An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15969 entries, 13962 authors and 1940 subjects. Updated: June 12, 2024

Browse by Publication Year 1710–1719

41 entries
  • 1356

Lettres d’un médecin des hôpitaux du Roy… contient un nouveau système du cerveau, etc.

Namur, Belgium: C. G. Albert, 1710.

Theory of contralateral innervation.

  • 4280

A compleat treatise of the stone and gravel.

London: R. Smith, 1710.

Groenveldt was a famous lithotomist, using the suprapubic technique. He also enjoyed a rather unsavoury reputation as a quack for his determination to promote the use of cantharides. He changed his name to Greenfield when he came to England from Holland. in 1674 or 1675. See his earlier shorter work on the same subject, Lithologia. A treatise of the stone & gravel: Their causes, signs, & symptoms, with methods for their prevention and cure. And some account Also of the manner of the collotian section. Written in Latin ... and rendred Into English ... London, 1677. Also see his more extensive and illustrated edition, Dissertatio lithologica variis observationibus et figuris illustrata. London: Typis Joannis Bringhurst, 1684

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 7122

A catalogue of the libraries of the learned Sir Thomas Brown, and Dr. Edward Brown, his son, late President of the College of Physicians. Consisting of many very valuable and uncommon books in most faculties and languages. Chiefly in physic, chirurgery, chemistry.... Which will begin to be sold by auction, at the Black-boy Coffe Thomas Ballard bookseller.

London, 1710.

Auction catalogue of the libraries of Sir Thomas Browne and his son Dr. Edward Browne. Digital facsimile of a xerographic copy from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries
  • 7576

Museum curiosum auctum Oder Neu-Verbesserte Beschreibung Derer raren und Ausländischen Sachen...Bey Tit. Herrn Christian Nicolai.

Wittenberg: mit Kreusiglischen Schrifften, 1710.

Description of the cabinet of Wittenberg apothecary Christian Nicolai by Christian Warlitz, professor of medicine at Wittenberg. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern
  • 11628

Index plantarum, quae in Horto Academico Lugduno Batavo reperiuntur.

Leiden: Apud Cornelium Boutestein, 1710.

Upon his appointment as professor of medicine and botany at Leiden University in 1709, Boerhaave became head of the botanical garden, a laboratory for materia medica. He published his first catalogue of plants in the garden in 1710, and added more than two thousand species by the second edition in 1720, reflecting his extensive additions to the garden. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines
  • 12048

Considerazioni, e d'esperienze intorno alla generazione de' vermi ordinari del corpo umano fatte da Antonio Vallisnieri, e da lui scritte al Reverendissimo Padre D. Antonio Borromeo.

Padua: Nella Stamperio del Seminario, 1710.

In this illustrated work on parasitic worms in the human body Vallisnieri proved that these worms were not due to spontaneous generation, but grew from eggs. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths
  • 12498

An argument for Divine Providence, taken from the constant regularity observed in the births of both sexes.

Phil. Trans., 27, 186-190, 1710.

"Arbuthnot examined birth records in London for each of the 82 years from 1629 to 1710 and the human sex ratio at birth: in every year, the number of males born in London exceeded the number of females. If the probability of male and female birth were equal, the probability of the observed outcome would be 1/282, a vanishingly small number. This is vanishingly small, leading Arbuthnot that this was not due to chance, but to divine providence: "From whence it follows, that it is Art, not Chance, that governs." This paper was a landmark in the history of statistics; in modern terms he performed statistical hypothesis testing, computing the p-value (via a sign test), interpreted it as statistical significance, and rejected the null hypothesis. This is credited as "… the first use of significance tests …",[3] the first example of reasoning about statistical significance and moral certainty,[4] and "… perhaps the first published report of a nonparametric test …" (Wikipedia article on John Arbuthnot, accessed 4-2020).

Digital facsimie from at this link.

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology, DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics
  • 301

Sur les diverses reproductions qui se font dans les écrevisses, les omars, les crabes....

Mém. Acad. roy. Sci (Paris), 226-45., Paris, 1712.

Réaumur showed that crustaceans replace their lost limbs, a fact until then disputed.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Regeneration
  • 5231

Therapeutice specialis ad febres quasdam pemiciosas, inopinato, ac repente lethales, una vera china china, peculiare methodo ministrata, sanabiles

Modena: typ. B. Soliani, 1712.

