An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

14973 entries, 12870 authors and 1842 subjects. Updated: May 10, 2021

Browse by Publication Year 1850–1859

460 entries
  • 933

Ueber den Einfluss der Vagusdurchschneidung auf das Lungengewebe.

Physiol. Heilk, 9, 625-62, 1850.

See No. 931.



Subjects: RESPIRATION
  • 810

Einige neue Versuche über Herzbewegung.

Z. rat. Med., 9, 107-44, 1850.

Experimental ventricular fibrillation.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias
  • 997

Die Physiologie der Nahrungsmittel.

Darmstadt: C. W. Leske, 1850.


Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 4733

Recherches sur une maladie non encore décrite du système musculaire. (Atrophie musculaire progressive).

Arch. gén. Méd., 4 sér., 24, 4-35, 172-214, 1850.

“Aran–Duchenne disease” (see No. 4732)



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Myopathies
  • 771

Die Hämodynamik nach Versuchen.

Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1850.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Cardiovascular System
  • 1609

Report of a general plan for the promotion of public and personal health, devised, prepared, and recommended by the commissioners appointed under a resolve of the legislature of Massachusetts relating to a sanitary survey of the State.

Boston, MA: Dutton & Wentworth, Printers, 1850.

Compiled by a team, but entirely written by Shattuck, this report was the first general blueprint for the promotion of public health presented to an American governmental body. Its first proposal was for the creation of state and local boards of health in an era when such state commissions were non-existent. A Board of Health was not set up until 1869, however. Shattuck has been called “the Chadwick of America”. An abridged version of this famous Report appears in G. C. Whipple’s State Sanitation, Cambridge, [Mass.], 1917; a facsimile reproduction was published in 1948.



Subjects: PUBLIC HEALTH, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Massachusetts
  • 1610

Dictionnaire des altérations et falsifications des substances alimentaires, médicamenteuses et commerciales. 2 vols.

Paris: Béchet jeune, 1850.

Chevallier, a chemist, was a prolific writer. Above is probably his most important publication.



Subjects: PUBLIC HEALTH
  • 1222

Zur Anatomie der männlichen Geschlechtsorgane un Analdrüsen der Säugethiere.

Z. wiss. Zool., 2, 1-57, 1850.

Leydig was the first to describe the interstitial cells of the testis (“Leydig cells”).



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, Genito-Urinary System
  • 1265

Vorläufiger Bericht über die Fortpflanzungsgeschwindigkeit der Nervenreizung.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., [71]-73, 1850.

Helmholtz succeeded in measuring the velocity of the nervous impulse, by applying the knowledge and techniques of ballistics to the problem. In 1852, using a pendulum-myograph of his own invention, he measured the duration of an electric current through a galvanometer from the moment the nerve was stimulated to its interruption when the muscle contracted. A more detailed report “Messungen über den zeitlichen Verlauf der Zukkung animalischer Muskeln und die Fortpflanzungsgeschwindigkeit der Reizung in den Nerven”, appeared in the same journal volume, [276]-364, with its second part in the volume for 1852, 199-216.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology
  • 1266

Experiments on the section of the glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves of the frog, and observations of the alterations produced thereby in the structure of their primitive fibres.

Phil. Trans., 140, 423-29, 1850.

The “law of Wallerian degeneration”. The experiments recorded in the above paper were the starting-point of the neuron theory. Waller showed that if glosso-pharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves are severed, the outer segment, containing the axi cylinders cut off from the cells, undergoes degeneration, the central stump remaining intact for a long period. From this he inferred that nerve cells nourish nerve fibers.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1741

Gerichtliche Leichenöffnungen.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1850.

Casper was a great authority on forensic medicine. He also wrote on medical statistics. Above is an important compilation on judicial autopsies.



Subjects: Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine)
  • 161

The races of men.

London: H. Renshaw, 1850.

Knox, anatomist at Edinburgh, and notorious for his association with the resurrectionists, made important researches in the field of ethnology while serving as an army surgeon at the Cape of Good Hope.



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY
  • 1777
  • 5234.1

A systematic treatise, historical, etiological, and practical, on the principal diseases of the interior valley of North America as they appear in the Causcasian, African, Indian, and Esquimaux varieties of Its population. 2 vols.

Cincinnati, OH: W. B. Smith & Co & Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo & Co., 18501854.

This classical contribution to the social / medical history of North America includes the most important work on the natural history of malaria published up to that time. Digital facsimile of vol. 1 from the Internet Archive at this link. Vol. 2 was posthumously published as 2nd series, edited by S. Hanbury Smith & F. G. Smith, Philadelphia, 1854. Digital facsimile of vol. 2 from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Bioclimatology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.) › American Midwest, Geography of Disease / Health Geography, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria
  • 3817

Existence de l’iode dans les plantes d’eau douce. Conséquences de ce fait pour la géognosie, la physiologie végétale, la thérapeutique et peut-être pour l’industrie.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 30, 352-54., 1850.

Chatin was the first to show that iodine could prevent endemic goitre and cretinism.



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 3818

Two cases of absence of the thyroid body and symmetrical swellings of fat tissue at the sides of the neck, connected with defective cerebral development.

Med.-chir. Trans., 33, 303-06., 1850.

Curling, of the London Hospital, was the first accurately to note the clinical picture of cretinism, which Ord was later to name “myxedema”. Curling was also the first to suggest deficiency of the thyroid as a case of cretinism.



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 3933

Chiens rendus diabétiques.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), (1849), 1, 60., 1850.

By experimental puncture (piqûre) of the fourth ventricle of the brain, Claude Bernard produced temporary glycosuria.



Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 4040

Des principales formes du lupus et de son traitement.

Gaz. Hôp. (Paris) 3 sér., 2, 383, Paris, 1850.

Lupus erythematosus – “Cazenave’s disease”.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 4327

Case of mollities and fragilitas ossium.

Med.-chir. Trans., 33, 211-32, 1850.

Multiple myeloma first described.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Multiple Myeloma, ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton
  • 4326.1

Grosses Enchondrom (Gallertknorpel-Geschwulst) des Schulterblattes; Exstirpation des ganzen Schulterblattes mit Ausnahme des Processus coracoides am 6 Febr.; Tod am 7 Febr.

Dtsch. Klinik, 2, 73-76, 1850.

Complete excision of the scapula.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Shoulder
  • 4853

Abscess in the substance of the brain; the lateral ventricles opened by an operation.

Amer. J. med. Sci., n.s. 19, 86-95, 1850.

Lateral ventricles of the brain first opened for the treatment of cerebral abscess.



Subjects: NEUROSURGERY
  • 5163

Inoculation du sang de rate.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 2, 141-44, 1850.

Rayer inoculated sheep with blood of other sheep dead of anthrax. Microscopically he saw the anthrax bacillus in the blood of the inoculated sheep. Rayer was associated with Davaine, who later, in Bull. Acad. Méd., 1875, 2 sér., 4, 581-84, said that he had written the above account and had sent it to Rayer for publication.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Bacillus › Bacillus anthracis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Anthrax, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 5864

Opérations qui se pratiquent sur les yeux.

Paris, 1850.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures
  • 5665

On narcotism by the inhalation of vapours.

Lond. med. Gaz., n.s., 11, 749-54; n.s., 12, 622-27., 1850, 1851.

Snow attempted carbon dioxide absorption.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA
  • 6335

Die Krankheiten der Neugebomen und Säuglinge. 4 vols.

Vienna: C. Gerold, 18501853.

Bednaŕ was a famous Viennese pediatrician. His description of aphthae of the palate in the newborn (“Bednaŕ’s aphthae”) is in vol. 1, p. 104 of his book.



Subjects: PEDIATRICS, PEDIATRICS › Neonatology
  • 6351

Grundlage der Literatur der Pädiatrik.

Leipzig: Fest’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1850.

An extensive bibliography of pediatric literature, containing about 7,000 references.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, PEDIATRICS › History of Pediatrics
  • 6385

Storia della medicina. 3 vols. in 4.

Livorno: Massimiliano Wagner Editore & Prato, Italy: F. F. Giachetti [Vol. 3], 18501866.

