration of military hospitals in general. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › France, HOSPITALS, LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences › Legislation, Biomedical
  • 10465

A companion to the Liverpool Museum, containing a brief description of upwards of seven thousand natural and foreign curiosities, antiquities and productions of fine arts, collected during several years of arduous research, and at an expense of upwards of twenty thousand pounds. And now open for inspection, in the Great Room, No. 22, Piccadilly, London, which has been fitted up for the purpose in a manner entirely new.

London: Printed for the Proprietor, 1809.

Bullock founded his Museum of Natural Curiosities at 24 Lord Street in Liverpool in 1795. While still trading as a jeweller and goldsmith, in 1801 he published a descriptive catalogue of the works of art, armor, objects of natural history, and other curiosities in the museum, some of which had been brought back by members of James Cook's expeditions. In 1809, Bullock moved to London and the museum, housed first at 22 Piccadilly and in 1812 in the newly built Piccadilly Egyptian Hall, proved extremely popular. The collection, which included over 32,000 items, was disposed of by auction in 1819. Digital facsimile of the 7th edition of the 1809 catalogue from the Internet Archive at this link. An illustrated catalogue of the museum, with 30 plates, was first published in 1812.

Subjects: MUSEUMS, MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern
  • 10602

Cases of organic diseases of the heart. With dissections and some remarks intended to point out the distinctive symptoms of these diseases.

Boston, MA: Thomas R. Wait and Company, 1809.

The first monograph on heart disease written and published in the United States. Digital text from Project Gutenberg at this link.

  • 11403

Observationes in Ordines plantarum naturales. Dissertatio prima complectens Anandrarum ordines Epiphytas, Mucedines, Gastromycos et Fungo.

Ges. Nat., 3, 3-42, 1809.

Link described Polyangium, the first bacterium to be described that is still recognized today. Link also described Penicillium for the first time.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Polyangium, BOTANY › Cryptogams › Mycology
  • 11717

Traité de la sangsue médicinale.

Paris: Chez H. Nicolle, 1809.

A 585-page treatise on this later-debunked therapy published around the time of its greatest vogue. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: THERAPEUTICS › Bloodletting
  • 12798

Flore portugaise ou description de toutes les plantes qui croissent naturellement en Portugal. 2 vols.

Berlin: de l'imprimerie de Charles Fréderic Amelang et se trouve chez les auteurs, 18091840.

The most spectacular illustrated book on the flora of Portugal. The delicate illustrations, mostly stipple-engraved and colored by hand, based on the travels of Hoffmannsegg through Portugal between 1797 and 1801, were executed in the manner of Pierre-Joseph Redouté. 

Digital facsimiles from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY, BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Portugal
  • 12827

Voyages d'un Naturaliste, et ses observations. Faites sur les trois règnes de la Nature, dans plusieurs ports de mer français, en Espagne, au continent de l'Amerique septentrionale, à Saint-Yago de Cuba, et à St.-Domingue, où l'Auteur devenu le prisonnier de 40,000 Noirs révoltés, et par suite mis en liberté par une colonne de l'armée française, donne des détails circonstanciés sur l'expédition du général Leclerc. Dédiés à ... le Comte de Lacépède. 3 vols.

Paris: Dufart, 1809.

One of the more unusually titled travel accounts including the mention that "the author became the prisoner of 40,000 black revolutionaries, and was rescued by the French army." "Following his marriage to the daughter of Rossignol-Desdunes, who had plantations in Artibonite, he [Descourtilz] went to Saint-Domingue (Haiti) in 1798, on the way visiting Charleston, South Carolina, and Santiago de Cuba. Descourtilz became involved in the Negro revolution and, in spite of the protection of Toussaint L'Ouverture was nearly executed by Dessalines. but in 1803 escaped and sailed to Cádiz. Most of his original drawings and manuscripts, as well as his herbarium, were burned in Haiti; and in writing his books he had to rely on the works of Plumier, Joseph Surian, Alexandre Poiteau, and Turpin. His zoological contributions, particularly those on the caiman, were highly praised" (DSB). This set included 43 stipple engraved plates.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.