Torti’s work finally established the specific nature of cinchona bark. His demonstration of its effectiveness in periodic over continuous fevers finally overthrew the doctrine of the common origin of all fevers. He is also credited with the introduction of the term “malaria”.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Cinchona Bark
  • 6374.11

Amoentitatum exoticarum politico-physico-medicarum fasciculi V.

Lemgo, Germany: Meyer, 1712.

Kaempfer’s illustrated accounts of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion are among the best of the 17th century. They appeared for the first time in the above work and were translated into English in his The History of Japan, 2 vols., London, 1727. Other fascicules of this work concern Japanese plants. Digital facsimile of the 1712 edition from ETH Zurich at this link.
Translated into English by Willem Floor and Colette Ouahes as Exotic attractions in Persia, 1684-1688: Travels & observations. Washington, DC: Mage Publishers, 2018.

Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Acupuncture (Western References), BOTANY, BOTANY › Medical Botany, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Japan, Japanese Medicine, Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientsts
  • 390

The anatomy of the humane body.

London: N. Cliff & D. Jackson, 1713.

Although Cheselden is best known for his accomplishments in the field of surgery, he wrote two important books on anatomy. The above was for many years a textbook of the English medical schools and ran through 13 editions.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration
  • 5826

Observation singulière sur la fistule lacrimale, dans la quelle l’on verrà, que la matière des fistules lacrimales s’evacuë très souvent par les points lacrimaux; en même tems l’on apprendrà la methode de les guérir radicalement, etc.

Turin: P. J. Zappatte, 1713.

Lacrimal duct catheterized for the first time. See No. 5823. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures
  • 1312
  • 391

Tabulae anatomicae.

Rome: F. Gonzaga, 1714.

A romantic history attaches to this fine collection of plates, drawn by Eustachius himself and completed in 1552. They remained unprinted and forgotten in the Vatican Library until discovered in the early 18th century, and were then presented by Pope Clement XI to his physician, Giovanni Maria Lancisi. The latter published them in 1714 together with his own notes. These copperplates are more accurate than the work of Vesalius. Singer was of the opinion had they appeared in 1552 Eustachius would have ranked with Vesalius as one of the founders of modern anatomy. He discovered the Eustachian tube, the thoracic duct, the adrenals and the abducens nerve, and gave the first accurate description of the uterus. He also described the cochlea, the muscles of the throat and the origin of the optic nerves. Plate XVIII is a drawing of the sympathetic nervous system. Eustachius was the first to describe the ganglion chain, but made the mistake of tracing the origin of the cervical portion to the brain-stem. With respect to dentistry, Eustachi's illustrations of the teeth, related to his Libellus de dentibus (1563-64) were first published in this work.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, DENTISTRY › Dental Anatomy & Physiology, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 2529.2

Nuovo idea del male contagioso de’ buoi.

Milan: Marc ‘Antonio Pandolfo Malatesta, 1714.

In this study of an epizootic Cogrossi formulated much of the modern theory of infection. He speculated that infection might occur at the microscopic level, and argued that infected individuals should be isolated and cured, that those believed to have been exposed to the disease should be isolated, and that the personal belongings of both groups should be disinfected to exterminate the causitive agent and its eggs. He also speculated on the entrance routes of the infection and its transmission through secretions and excretions of the infected animal. Facsimile reprint with English translation by D.M. Schullian and foreword by L. Belloni, Roma, Società Italiana di Microbiologia, 1953.

  • 3981

De morbis cutaneis. A treatise of diseases incident to the skin.

London: R. Bonwicke, 1714.

Turner may be regarded as the founder of British dermatology. His book, the first English text on the subject, gives a good idea of contemporary knowledge of skin diseases. Turner began his career as a barber surgeon, but eventually bought his way out of the guild. He obtained membership in the College of Physicians without an official medical degree. Yale College conferred an honorary MD on Turner in 1723, for donating a collection of books to the school’s library. This was the first medical degree awarded in English-speaking America. Its circumstances led one wit of the period to suggest that the letters on Turner’s diploma actually stood for Multum Donavit.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 5409

An account, or history, of the procuring of the smallpox by incision or inoculation, as it has for some time been practised at Constantinople.

Phil. Trans., 29, 72-82, 17141716.

A letter dated December, 1713 from Timoni of Constantinople to John Woodward, and read to the Royal Society in May, 1714, described the practice in that city of inoculation against smallpox. The letter aroused interest in inoculation in England. A fellow of the Royal Society since 1703, Timoni was the first to write on this subject for Western physicians, although Pylarini’s researches had commenced in 1701.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox › Variolation or Inoculation
  • 5410

Nova & tuta variolas excitandi per transplantationem methodus, nuper inventa & in usum tracta.