Vol. 2 was in 2 parts. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: History of Medicine: General Works
  • 8808

The historical relations of ancient Hindu with Greek medicine in connection with the study of modern medical science in India: Being a general introductory lecture delivered June 1850, at the Calcutta Medical College.

Calcutta: J. C. Sherriff, Military Orphan Press, 1850.

Webb was surgeon in the Bengal Army, and later Professor of Anatomy at the Calcutta Medical College. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece › History of Ancient Medicine in Greece, ANCIENT MEDICINE › India › History of Ancient Medicine in India, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, INDIA, Practice of Medicine in
  • 9383

Traité théorique et pratique de la méthode anesthésique appliquée a la chirurgie et aux différentes branches de l'art de guérir.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1850.

Of particular interest for the introductory chapter 2 on pain produced in surgical operations and chapter 3 on the history of the understanding and attempts at treatment of pain, surgical and otherwise, before ether and chloroform. Chapter 19 concerns the legal aspects of anesthesia. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA, ANESTHESIA › History of Anesthesia, Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine)
  • 10295

An historical sketch of the state of medicine in the American Colonies, from their first settlement to the period of the Revolution.

Albany, NY: Charles van Benhuysen, Printer, 1850.

A pioneering historical interpretation of the development of medicine in the 13 colonies up to the American Revolution. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link. This is the second, significantly expanded edition of an address Beck delivered before the Medical Society of the State of New York in 1842. Digital facsimile of the 1842 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: American (U.S.) REVOLUTIONARY WAR MEDICINE › History of U.S. Revolutionary War Medicine, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.) › American Northeast
  • 10426

Diary of a physician in California; being the results of actual experience, including notes of the journey by land and water, and observations on the climate, soil, resources of the country, etc.

New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1850.

Tyson sailed from Baltimore for California in January 1849, crossing the Isthmus and sailing on to San Francisco. His book recounts his 1849 tour of the Northern Mines in search of a likely place for his medical practice, and his hospital at Cold Spring, where his patients included a number of Oregonians. Tyson closed his hospital at the end of the summer, sailing from San Francisco as a ship's physician, crossing the Isthmus and landing in the United States in December 1849. His diary pays special attention to miners' health and working conditions. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.) › American West, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & MEDICINE , U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › California, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 10517

Southern medical reports: Consisting of general and special reports, on the medical topography, meteorology, and prevalent diseases, in the following states: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Arkansas, Tennessee, Texas. Edited by E. D. Fenner. 2 vols.

New Orleans, LA: B. M. Norman & New York: Samuel S. & William Wood, 18501851.

Regarding Fenner see, John Duffy, "Erasmus Darwin Fenner (1807–1866) Journalist, Educator, and Sanitarian," Academic Medicine. 35 (1960) 819-831. Digital facsimile of the 1850-51 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: Biogeography, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.) › American South, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Alabama, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Georgia, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Louisiana, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Mississippi, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › South Carolina, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Tennessee, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Texas
  • 11306

Constitution, by-laws and fee bill of the San Francisco Medical Society: Organized June 22, 1850.

San Francisco, CA: Printed at the office of the California Daily Courier, 1850.

This 8-page pamphlet is one of the earliest separate publications relating to medicine printed in the State of California. The "Society" disbanded shortly after this was published, perhaps over disputes concerning the "fee bill" listed in the pamphlet. Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link. (Another copy is recorded at the Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.)



Subjects: Economics, Biomedical, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › California
  • 13001

Museum Heineanum: Verzeichniss der ornithologischen Sammlung des Oberamtmann Ferdinand Heine, auf Gut St. Burchard vor Halberstadt, mit kritischen Anmerkungen und Beschreibung der neuen Arten, systematisch bearbeitet von Jean Cabanis. 4 vols.

Halberstadt: In Commission bei R. Frantz, 18501863.

Heine collected the largest private collection of birds in the mid-19th century. His collection of 27,000 specimens and 15,000 books is preserved the Heineanum Halberstadt Museum in Halberstadt. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 13157

Descriptive and illustrated catalogue of the histological series contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Vol. I. Elementary tissues of vegetables and animals; Vol. II. Structure of the skeleton of vertebrate animals. 2 vols.

London: Taylor & Francis, 18501855.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological
  • 613

Physiologie des Stoffwechsels in Pflanzen und Thieren.

Erlangen: Ferdinand Enke, 1851.


Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY
  • 998

Neue Versuche über die Beihilfe der Nerven zur Speichelabsonderung.

Z. rat. Med., n.F. 1, 254-77, 1851.

The innervation of the salivary glands first elucidated.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology
  • 1559

Recherches sur l’organe de l’ouïe des mammifères.

Z. wiss. Zool., 3, 109-69, 1851.

Corti made important investigations on the finer anatomy of the mammalian cochlea. The “organ of Corti” in the cochlea is named after him.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1560

De auris internae formatione.

Livorno: H. Laakmann, 1851.

Description of the vestibular membrane (“Reissner’s membrane”).



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 4812

Synopsis of cerebral and spinal seizures of inorganic origin and of paroxysmal form as a class; and of their pathology as involved in the structures and actions of the neck.

London: J. Mallett, 1851.

Hall was the first to suggest that the paroxysmal nervous discharges in epilepsy were produced by the spinal nervous system, first to notice the connection of anemia with epilepsy, and first to deduce that epilepsy was produced by anemia of the medulla.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 1360

Researches into the structure of the spinal cord.

Phil. Trans., 141, 607-21, 1851.

Clarke made important researches on the spinal cord. He described the nucleus dorsalis. He introduced the method of mounting sections with Canada balsam.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1654.1

Histoire de la prostitution chez tous les peuples du monde depuis l'antiquité la plus reculée jusqu'a nos jours, par Paul Dufour. 6 vols.

Paris: Seré, 18511853.

Dufour was a pseudonym of the writer Paul Lacroix. Translated into English by Samuel Putnam as History of prostitution among all the peoples of the world, from the most remote antiquity to the present day, 3 vols., Chicago: Pascal Covici, 1926, Revised edition,  New York: Coivici, Friede,  2 vols, c.1931. Digital facsimile of the 6 vol. original edition from BnF Gallica at this link.



Subjects: PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health, SEXUALITY / Sexology › History of Sexuality / Sexology
  • 1267

Recherches sur la système nerveux.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris). 33, 370-74; 606-11, 1851.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1267.1

Ueber den Zustand der Sensibilität nach theilweiser Trennung des Rückenmarkes.

Z. k. k. Ges. Aerzte Wien, Abt. I, 7, 189-201, 1851.

Türck showed that degeneration in a nerve track corresponds to the direction in which it conducts nerve impulses – ascending tracks degenerate above the lesion and descending tracks below it.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1506

Zur Histologie der Netzhaut.

Z. wiss. Zool., 3, 234-37, 1851.

Discovery of visual purple.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 2614

Transplantation of malignant tumors.

Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad. 5, 212, 1851.

First experimental transplantation of tumors.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 2757

A practical treatise on the diseases of the lungs and heart, including the principles of physical diagnosis.

London: Taylor, Walton & Maberly, 1851.

Walshe, physician to University College Hospital, London, was one of the first to recognize the presystolic character of the direct mitral murmur in mitral stenosis.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Heart Valve Disease, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Auscultation and Physical Diagnosis, PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS, PULMONOLOGY › Lung Diseases
  • 4260

The anatomy and diseases of the prostate gland.

London: Longman, 1851.

Adams was the first to distinguish between hypertrophy and carcinoma of the prostate. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Carcinoma, UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4041

On a certain affection of the skin, vitiligoidea: α Plana, β tuberosa.

Guy’s Hosp. Rep. 2 ser., 7, 265-76, London, 1851.

In their classic account of xanthoma multiplex, Addison and Gull believed they were describing a new disease, but Rayer had been the first to mention it. (See No. 3989; see also the later paper by Gull, Guy’s Hosp. Rep., 1852, 2 ser., 8, 149.)



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 4169

Cystitis; lateral operation on the bladder, death; tuberculous kidney.

N Y. J. Med. n.s. 7, 83-86, 1851.

First cystotomy for inflammation and rupture of the bladder.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, UROLOGY
  • 4418

Dislocation of the femur on the dorsum ilii, reducible without pulleys, or any other mechanical power, three cases.