Phil. Trans., 29, 393-99, 17141716.

This reprint of No. 5409.1 appeared in the same volume as Timoni’s paper. Both were republished in Latin: Tractatus bini de nova variolas per transplantationem excitandi methodo, Leyden, 1721. Digital facsimile of 1721 edition from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox › Variolation or Inoculation
  • 13449

Journal des observations physiques, mathematiques et botaniques, faites par l'ordre du roi sur les côtes orientales de l'Amerique meridionale, & dans les Indes occidentales, depuis l'année 1707, jusques en 1712. 3 vols.

Paris: Pierre Giffart, 17141725.

Includes in vols. 2 and 3: Histoire des plantes medecinales qui sont le plus en usage aux royaumes de l'Amerique meridionale, du Perou & du Chily, : composée sur les lieux par ordre du Roy, dans les années 1709. 1710. & 1711.

Subjects: BOTANY › Medical Botany, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Caribbean, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Chile, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Peru, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists › History of Voyages & Travels by Physicians....
  • 302

Istoria del camaleonte Affricano e di varj animali d’Italia.

Venice: G. G. Ertz, 1715.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy
  • 5409.1

Nova et tuta variolas excitandi per transplantationem methodus; nuper inventa & in usum tracta: Qua rite peracta, immunia in posterum praeservantur ab huiusmodi contagio corpora.

Venice: Giovanni Gabriele Hertz, 1715.

Inoculation was practiced in ancient times. In 1701 Pilarino inoculated three children at Constantinople with smallpox virus. He is credited with the “medical” discovery of variolation, and is thus the first immunologist. His book records his many researches on the subject.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox › Variolation or Inoculation
  • 6745

Bibliographiae anatomicae specimen, sive catalogus omnium penè auctorum qui ab Hippocrate ad Harveum re anatomicam ex professo, vel obiter, scriptis illustrarunt.

London: G. Sayes, 1715.

The first attempt at a systematic medical bibliography. Revised edition with annotations by revisions by Bernhard Siegfried Albinus (Leiden, 1734). Douglas's original autograph manuscript for the book is preserved in the Hunter Collection, University of Glasgow Library.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics
  • 7247

Traité nouveau de la structure et des causes du mouvement naturel du coeur. IN: Oeuvres françoises de M. Vieussens dédiées a nosseigneurs des états de la province de Languedoc.

Toulouse: Jean Guillemette, 1715.

The first work on cardiac anatomy and pathology. Vieussens was the first to describe the course of the coronary arteries and the coronary sinus. He also described collateral vessels connecting the left anterior descending artery and the right coronary artery (circle of Vieussens), the valve Vieussens situated at the junction of the great cardiac vein and coronary sinus ostium, and a depression at the margin of the fossa ovalis called Vieussens' annulus. Vieussens provided several illustrations demonstrating the arterial andvenous coronary circulation (plates 1 to 6). He also described in detail the organization of myocardial fibers of the right and left ventricles (plates 7 to 9) Similar to Lower, Vieussens reported cases of pericardial effusion and restrictive pericarditis ("symphyse pericardique"). He presented  the clinical manifestations associated with these diseases, and described one of the first cases of aortic regurgitation. Vieussens also discussed "the structure of the internal surface of the right ventricle." He provided a detailed description of the structural and functional anatomy of the tricuspid and pulmonic valves (pp. 98-101; plates 10 & 11). Vieussens also provided the first comprehensive description of mitral stenosis (pp 101-106; plates 12 & 13). (This note was adapted from information provided by Farzan Filsoufi.) Digital facsimile from HathiTrust at this link.

  • 7303

A letter to the publisher, written by the ingenious Mr. John Bagford, in which are many curious remarks relating to the city of London, and some things about Leland. In: John Leland, Joannis Lelandi antiquarii de rebus britannicis collectanea, ed. Thomas Hearne, I, pp. lviii-lxxxvi.

Oxford: e theatro Sheldoniano, 1715.

Includes an account of the discovery by Bagford’s friend and fellow antiquarian John Conyers of a flint handaxe in London, unearthed circa 1680 near the bones of what was then thought to be an elephant, as neither the mammoth nor the entire concept of extinction existed, and there was no concept of prehistory. The illustration of the handaxe in Bagford’s letter is one of the earliest published images of a handaxe. Bagford called it ". . . a British Weapon made of a Flint Lance like unto the Head of a Spear, fastened into a Shaft of good length, which was a Weapon very common amongst the Ancient Britains. . . they not having at that time the use of Iron or Brass, as the Romans had" (p. lxiv).