Buffalo med. J., 7, 129-43., Buffalo, NY, 18511852.

Reduction of dislocation without manipulation. Reid demonstrated the futility of attempting to reduce a dorsal dislocation of the hip by forcible longitudinal traction with pulleys.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations
  • 4209

Die Bright’sche Nierenkrankheit.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 1851.

Frerichs divided the progression of renal disease into three stages: initial hyperemia, fatty infiltration and exudation, and organization leading to fibrosis and atrophy. This is one of the earliest works on kidney disease to incorporate histological appearances. However, Frerichs did not recognize the primary involvement of the glomerulus in what later became known as glomerulonephritis. See No. 4212.



Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 5338.1

Beobachtungen über Trichina spiralis in Betriff der Uebertragung der Eingeweidewürmer.

Nachrichten Georg-August Univ. Königl. Wiss. Göttingen, 260-64; 183-204, Göttingen, 1851, 1852.

Herbst was the first to demonstrate that an animal eating trichinous flesh would thereby develop trichinae in its own muscles. English translation of part I in Kean (No. 2268.1).



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › DISEASES DUE TO METAZOAN PARASITES, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Food-Borne Diseases › Trichinosis
  • 5600

De l’influence de la position dans les maladies chirurgicales.

Paris: Germer Baillière, 1851.


Subjects: SURGERY: General
  • 5601

Klinische Chirurgie. 3 pts.

Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 18511854.

Pirogov is considered the greatest Russian surgeon and one of the greatest military surgeons of all time. He was among the first in Europe to employ ether anesthesia. He served in the Crimean campaign and was responsible for the introduction there of female nursing of the wounded. This edition in German predates the first edition in Russian.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Russia, NURSING, SURGERY: General
  • 5865

Die Krankheiten des Auges. 3 vols.

Prague: F. A. Credner & Kleinbub, 18511856.

Arlt described granular conjunctivitis (“Arlt’s trachoma”) and an operation for transplantation of the ciliary bulbs in the treatment of distichiasis.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye › Conjunctivitis › Trachoma, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures
  • 5866

Beschreibung eines Augen-Spiegels zur Untersuchung der Netzhaut im lebenden Auge.

Berlin: A. Förstner, 1851.

Invention of the ophthalmoscope, one of the greatest events in the history of ophthalmology. English translation by T. H. Shastid, Chicago, Cleveland Press, 1916.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Ophthalmoscope, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ophthalmoscopy
  • 6038

A table of all the known operations of ovariotomy. From 1701-1851.

Trans. Amer. med. Ass., 4, 286-314, 1851.

Atlee is said to have performed ovariotomy 387 times; with his brother John he firmly established the operation in the U.S.A.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY › History of Gynecology, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY › Oophorectomy
  • 6178

Leçons sur l’hématocèle rétro-utérine.

Gaz.Hôp. (Paris), 3sér., 3, 573, 578-79, 581; 3 sér., 4, 45-46, 66-67, 1851, 1852.

Classic description of pelvic hematocele.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS
  • 6259

Das enge Becken: nach eigenen Beobachtungen und Untersuchungen.

Leipzig: G. Wigand, 1851.

First important work dealing with pelvic deformities since the time of van Deventer. It is a pioneer work in the literature dealing with pelvic architecture; Michaelis was one of the first to differentiate between the non-rachitic flat pelvis and the rachitic pelvis. This book was completed and published by C.C.T. Litzmann (No. 6260) three years after Michaelis’s death.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Pelvis: Pelvic Anomalies
  • 31

Oeuvres d’Oribase, texte grec, en grande partie inédit…traduit pour la première fois en français; par les Drs. Bussemaker et Daremberg. 6 vols.

Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 18511876.

Oribasius was a compiler of existing knowledge rather than an original writer. His output was immense; he compiled the Synagoge, an encyclopedic digest of medicine, hygiene, therapeutics, and surgery from Hippocrates to his own times, in 70 volumes. The unwieldiness of the work was probably the reason why he also wrote a synopsis of it. Only 17 volumes survived. Vols. 5 & 6 were completed and issued by Auguste Molinier after the death of Bussemaker and Daremberg. Digital facsimiles of the set from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Late Antiquity, BYZANTINE MEDICINE, Medicine: General Works, PUBLIC HEALTH, SURGERY: General , THERAPEUTICS
  • 114

Grundzüge der Anatomie und Physiologie der vegetabilischen Zelle. In: Rudolph Wagner’s Handwörterbuch der Physiologie.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 1851.

Von Mohl saw and described cell division. English translation, London, 1852.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology
  • 4530

De la transmission croisée des impressions sensitives par la moëlle épinière.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), (1850), 2, 33-34., Paris, 1851.

“Brown-Séquard’s paralysis”. Lesion of one lateral half of the spinal cord causes paralysis of motion on one side and of sensation on the other. See also the writer’s later paper on pp. 70-73 of the same volume.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 6965

Traité pratique des maladies cancéreuses et des affections curables confondues avec le cancer.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1851.

Lebert studied cancer cells under high magnification to discover the specific elements distinguishing them from normal cells. He classified tumors as either homeomorphous (composed of elements analogous to those of the normal organism) or heteromorphous (composed of elements having no analogy in the body). Lebert’s treatise “described the characteristics of malignant cells, their variation of sizes, and noted the commonly increased size of the nucleus compared to the cytoplasm (later known as the ‘karyoplasmic ratio’). This is the first description of altered karyoplasmic ratios in cancer cells. Alteration of karyoplasmic ratios is a morphometric criterion still used today in diagnostics” (De las Heras and Schirmer, “The nuclear envelope and cancer: A diagnostic perspective and historical overview,” Cancer Biology and the Nuclear Envelope [2014], p. 8, pp. 5-26). “Lebert characterized the cancer cell itself as follows: ‘The pattern of the cancerous cell is that of a small regular sphere with an elliptical nucleus, placed eccentrically, occupying almost half or even more of the inside and enclosing one or several big nucleoli’” (Wolff, Cancerous Disease [1907] 109). Assuming that only tumors containing this type of cell could be considered cancers, Lebert excluded several types of tumors that had previously been classed as cancerous, calling these tumors “pseudocancer” and “cancroid.”



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 7872

Vergleichende Untersuchungen der Keimung, Entfaltung und Fruchtbildung höherer Kryptogamen (Moose, Farrn, Equisetaceen, Rhizocarpeen und Lycopodiaceen) und der Samenbildung der Coniferen.

Leipzig: Friedrich Hofmeister, 1851.

Hofmeister described the process of fertilization in non-flowering plants as an alternation of sexual and asexual generations in the mosses, ferns, horsetails and liverworts. He showed that asexual generation propagated by means of spores, altemating with one in which spermatozoids unite with ova. Hofmeister's researches led him to the revolutionary conclusion that all green land plants undergo a regular alternation of dissimilar generations in their complete life histories. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Hofmeister revised and expanded his work, and in its expanded form it was translated into English by Frederick Currey as On the germination, development, and fructification of the higher cryptogamia, and on the fructification of the coniferae (London: Ray Society, 1862). Digital facsimile of the 1862 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY, BOTANY › Gymnosperms
  • 8942

Die metallurgischen Krankheiten des Oberharzes.

Osterode, Germany: A. Sorge, 1851.

Brockmann's book on the pulmonary disease of miners, including black lung disease, was first book on occupational health published in Germany. Brockmann published a preliminary paper on the subject in 1845.
Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Germany, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & MEDICINE › Miners' Diseases, PULMONOLOGY
  • 9068

Catalogus plantarum horti botanici medicocirurgicae Scholae Olisponensis anno MDCCCLII.

Lisbon: Typografi Nacional, 1851.

Lists 1,863 plants in the botanical garden at the Escola Medico-Cirurgica of Lisbon, arranged by genus and species according to Decandolle’s classification. The authors note in which part of Europe, India, the Americas, Asia or Africa the plants were originally found and whether they are annual, perennial, tree, vine, etc. 



Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Portugal, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines
  • 9166

The scale of medicines with which merchant vessels are to be furnished ... with observations on the means of preserving the health and increasing the comforts of merchant seamen.

London: Orr, 1851.

Digital facsimile of the second edition (1861) from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Maritime Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS
  • 9515

Früchte aus dem Morgenlande oder Reise-Erlebnisse. Nebst naturhistorisch-medicinischen Erfahrungen, einigen hundert erprobten Arzneimitteln und einer neuen Heilart dem Medial-Systeme. Mit vierzig lithographirten Tafeln: Porträte, Pflanzenabbildungen, sonstige Natur- und Kunstprodukte, Facsimile, Landkarte und Ansicht der Citadelle von Lahor; endlich als Anhang ein medizinisches Wörterbuch in mehreren europäischen und orientalischen Sprachen.

Vienna: Carl Gerold und Sohn, 1851.

Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link. Translated into English (1852) as Thirty-five years in the East. Adventures, discoveries, experiments, and historical sketches, relating to the Punjab and Cashmere; in connection with medicine, botany, pharmacy, etc. Together with an original materia medica; and a medical vocabulary, in four European and five eastern languages. Digital facsimile of the English translation from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Pakistan, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 9577

Études historiques et critiques sur les médecins numismatistes: Contenant leur biographie et l'analyse de leurs écrits.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1851.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: Numismatics, Medical
  • 10102

History of medical education and institutions in the United States: From the first settlement of the British colonies to the year 1850; with a chapter on the present condition and wants of the profession, and the means necessary for supplying those wants, and elevating the character and extending the usefulness of the whole profession.

Chicago, IL: S. C. Griggs & Co., 1851.

Davis instrumental in the establishment of the American Medical Association and was twice elected its president. He became the first editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association. He was a founder of the Chicago Medical College and also a founder of Northwestern University. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.) › American Midwest, Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession › History of Biomedical Education & Medical Profession
  • 10416

Ladies' indispensable assistant: Being a companion for the sister, mother, and wife ... Here are the very best directions for the behavior and etiquette of ladies and gentlemen ... ; also, safe directions for the management of children ... a great variety of valuable recipes, forming a complete system of family medicine ... : to which is added one of the best systems of cookery ever published ....

New York: Printed at 125 Nassau-Street, 1851.

In spite of the verbose title, the Table of Contents of this work indicates that roughly the first half of the book concerns home remedies for the widest range of complaints and illnesses, and medical properties of plants. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), Household or Self-Help Medicine, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1800 - 1899
  • 10748

Entwicklungsgeschichte der Seele der Kindes.

Vienna: Carl Haas, 1851.

Digital facsimile from Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link.



Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY › Child
  • 11622

Notices of ancient Roman medicine-stamps, &c., found in Great Britain.

Mon. J. Med. Sci., 13, 39-50; 15, 235-255, 1851.

Digital facsimile of the first part from PubMedCentral at this link, and of the second part at this link. Concluded with Simpson's "General observations on the Roman medicine-stamps found in Great Britain," Mon. J. Med. Sci., 16 (1851) 338-354 of which a digital facsimile is available from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Roman Empire › History of Medicine in the Roman Empire
  • 11754

A practical treatise on the treatment of the diseases of the elephant, camel, and horned cattle, with instructions for preserving their efficiency.

Calcutta: W. Palmer, 1851.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 12086

Observations on the medical topography and diseases (especially diarrhoea) of the Sacramento Valley, California, during the Years 1849, 1850.

New York J. Med., 7, 289-307, 1851.

Stillman was personal physician to Leland Stanford, the first governor of California, and was a partner of railroad magnate Mark Hopkins from their days on board a ship to California in 1849. Stillman was also co-founder of the first hospital in California, in Sacramento, 1849. 

Stillman began his paper as follows:

"The emigration which took place from the United States to California, in the year subsequent to the discovery of gold in that country, will be remembered as one of the most remarkable events of this century. If we consider the character and number of the emigrants, the distance traversed, the hardships and privations endured, and the magnificent results attained, the event has no parallel in history.

"The number who arrived in California during the six months from the first July, 1849, to 1st of January 1850, was over 90,000; of these nearly 30,0000 performed a voyage by sea of 17,000 miles, more than 60,000 crossed a wilderness of greater extent than the entire distance from the mouth of the Tagus to the eastern confines of Russia, over arid plains and rugged mountains. Of this number, it was roughly estimated that one-fifth had found graves within the first six months after their arrival. An investigation of the circumstances that conspired to such a result constitutes a subject of extreme interest and importance.

"There has been no effort made by medical men conversant with the facts to give them to the public, that I am aware of; and as the most confused and conflicting views were entertained with regard to the nature and origin of the diseases that caused such remarkable fatality, I have been induced to give the results of my own observation, made during the summer of 1849, in the Sacramento Valley...."

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Biogeography, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Dysentery, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › California
  • 12285

Methode für den Unterricht der Taub-Stummen in der Laut-Sprache im Rechnen und in der Religion. Verfasst von …. Gezeichnet von Ant. Jarisch.

Regensburg: Verlag von G. Joseph Manz, 1851.

An illustrated manual of sign language for the deaf and dumb specifically for education in mathematics and religion.
The book has a particularly distinctive title page. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Deaf-Mute Education
  • 12424

The Mesmeric mania of 1851, with a physiological explanation of the phenomena produced. A lecture.

Edinburgh: Sutherland & Knox, 1851.

Bennett provided a scientific explanation for then current mass hysteria or group hypnosis in Edinburgh. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Mesmerism, Hypnosis
  • 12872

Die Zahnheilkunde nach ihrem neuesten Standpunkte. Ein Lehrbuch fur Zahnarzte und Aerzte.

Erlangen: J. J. Palm und Ernst Enke, 1851.

Pages 343-480 concern the history and literature of dentistry from ancient Egypt to the time of publication.  This was Joseph Linderer's final book form publication.  Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: DENTISTRY, DENTISTRY › History of Dentistry
  • 49

Collectio Salernitana: Ossia documenti inediti, e trattati di medicina appartenenti alla scuola medica Salernitana, raccolti ed illustrati da G.E.T Henschel, C. Daremberg, E.S. deRenzi; premessa la storia della scuola e publicati a cura di Salvatore de Renzi. 5 vols.

Naples: Filiatre-Sebezio, 18521859.

The School of Medicine at Salerno dispelled the stagnation of medicine which had persisted throughout the early Middle Ages. Its masters were the first medieval physicians to cultivate medicine as an independent science. Many of the documents compiled at the School are included in the above work, having been found in the Breslau Codex Salernitanus of the mid 12th century, discovered in 1837. The Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum was among the earlier medical works printed, its first edition appearing in Cologne, about 1480. It underwent at least 25 editions in the 15th century. The School at Salerno was eclipsed by the rise of Montpellier and Bologna to the front rank; it was suppressed by Napoleon in 1811. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Italy, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Italy › Schola Medica Salernitana, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Islamic or Arab Medicine
  • 4461

Resection of the head of the femur.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 24, 90, 1852.

First excision of the hip-joint in America. Unfortunately the one-page article provides no details.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Amputations: Excisions: Resections
  • 546

Handbuch der Gewebelehre des Menschen.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1852.

Isolation of smooth muscle.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology)
  • 811

Ueber functionell verschiedene und räumlich getrennte Nervencentra im Froschherzen.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 163-177, 1852.

Discovery of the ganglion cells at the auriculo-ventricular junction, “Bidder’s ganglion”.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › Comparative Neuroanatomy, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Anatomy of the Heart & Circulatory System
  • 812

Zwei Reihen physiologischer Versuche.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 85-100, 1852.

Stannius initiated research on the physiology of the conduction system of the heart. He illustrated vagal inhibition of the heart beat and indicated the existence of the pacemaker of the heart. Stannius also showed that the apex of the heart ceases to beat rhythmically when separated physiologically by ligature or clamp from the rest of the heart, while the sinus remains unaffected. Partial translation in J. F. Fulton’s Selected readings in the history of physiology, 2nd. ed., 1966, pp. 59-60.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Cardiac Electrophysiology
  • 999

Die Verdauungssäfte und der Stoffwechsel.

Jelgava, Latvia & Leipzig: G. A. Reyher, 1852.

Even after the work of Prout and Beaumont, some physiologists thought that the free acid of the gastric juice was lactic acid; Bidder and Schmidt finally proved that normally the gastric juice always contains HCl in excess.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 866

Ueber das Milzvenenblut.