What made this particular find remarkable to those at the time was the presence of the “elephant” bones, which Bagford attempted to explain this way:

"Mr. John Conyers, an apothecary . . . who made it his chief Business to make curious observations, and to collect such Antiquities as were daily found in and about London . . . discovered the body of an Elephant, as he was digging for Gravel in the Fields . . . not far from Battlebridge, and near to the River of Wells. . . .How this Elephant came there? is the Question. I know some will have it to have layn there ever since the Universal Deluge. For my own part I take it to have been brought over with many others by the Romans in the Reign of Claudius the Emperour, and conjecture . . . that it was killed in some Fight by a Britain" (p. lxiv).

Subjects: EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 9170

Elephantographia curiosa, seu elephanti descriptio.

Erfurt: Impensis authors. Typis Joh. Henrici Grosch, 1715.

The first monograph on the elephant, including 28 plates. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy
  • 8860

Rariora Musei Besleriani quae olim Basilius et Michael Rupertus Besleri collegerunt, aenesique tabulis ad vivum incisa evulgarunt: nunc commentariolo illustrata a Johanne Henrico Lochnero…

Nuremberg, 1716.

The most complete description of the natural history museum of Basilius Besler and his nephew Michael Rupert. It contains the first descriptive commentary of the collection, with 40 engraved plates. The Besler collection was partly illustrated in earlier publications: the elder Besler’s own “Fasciculus” of 1616, and his nephew’s “Gazophylacium” of 1642. However, both of those publications consisted of plates only. Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library, Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern
  • 3419

An account of the dissection of a child.

Phil. Trans., 30, 631-32, 1717.

First description of congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Reprinted in Mark M. Ravitch, "The story of pyloric stenosis," Surgery, 48 (1960) 1117-1143.

  • 5232

De noxiis paludum effluviis, eorumque remediis.

Rome: typ. J. M. Salvioni, 1717.

Lancisi suggested that since malaria disappears after drainage it was due to some sort of poison emanating from marshes and possibly transmitted by mosquitoes. He planned a drainage scheme for marshy regions. His work included an early effort at medical cartography-- a map of the area between the gulfs of Astura and Terracina, south-southeast from Rome which identified twenty-six forested quarters ("quarti delle selve") and four ruined lands ("terre dirute").  The map also included directions of the major winds. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Cartography, Medical & Biological, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria
  • 10530

Syphilis: A practical dissertation on the venereal disease. In which, after a short account of its nature and original; the diagnostick and prognostick signs, with the best ways of curing the several degrees of that distemper, together with some historical observations relating to the same, are candidly and without reserve, communicated. In two parts.

London: Printed for R. Bonwicke...., 1717.

The first work published in English to include the word syphilis, and also the first English work to include the word condom. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 11473

Musaeum Zeylanicum, sive catalogus plantarum, in Zeylan sponte nascentium, observatarum & descriptarum a viaro celeberrimo Paulo Hermanno.

Leiden: Isaac Severinus, 1717.

Paul Hermann's study of the plants of Sri Lanka collected during his experience as a Ship's Medical Oficer in the Dutch East India Company after Hermann completed his medical studies at Padua. This work was edited for posthumous publication by William Sherard. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 11515

Metallotheca opus posthumum, auctoritate, & munificentia Clementis undecimi pontificis maximi e tenebris in lucem eductum; opera autem, & studio Ioannis Mariae Lancisii archiatri pontificii illustratum.

Rome: ex officina Joannis Mariae Salvioni Romani in Archigymnasio Sapientiae, 1717.

In 1717 papal physician Giovanni Maria Lancisi published the catalogue of the Vatican "armaria" series housing the natural history museum collected by one of his predecessors at the Vatican, the 16th century papal physician Michele Mercati. The collection included Mercati's fossils, marbles, ores, shells, earth samples, salts, alums, gums and resins. Though it was published more than a century after Mercati's death, the Metallotheca remains the record of one of the earliest 16th century natural history museums. With papal sponsorship the work was published in a luxurious manner.