Z. rat. Med., 1851, n.F. 1, 172-218; 2, 198-217, 1852.

Discovery of hemoglobin. (Title of second paper: Neue Beobachtungen tiber die Krystalle des Milzvenen – und Fisch-Blutes).



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY
  • 867

Neue Methode der quantitativen mikroskopischen Analyse des Blutes.

Arch. physiol Heilk., 11, 26-46, 1852.

Vierordt was the first to devise an exact method of enumerating the red blood corpuscles. See also his later paper: Zählungen der Blutkörperchen des Menschen, in the same volume, pp. 326-31.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY
  • 415

A manual of artistic anatomy.

London: H. Renshaw, 1852.

Knox, remembered because of his indiscreet association with the Edinburgh “resurrectionists”, was one of the best teachers of anatomy during the 19th century.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomy for Artists, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 416

Anatome topographica sectionibus per corpus humanum congelatum triplici directione ductis illustrata. 8 pts.

St. Petersburg, Russia: J. Trey, 18521859.

Pirogov was the greatest of Russian surgeons. He introduced the teaching of applied topographical anatomy in Russia. His atlas of 220 plates represents the first use on a grand scale of frozen sections in anatomical illustration, an idea first carried out by de Riemer (No. 408).



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › Cross-Sectional, ANATOMY › Topographical Anatomy, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Russia
  • 440

Geschichte und Bibliographie der anatomischen Abbildung.

Leipzig: R. Weigel, 1852.

In this classic work Choulant traced the evolution of anatomical illustration from the early schematic plates up to his own time, including a valuable bibliography. Reprinted, Wiesbaden, 1974. An English translation by Mortimer Frank appeared in 1920 (Chicago, University Press), enriched by a chapter on anatomical illustration since Choulant, written by F. H. Garrison. A reprint of the translation appeared in 1945 with additional essays by Garrison et al, plus a new historical essay by Charles Singer. This was reprinted in 1962.  In 1843 Choulant issued a preliminary study of anatomical illustration: Die anatomischen Abbildungen des XV. und XVI. Jahrhunderts. Historisch und bibliographisch Erlaeutert (Leipzig: Leopold Voss, 1843).



Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › History of Anatomical Illustration, ART & Medicine & Biology, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Anatomy
  • 1126.1

On the anatomy of the Indian rhinoceros (Rh. unicornis L.).

Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 4, 31-58, 1852.

Owen was the first to describe the parathyroids, which he observed in his dissection of a Great Indian Rhinoceros that had lived at the Zoological Society of London from 1834 to 1849.  See B. Modarai, A. Sawyer, & H. Ellis, "The Glands of Owen," Journal Royal Society of Medicine 97 (2004) 494-495.

(This annotation was revised in April 2015).



Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids
  • 4734

Sur la paralysie musculaire, progressive, atrophique.

Bull. Acad. Méd. (Paris), 18, 490-502, 546-83, Paris, 18521853.

“Cruveilhier’s palsy”, the progressive muscular atrophy already described by Duchenne and Aran. The slimness of the anterior roots was first noticed by Cruveilhier and was thought to be the essential lesion until Luys (No. 4737) reported degeneration of the anterior horn cells.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Myopathies
  • 4734.1

On granular and fatty degeneration of the voluntary muscles.

Med.-chir. Trans., 35, 73-84, 1852.

“Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy” (No. 4739) described.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Myopathies
  • 1320

Influence du grand sympathique sur la sensibilité et sur la calorification.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), (1851), 3, 163-64, 1852.

Bernard discovered the existence of vasomotor nerves.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1322

Experimental researches applied to physiology and pathology.

Med. Exam. (Phila.), 8, 481-504, 1852.

By applying a galvanic current to the superior part of the divided sympathetic nerve and causing vascular contraction and a fall in temperature, Brown-Séquard inferred that section of the sympathetic paralysed and dilated the blood-vessels (pp. 489-90). See also Nos. 1325-26.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1323

Experimenteller Beweis, dass der Nervus sympathicus aus dem Rückenmark entspringt.

Med. Ztg. 21, 161, 1852.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 4829

De la contracture des extrémités ou tétanie. Thèse pour le doctorat en médecine. No. 223

Paris: Rignoux, 1852.

In his graduation thesis, Lucien Corvisart, nephew of the more famous Baron Corvisart (No. 2737), introduced the term “tétanie”. Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Tetany
  • 115

Der Kreislauf des Lebens.

Mainz: V. von Zabern, 1852.

This work attacked Liebig’s theories, although courteously. Moleschott, a Dutch physiologist, evolved a purely materialistic conception of the world. He considered life a magnificent metabolic process, and thought a product of the activities of the brain.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Metabolism, BIOLOGY
  • 116

Ueber extracelluläre Entstehung thierischer Zellen und über die Vermehrung derselben durch Theilung.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 47-57., 1852.

Remak was the first to point out that growth of new tissues was accomplished by the division of pre-existing cells.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, BIOLOGY › Developmental Biology, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 1460

Ueber das Vorhandensein bisher unbekannter eigenghümlicher Tastkörperchen (Corpuscula tactus) in den Gefühlswärzchen dermenschlichen Haut, und über die End-Ausbreitung sensitiver Nerven.

Nachr. Georg-Augusts Univ. kgl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, 17-32., 1852.

First published account of the tactile nerve endings – “Wagner’s corpuscles”.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Physiology of the Skin
  • 1861.1

New formation of salicylic acid.

J. chem. Soc. 5, 133-35, 1852.

Synthesis of salicylic acid.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Willow Tree Bark (Salycilic Acid; Aspirin)
  • 1507

Ueber den Einfluss des Nervensystems auf die Bewegung der Iris.

Arch. physiol. Heilk., 11, 773-826, 1852.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1508

Ueber die Theorie der zusammengesetzten Farben.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 461-82; Ann. Phys. Chem., 87, 45-66, 1852.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 2615

Das Epithelioma.

Leipzig: L. Voss, 1852.

Hannover coined the word “epithelioma.” He did not recognize its malignant character but maintained that metastases were produced by cancer cells arriving by way of the blood stream.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 3262

The surgical treatment of polypi of the larynx and oedema of the glottis.

New York: G. P. Putnam, 1852.

Green was one of the few to remove a laryngeal tumor before the invention of the laryngoscope.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Laryngology, SURGERY: General › Surgical Oncology
  • 3168.1

On pleuritic effusions, and the necessity of paracentesis for their removal.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 23, 320-50., 1852.

Bowditch pioneered the operation for removal of pleural effusions with trocar and a suction pump devised by Morrill Wyman (1812-1903). See Bowditch’s earlier paper on the subject in the same journal volume, pp. 103-05.



Subjects: RESPIRATION › Respiratory Diseases
  • 2758

On some of the principal effects resulting from the detachment of fibrinous deposits from the interior of the heart, and their mixture with the circulating blood.

Med.-chir. Trans. 35, 281-324, 1852.

A classic description of embolism resulting from intracardiac coagula. Reprinted in Willius & Keys: Cardiac classics, 1941, pp. 474-82.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Thrombosis / Embolism
  • 2904

Ueber einige der wichtigsen Krankheiten der Arterien.

Denkschr. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 4, 1-72, 1852.

One of Rokitansky’s best works. He described atheroma and calcification in the intima of arteries, and various congenital malformations.  Rokitansky "is credited with the initial case report of polyarteritis nodosa in 1852. He described the presence of aneurysmal lesions with nodes in multiple arteries observed at autopsy. . . . Rokitansky provides a compelling gross pathological description [see plate VI]. . ." (Matteson, Inflammatory Diseases of Blood Vessels, p. 211).



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arterial Disease, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Vascular Malformations, PATHOLOGY
  • 4328

Nieuwe wijze van aanwending van het gips-verband bij beenbreuken. Eene bijdrage tot de militaire chirurgie.

Haarlem: van Loghem, 1852.

Introduction of the modern plaster of Paris bandage. Two different French translations of the above work were published in journals in 1852-53. In 1854 Mathijsen published two separate expanded French versions, of which that published in Liège was illustrated. The original edition plus the Liège version were reprinted with an introduction and bibliography, by G.J. Bremer, Nieuwkoop, 1962. English translation in Bick, Classics of orthopaedics, 66-71.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Devices
  • 4169.1

Ectropia vesicae (absence of the anterior walls of the bladder and pubic abdominal parietes); operation for directing the orifices of the ureters into the rectum; temporary success; subsequent death; autopsy.

Lancet, 2, 568-70, 1852.

First uretero-intestinal anastomosis.



Subjects: UROLOGY
  • 4931

Du délire des persécutions.

Arch. gén. Méd., 4 sér., 28, 129-50, 1852.

“Lasègue’s disease” – persecution mania.



Subjects: PSYCHIATRY
  • 4970

Medicinische Psychologie, oder Physiologie der Seele.

Leipzig: Weidmann, 1852.

Lotze was a pioneer in the investigation of unconscious and subconscious states.



Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY
  • 5489

Annals of influenza or epidemic catarrhal fever in Great Britain from 1510-1837.

London: Sydenham Society, 1852.


Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › History of Epidemiology, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Influenza
  • 5866.1

Der Augenspiegel und des Optometer für practische Aerzte.

Göttingen: Dieterich, 1852.

Ruete introduced a practical lens system for examining the inverted image, and improved the illumination, producing the first practical ophthalmoscope.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Ophthalmoscope, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ophthalmoscopy
  • 5867

Observations on artificial pupil, with a description of a new method of operating in certain cases.

Med. Times Gaz., n.s., 4, 11-14, 33-35., 1852.

Bowman devised an operation for the formation of an artificial pupil.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures
  • 5868

Iconographie ophtalmologique. 1 vol. and atlas.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 18521859.

This work and that of Ammon (No. 5852) remain the greatest preophthalmoscopic atlases of ophthalmology.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye
  • 6037

On the treatment of vesico-vaginal fistula.

Amer. J. med. Sci., n.s., 23, 59-82, 1852.

Original description of Sims’s operation for the treatment of vesicovaginal fistula; also describes “Sims’s position, the knee–chest position. Reprinted in Med. Classics, 1938, 2, 677-712.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY › Vesicovaginal Fistula
  • 6179

Considérations sur l’avortement provoqué dans les cas de vomissements.

Bull. Acad. Méd. (Paris), 17, 557-83, 1852.

Classic description of hyperemesis gravidarum.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS
  • 6180

Rigidity of the soft parts – delivery effected by incision in the perineum.

Stethoscope & Virginia med. Gaz., 2, 382., 1852.

First episiotomy in America, 2 December 1851.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS
  • 5203

Traité des affections de la peau symptomatiques de la syphilis.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1852.

Bassereau defined chancroid clearly for the first time.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 5339

Ein Beitrag zur Helminthographia humana aus brieflichen Mittheilungen des Dr. Bilharz in Cairo, nebst Bemerkungen von C. T. v. Siebold.

Z. wiss. Zool., 4, 53-76, 1852.

Discovery, in 1851, of Schistosoma haematobium, the parasite of bilharziasis. Bilharz was Professor of Zoology at Cairo. English translation in Rev. infect. Dis., 1984, 4, 727-32, and in Kean (No. 2268.1).



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Egypt, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › DISEASES DUE TO METAZOAN PARASITES, PARASITOLOGY › Helminths
  • 7168

Commentarii et annotationes in Suśruta Āyurvedam. 2 vols.

Erlangen: Ferdinand Enke, 18521855.

Hessler, editor and translator of the first edition of Suśruta published in the West (3 vols., 1844-50) followed that edition with two separate volumes of commentary.



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › India, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY, SURGERY: General
  • 7451

Narrative of the voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, commanded by the late Captain Owen Stanley ...during the years 1846-1850, including discoveries and surveys in New Guinea, the Louisiade Archipelago, etc. to which is added the account of Mr. E. B. Kennedy's Expedition for the exploration of the Cape York Peninsula. 2 vols.

London: T. & W. Boone, 1852.

Macgillivray was naturalist to the expedition. Thomas Huxley served as assistant surgeon on this voyage; Huxley's diary of the voyage was first published posthumously in 1935. See No. 7449. Digital facsimile of MacGillivray's work from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: Biogeography, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 1610.1
  • 8491

Procès-verbaux de la Conférence Sanitaire Internationale ouverte a Paris le 27 juillet 1851. 2 vols.

Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1852.

Reports of the first international public health conference, in which the representatives of 12 European states conferred from July 27, 1851 to January 19, 1852. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: Global Health, PUBLIC HEALTH
  • 10129

The flora homoeopathica: Or, illustrations and descriptions of the medicinal plants used as homoeopathic remedies. 2 vols.

London: Leath & Ross & Leamington: Leath & Woolcott, 18521853.

Hamilton detailed the symptoms of poisoning, records of successful use of the plant, and a description of its homeopathic uses. Finely illustrated with hand-colored plates, mostly by Henry Sowerby and his sister Charlotte. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Homeopathy, BOTANY › Medical Botany, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines
  • 10471

Die regeneration des unterkiefers nach totaler necrose durch phosphordampfe.

Erlangen: Ferdinand Enke, 1852.

Geist and von Bibra proved that the phosphorus necrosis of the lower jaw of matchmakers was caused by phosphorus fumes and that carious teeth ormed the starting point for this typical industrial disease. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & MEDICINE
  • 10700

Le Nâċérî. La perfection des deux arts ou traité complet d'hippologie et d'hippiatrie arabes. Traduit de l'arabe d'Abū Bakr Ibn Bedr par M. [Nicolas] Perron. 3 vols.

Paris: Bouchard-Huzard, 18521860.

The author was Chief Veterinarian of the Sultan Mamluk of Egypt Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qalāwūn. (reigned three times between 1293 and 1341). His work focuses on the treatment of horses and falcons. It is divided into ten “essays,” each of which is divided further into “chapters” discussing many equestrian-related subjects, such as the health of horses, breeding, and sports. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Islamic or Arab Medicine, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 11950

The laws of life, with special reference to the physical education of girls.

New York: George P. Putnam, 1852.

Blackwell's first book, a volume about the physical and mental development of girls, emphasizing the value of exercise, intended to help prepare young women for motherhood. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1800 - 1899
  • 12047

A curious dance round a curious tree.

Household Words, 4, 385-389, 1852.

Dickens' account of his visit on the day after Christmas, 1851 to the wards at St. Luke's Hospital for Lunatics, founded in 1751 to provide free care to the impoverished and incurable mentally ill.

"The inhabitants of St. Luke’s largely sit in solitude. Dickens decries the absence of "domestic articles to occupy . . . the mind" in one gallery holding several silent, melancholy women, and praises the comfortable furnishings--and the relative "earnestness and diligence" of the inmates--in another. He uses statistics to show the prevalence of female patients, "the general efficacy of the treatment" at St. Luke’s, and the unhealthy weight gain of the inhabitants due to inactivity. Dickens describes the behavior of various distinctive inhabitants during the usual fortnightly dance, the viewing of a Christmas tree, and the distribution of presents" (http://medhum.med.nyu.edu/view/12156).

Digital edition from Dickens Journals Online at this link.

This brief work was reprinted by St. Luke's Hospital and published as a separate pamphlet, London, 1860, as a means of solicting donations.



Subjects: HOSPITALS, LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology, PSYCHIATRY
  • 4462

Amputations.

Trans. Kentucky med. Soc., 2, 264-68, 1853.

The first successful amputation of the hip-joint was performed by Brashear in 1806 at Bardstown, Kentucky; he first amputated the thigh through its middle third, and tied off the bleeding vessels; then he made a long incision on the outside of the limb, exposing the remainder of the bone, which was disarticulated at its socket. This article is part of a study on surgery in Kentucky authored by Samuel D. Gross, who wrote that Brashear was “alternately or successively, doctor, merchant, legislator, lawyer, and naturalist. For some years he served his adopted State in the Senate of the United States”. See No. 4451.1.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Amputations: Excisions: Resections, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Hip
  • 4463

Exsection of the clavicle.

Trans. Kentucky med. Soc. (1852), 2, 276-77, 1853.

J. H. Johnson (New Orleans med. surg. J., 1850, 6, 474-76) stated that McCreary performed the first resection of the clavicle in the United States on 4 May, 1811. Valentine Mott reported the operation in 1828. See No. 4452.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Amputations: Excisions: Resections
  • 684

Atlas der physiologischen Chemie.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1853.


Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 685

Ueber einige Harnstoffverbindungen und eine neue Methode zur Bestimmung von Kochsalz und Harnstoff im Ham.

Ann. Pharm. (Heidelberg), 85, 289-328., 1853.

Liebig’s method of estimating urea.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY
  • 4329
  • 4735

On the nature and treatment of the deformities of the human frame.

London: Longman, 1853.

Little was the first eminent orthopedic surgeon in the British Isles. He studied under Stromeyer and, in 1838, he founded the Orthopaedic Institution, now the (Royal) National Orthopaedic Hospital, London. The above work is an elaboration of lectures delivered in 1843.

Early description of progressive muscular dystrophy (p. 14).



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Degenerative Disorders, NEUROLOGY › Myopathies, ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton
  • 1321

Expérience sur les fonctions de la portion céphalique du grand sympathique.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), (1852), 4, 155, 1853.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1398

Des granulations méningiennes. Thèse pour le doctorat en médecine.

Paris: Rignoux, 1853.

Digital facsimile from wellcomecollection.org at this link. See also his paper in Ann. Sci. nat., 1853, 20, 321-33 (Zool.).



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 2450

Ueber Cestoden im allgemeinen und die des Menschen insbesondere, hauptsächlich mit Berücksichtigung ihrer Entwickelungsgeschichte, geographischen Verbreitung, Prophylaxe und Abtreibung; für Freunde der Naturwissenschaften, Aerzte, Medicinalpolizei-Beamte, Staats- und Privat-Oekonomen.

Zittau, Germany: Wilh. Pahl, 1853.

Kuchenmeister conducted research on tapeworms, trichinosis, and other parasites and wrote about it several works. In 1852, his theory that bladder-worms are juvenile tapeworms gained the attention of the medical profession. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Food-Borne Diseases › Trichinosis, PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Parasitic Worms, PARASITOLOGY › Trichinella, ZOOLOGY › Helminthology
  • 3263

On the surgical treatment of morbid growths within the larynx, illustrated by an original case and statistical observations, elucidating their nature and forms.

Trans. Amer. med. Ass., 6, 509-35, 1853.

Thyrotomy for removal of cancer of the larynx. The operation took place in May 1851, and the patient died in 1852.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Laryngology, SURGERY: General › Surgical Oncology
  • 3590

Considérations sur l’étranglement de l’intestin dans la cavité abdominale et sur un mode d’étranglement non décrit par les auteurs. Thèse pour le doctorat en médecine.... No. 128.

Paris: Rignoux, 1853.

Retrocaecal hernia (“Rieux’s hernia”) first described. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: SURGERY: General › Hernia
  • 3369

Practical observations on aural surgery and the nature and treatment of diseases of the ear.

London: John Churchill, 1853.

This work did more to place British otology on a scientific basis than anything previously published. In his own words, Wilde “laboured to rescue the treatment of ear diseases from empiricism and found it upon the well-established laws of modern pathology, practical surgery, and reasonable therapeutics”. He showed the middle ear to be the site of origin of most of the diseases of the ear. He is remembered for his method of treating acute mastoiditis, using “Wilde’s incision”. The book was bitterly attacked by Kramer – see especially Lancet, 1853, 2, 446 – and also by Thomas Wakley, editor of that journal. Wilde was the father of Oscar Wilde.



Subjects: OTOLOGY , OTOLOGY › Otologic Surgery & Procedures
  • 4932

Mémoire sur la folie circulaire.

Bull. Acad. imp. Méd. (Paris), 19, 382-400, 18531854.

Circular (manic-depressive) insanity first described.



Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Bipolar Disorder
  • 5602

The science and art of surgery.

London: Walton & Maberly, 1853.

The most popular textbook on the subject for many years. Erichsen was surgeon to University College Hospital, London, and Lister served as his house surgeon.



Subjects: SURGERY: General
  • 5603

Sur un nouveau moyen d’opérer la coagulation du sang dans les artères, applicable à la guérison des anéurismes.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 36, 88-90, 1853.

Pravaz invented galvanocautery.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Coagulation , INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments, SURGERY: General , VASCULAR SURGERY
  • 5869

Die Ophthalmologie vom naturwissenschaftlichen Standpunkte aus bearbeitet. 2 vols. [in 3].

Freiburg: Herder & Erlangen: Ferdinand Enke, 18531858.

English translation, 1868.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY
  • 5869.1

Dissertatio ophthalmologica inauguralis de speculo oculi.

Utrecht: P. W. van de Weijer, 1853.

Trigt's thesis contains the first printed illustrations of the fundus of the eye. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link. The following year Trigt's thesis was translated into German by C. H. Schauenberg as Der Augenspiegel : seine Anwendung und Modificationen : nebst Beiträgen zur Diagnostik innerer Augenkrankheiten (Lahr: J. H. Geiger (M. Schauenburg), 1854). Digital facsimile of the 1854 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Ophthalmoscope, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ophthalmoscopy
  • 5870

Ein Fall von Hamorrhagie der Netzhaut beider Augen.

Z. k. k. Ges. Aerzte Wien, 9, 1 Abt., 214-18., Vienna, 1853.

Türck was the first to note the correlation of retinal hemorrhage with tumors of the brain.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Brain & Spinal Tumors, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye › Retinal Diseases
  • 6039

The surgical treatment of certain fibrous tumours of the uterus.

Philadelphia: T. K. & P. G. Collins, 1853.

Atlee was among the first to study the surgical removal of uterine fibroids.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY
  • 6260

Das schräg-ovale Becken.

Kiel: Akad. Buchhandlung, 1853.

Litzmann (see also No. 6263) described in this work the coxalgic, scoliotic and kyphoscoliotic forms of pelvis.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Pelvis: Pelvic Anomalies
  • 6971

Untersuchungen über die wasserfreien organischen Säuren.

Ann. Chem. Pharm., 87, 149- 179, 1853.

In 1853 French chemist Gerhardt was the first to prepare acetylsalicylic acid (marketed by Bayer as asprin in 1899). Gerhardt called the compound he obtained "salicylic-acetic anhydride" (wasserfreie Salicylsäure-Essigsäure). However, Gerhard did not pursue the matter further. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Willow Tree Bark (Salycilic Acid; Aspirin)
  • 7241

Ueber einen neuen Muskel am Duodenum des Menschens, über elastische Sehnnen, und einige andere anatomische Verhãltnisse.

Vierteljahrsschrift f. d. prakt. Heilkunde, 37, 113-44, 1853.

Treitz, a Czech pathologist, discovered the muscle at the duodenojejunal junction, later called “muscle of Treitz”; the fold of peritoneum over the muscle of Treitz is known as the "ligament of Treitz."



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Czech Republic
  • 7313

Recherches sur la nature et le traitement des teignes.

Paris: Imprimerie de Poussielgue, Masson, 1853.

Bazin proved the fungal origin of favus and tinea; this was the first work to incorporate mycotic skin diseases into dermatological literature. Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses › Fungal Skin Infections, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Mycosis › Dermaphytes Infections, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Mycosis › Dermaphytes Infections › Favus, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Mycosis › Dermaphytes Infections › Tinea (Ringworm)
  • 7445

A narrative of travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro, with an account of the native tribes and observations on the climate, geology and natural history of the Amazon Valley.

London: Reeve and Co., 1853.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY, BOTANY, Biogeography, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Brazil, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Latin America, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists, ZOOLOGY
  • 7747

A materia medica animalia, containing the scientific analysis, natural history and chemical and medical properties and uses of the substances that are the products of beasts, birds, fishes or insects ...

Cambridge, MA: For the Author, 1853.

Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS, ZOOLOGY
  • 8242

Palm trees of the Amazon.

London: John van Voorst, 1853.

Wallace's first book, printed in an edition of only 250 copies. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY › Dendrology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Brazil, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Latin America, NATURAL HISTORY
  • 8418

Notices et extraits des manuscrits médicaux grecs, latins et français, des principales bibliothèques de l'Europe. 1er partie. Manuscrits Grecs d'Angleterre.

Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1853.