"Mercati collected curious objects - fossils, minerals and so on - as well as 'ceraunia' or 'thunderstones'. Mercati was particularly interested in Ceraunia cuneata, "wedge-shaped thunderstones," which seemed to him to be most like axes and arrowheads, which he now called ceraunia vulgaris, "folk thunderstones," distinguishing his view from the popular one.[1] Mercati examined the surfaces of the ceraunia and noted that the stones were of flint and that they had been chipped all over by another stone. By their shapes, Mercati deduced that the stones were intended to be hafted. He then showed the similarities between the 'ceraunia' and artifacts from the New World that explorers had identified as implements or weapons.[2]

"Mercati posited that these stone tools must have been used when metal was unknown and cited Biblical passages to prove that in Biblical times stone was the first material used. He also revived the Three-age system of Lucretius, which described a succession of periods based on the use of stone (and wood), bronze and iron respectively" (Wikipedia article on Michele Mercati, accessed 1-2020).

Subjects: EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution, MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern
  • 12271

Relation d'un voyage du Levant fait par ordre du Roy: Contenant l'histoire ancienne et moderne de plusieurs isles de l'Archipel, de Constantinople, des côtes de la mer Noire, de l'Arménie, de la Géorgie, des frontières de Perse et de l'Asie mineure. Avec les plans des villes & des lieux considérables; La genie, les moeurs, le commerce & la religion des différens peuples qui les habitent; et l'explication des médailles & ses monuments antiques. Enrichie de descriptions & de figures d'un grand nombre de plantes rares, divers animaux; et de plusieurs observations touchant l'histoire naturelle.

Paris: De l'Imprimerie Royale, 1717.

Digital facsimile of the 1717 edition from BnF Gallica at this link. Translated into English, London, 1718 as:

A Voyage into the Levant: Perform'd by Command of the Late French King. Containing The Antient and Modern State of the Islands of the Archipelago; as also of Constantinople, the Coasts of the Black Sea, Armenia, Georgia, the Frontiers of Persia, and Asia Minor. With Plans of the principal Towns and Places of Note; an Account of the Genius, Manners, Trade, and Religion of the respective People inhabiting those Parts: And an Explanation of Variety of Medals and Antique Monuments. Illustrated with Full Descriptions and Curious Copper-Plates of great Numbers of Uncommon Plants, Animals, &c. And several Observations in Natural History . To which is Prefix'd, The Author's Life, in a Letter to M. Begon: As also his Elogium, pronounc'd by M. Fontenelle, before a publick Assembly of the Academy of Sciences. Adorn'd with an Accurate Map of the Author's Travels, not in the French Edition: Done by Mr. Senex.

Digital facsimile of the English translation from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 583

Fundamenta physiologiae.

Halle, 1718.

Hoffmann was the first to perceive pathology as an aspect of physiology. His Fundamenta is an outstanding treatise on physiology. English translation with introduction by Lester S. King, London, 1971.

  • 71

Jo. Mariae Lancisii archiatri pontificii. Opera quae hactenus prodierunt omnia; dissertationibus nonnullis adhuc dum ineditis locupletata, & ab ipso auctore, recognita atque emendata. Collegit, ac in ordinem digessit Petrus Assaltus. 2 vols.

Geneva: sumptibus fratrum de Tournes, 1718.

Lancisi's collected works edited by Pietro Assalti. Lancisi was the first to describe cardiac syphilis; he was also notable as an epidemiologist, with a clear insight into the theory of contagion. He was physician to Pope Clement XI, who turned over to him the forgotten copper plates executed by Eustachius in 1552. Lancisi published these with his own notes in 1714. (See No. 391.) Note that Lancisi’s posthumous De aneurysmatibus published in 1728 (No. 2973) appears only in later collected editions. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: CARDIOLOGY, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Cardiovascular Syphilis, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • 8575

Catalogus zahlreicher, nützlicher, und sonderbahrer von Natur- und Kunst gebildeter Seltenheiten, in Regno Animali, Vegetabili, und Minerali, welche ehemals mit grosser Mühe, langer Zeit und schweren Kosten gesammelt, und zusammen gebracht hat.

Berlin: G. Schlechtiger, 1718.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern
  • 9494

Send-Brieven, zoo aan de Hoog-edele Heeren van de Koninklyke Societeit te Londen, als aan andere Aansienelyke en Geleerde Lieden....

Delft: Adriaan Beman, 1718.

In his letter of 2 March 1717 (letter XXXII) addressed to Abraham van Bleyswyk and first published in this edition, Leewenhoek provided the first morphologic description of nerve fibers accompanied by illustrations. “One of the most interesting features relating to the letter of 2 March 1717 is the accompanying illustration (fig.2, fig 2) for it is probably the first attempt to represent the cross section of a peripheral nerve. Individual nerve fibers can be seen, and the central stroke contained in each is meant to indicate the collapsed central tube, which he assumed was present; or, as we should put it today, the axis cylinder surrounded by the myelin sheath. It seems likely therefore that Leeuwenhoek observed the myelinated nerve fiber although his interpretation was incorrect; and having discovered no cavities in the nerve itself, he found in the individual fibers the hollowness that the then current theory of nerve function demanded. The thin section of the nerves which he cut was probably the first ever” (Clarke and  O’Malley, The human brain and spinal cord. 2nd. Ed. [1996] 30-35, citing the Latin edition). The following year this edition was translated into Latin in 1719 and issued by the same publisher as Epistolae physiologicae super compluribus naturae arcanis; ubi variorum animalium atque plantarum fabrica, conformatio, proprietates atque operationes, novis & hactenus inobservatis experimentis illustrantur & oculis exhibentur; item peculiaries & hactenus incognitae rerum quarumdam qualitates explicatur: ut sequens pagina docet: hactenus numquam editae (Delft: Adriaan Beman, 1719.) Digital facsimile of the 1718 Dutch edition from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link. Digital facsimile of the 1719 Latin edition from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 1380.1

Cerebri examen chemicum, ex eodemqve phosphorum singularem omnia inflammabilia accendentem dissertatione academica.

Giessen: vid. J. R. Vulpii, 1719.

First account of the chemical composition of the brain. Hensing discovered the presence of phosphorus. Annotated English translation with biography and historical analysis, by D.B. Tower. New York, Raven Press, [1983].

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1215

Description de l’urèthre de l’homme.

Hist. Acad. roy. Sci. (Paris), (1700), Mém., 311-16, 1719.

“Littre’s glands” described.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, Genito-Urinary System
  • 3575

Observation sur une nouvelle espèce de hernie.

Hist. Acad. roy. Sci. (Paris), (1700), Mém., 300-10, 1719.

“Littre’s hernia” – so named from his description of diverticulum hernia. Later Richter (No. 3578) described this condition more fully.

Subjects: SURGERY: General › Hernia
  • 5576

Chirurgie in welcher Alles was zur Wund-Artzney gehöret, nach der neuesten und besten Art gründlich abgehandelt....

Nuremberg: J. Hoffmann, 1719.

Heister was the founder of scientific surgery in Germany. His book contains many interesting illustrations and includes an account of tourniquets used in his time; Heister introduced a spinal brace. This was the most popular surgical text of the 18th century; it underwent numerous editions and translations. First English translation, London, 1743. Digital facsimile of the 1724 edition from Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link.

Subjects: SURGERY: General , SURGERY: General › Notable Surgical Illustrations
  • 13450

Mariæ Sibillæ Merian Dissertatio de generatione et metamorphosibus insectorum Surinamensium: In quâ, præter vermes et erucas Surinamenses, earumque admirandam metamorphosin, plantæ, flores & fructus, quibus vescuntur, & quibus fuerunt inventæ, exhibentur. His adjunguntur bufones, lacerti, serpentes, araneæ, aliaque admiranda istius regionis animalcula

Amsterdam: Joannes Oosterwyk, 1719.

Originally as Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium. Amsterdam, 1705. The 1719 contains 12 additional plates and corresponding text, 10 provided by the author's daughters from material left at her death, and 2 supplied by Albert Seba; also, a frontispiece was added. There were also editions with text in Latin and French, Latin and Dutch, and Dutch alone. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Suriname, NATURAL HISTORY › Illustration, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1500 - 1799, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 13538

Caput Bonae Spei hodiernum, das ist: vollständige Beschreibung des africanischen Vorgebürges der Guten Hofnung. Worinnen in dreyen Theilen abgehandelt wird, wie es heut zu Tage, nach seiner Situation und Eigenschaft aussiehet; ingleichen was ein Natgur-Forscher in den dreyen Reichen der Natur....

Nuremberg: Peter Conrad Monath, 1719.

Includes the first study of the natural history of the Cape region of South Africa. Translated into English by "Mr. Medley" as The present state of the Cape of Good-Hope. 2 vols., London, 1738-31. Digital facsimile of the 1719 edition from the Internet Archive at this link. Digital facsimile of the English translation from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › South Africa, NATURAL HISTORY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists › History of Voyages & Travels by Physicians....