All published. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Manuscripts & Philology
  • 10235

Change of climate considered as a remedy in dyspetic, pulmonary, and other chronic affections; with an account of the most eligible places of residence for invalids in Spain, Portugal, Algeria, etc., at different seasons of the year; and an appendix on the mineral springs of the Pyrenees, Vichy, and Aix les Bains.

London: John Churchill, 1853.

The author, a pulmonary specialist at Cavendish Square, London, provides a detailed manual for invalid travellers, seeking cures for tuberculosis, and indigestion and "nervous affections." It may be one of the first travel guides for invalids. Unusual for the coverage of Algeria. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Bioclimatology, Biogeography, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Algeria, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Portugal, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Spain, PULMONOLOGY › Lung Diseases › Pulmonary Tuberculosis, THERAPEUTICS › Balneotherapy
  • 4465

Kostno-plasticheskoye udlineniye kostei goleni pri vilushtshenii stopi. [Osteoplastic elongation of the bones of the leg in amputation of the foot.]

Voyenno-med. J., 63, 2 sect., 83-100, 1854.

Pirogov’s method of complete osteoplastic amputation of the foot. German translation, Leipzig, 1854.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Amputations: Excisions: Resections, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Foot / Ankle
  • 685.1

Ueber das Vorkommen von Leucin und Tyrosin in der menschlichen Leber.

Arch. Anat Physiol, wiss. Med., 382-92., 1854.

Discovery of leucine and tyrosine in the urine.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY
  • 686

On osmotic force.

Phil. Trans., 144, 177-228., 1854.

Investigation of osmotic force; provided important information for the physiologists.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, Chemistry, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 1324

Recherches expérimentales sur le grand sympathique et spécialement sur l’influence que la section de ce nerf exerce sur la chaleur animal.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), (Mémoires), (1853), 5, 77-107, 1854.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1325

Note sur la découverte de quelques-uns des effets de la galvanisation du nerf grand sympathique au cou.

Gaz. méd. Paris, 3 sér., 9, 22-23, 1854.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 1326

Sur les résultats de la section et de la galvanisation du nerf grand sympathique au cou.

Gaz. méd. Paris, 3 sér., 9, 30-32, 1854.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 2759
  • 772

Die bildliche Darstellung des menschlichen Arterienpulses.

Arch. physiol. Heilk., 13, 284-87, 1854.

Vierordt invented a sphygmograph which acted on the principle that indirect estimation of blood-pressure could be accomplished by measuring the counter-pressure necessary to obliterate the arterial pulsation. This was the first instrument with which a tracing of the human pulse could be made. The paper is the first record of a study with an instrument of precision of the pulse in health and disease. Vierordt expanded this work into book form: Die Lehre von Arterienpuls, Braunschweig, Vieweg, 1855.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Sphygmogram, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments
  • 1268

Ueber eine im Gehirn und Rückenmark des Menschen aufgefundene Substanz mit der chemischen Reaction der Cellulose.

Virchows Arch. path. Anat., 6, 135-38, 1854.

Discovery of the neuroglia.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1509

Ueber die Accommodation des Auges.

v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal., 1, 2 Abt., 1-74., 18541855.

Helmholtz determined the optical constants and explained the mechanism of accommodation, with the help of the ophthalmometer which he had invented in 1852.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 2124

Mémoire sur les effets de la compression de l’air.

Ann. Hyg. publ., 2 sér., 1, 241-79, 1854.

An early paper on “caisson sickness”.



Subjects: Altitude or Undersea Physiology & Medicine, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & MEDICINE
  • 2435

Notes on native remedies. No. 1. The chaulmoogra.

Indian Ann. med. Sci., 1, 646-52, 1854.

Chaulmoogra oil was first introduced into Western medicine by Mouat, having been used for many centuries previously by the Chinese



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Chaulmoogra, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Leprosy Drugs
  • 2383

Traité de la syphilis des nouveau-nés et des enfants à la mamelle.

Paris: V. Masson, 1854.

An important work on congenital syphilis. English translation, 1859.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Syphilis, PEDIATRICS, PEDIATRICS › Neonatology
  • 3264

A practical treatise on foreign bodies in the air-passages.

Philadelphia: Blanchard & Lea, 1854.

First systematic study of the subject. In this celebrated work Gross laid down principles concerning symptoms which are still fundamental, despite the advent of roentgenology.



Subjects: OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Laryngology
  • 3329

Observations on the human voice.

Proc. roy. Soc. (Lond.), , 7, 399-410, 18541855.

Garcia, a teacher of singing, invented the modern laryngoscope.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Laryngoscope, Music and Medicine, OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Laryngology › Laryngoscopy
  • 2760

The diseases of the heart and aorta.

Dublin: Hodges & Smith, 1854.

On pp. 320-27 is to be found Stokes’s account of fatty degeneration of the heart, in which he so well described the periodic form of respiration now known as “Cheyne–Stokes breathing.” Stokes also gave the first description of paroxysmal tachycardia (p. 161).



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aortic Diseases
  • 4042

On the keloid of Alibert, and on true keloid.

Med.-chir. Trans. 37, 27-47, 1854.

Addison described two forms of keloid, that described by Alibert, and the “true keloid” (the skin disease morphoea, “Addison’s keloid”).



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 4043

Ueber die Folge und den Verlauf epidermischer Krankheiten.

Halle: H. W. Schmidt, 1854.

First description of tinea cruris (eczema marginatum, “Bärensprung’s disease”).



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 3452

Ueber Anlegung einer künstlichen Magenöffnung am Menschen durch Gastrotomie.

Virchows Arch. path. Anat., 6, 350-84, 1854.

Fenger’s operation.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Esophagus: Stomach: Duodenum: Intestines, SURGERY: General › Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery
  • 4169.2

Ein Fall von intermittirender Albumenurie und Chromaturie.

Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 6, 264-66, 1854.

Paroxysmalcold hemoglobinuria described. English translation in No. 2241.



Subjects: UROLOGY
  • 5106.1

Osservazioni microscopiche e deduzioni patologiche sul cholera asiatico.

Gazz. med. ital. fed. tosc., 2 ser., 4, 397-401, 405-12, 1854.

Pacini described vibrios seen in the intestinal contents of cholera victims. He incriminated these vibrios as the pathogen in the disease, anticipating Koch (No. 5108) by 30 years. See N. Howard-Jones. Perspect. Biol. Med.,1971, 13, 422-33.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Cholera
  • 4418.1

Essay on a new method of treating ununited fractures and certain deformities of the osseous system.

New York: Godwin, 1854.

Experimenting on animals and cadavers, Brainard developed a special bone drill or “perforator” introduced subcutaneously to perforate the bone ends, simulating a recent fracture, and thus stimulating callus formation.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations
  • 5747

Elkoplasty, or anaplasty applied to the treatment of old ulcers.

New York: Holman, Gray & Co, 1854.

Hamilton was among the first to treat ulcers by skin-grafting. He made the flap smaller than the space which it was intended to fill, “trusting to growth and expansion of the graft to complete the cure”. Also published in N. Y. J. Med., 1854, 13, 163-73. See his earlier theoretical paper in Buffalo med. J., 1847, 2, 501-509.



Subjects: PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY, PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY › Skin Grafting
  • 5340

Ueber die Band-und Blasenwürmer.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1854.

Siebold succeeded in infecting dogs with Taenia echinococcus. Translation by T. H. Huxley Sydenham Society London, 1857.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › DISEASES DUE TO METAZOAN PARASITES
  • 5771

Traité des maladies du sein et de la région mammaire.

Paris: V. Masson, 1854.

Velpeau was the leading French surgeon of the first half of the 19th century. His great treatise on tumours of the breast, his best work, was the most important of its time on the subject. It includes a good account of hyperplastic disease of the breast. English translation, 1856.



Subjects: SURGERY: General › Diseases of the Breast
  • 5551

Glossulae quatuor magistrorum super chirurgiam Rogerii et Rolandi nunc primum ad fidem codicis Mazarinei edidit. By C. Daremberg.

Naples & Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1854.

In Roger of Salerno's Practica chirurgiae, which appeared about 1180, end-to-end suture is described, as is the value of mercurial inunction in chronic skin diseases; in his recommendation of seaweed for the treatment of goitre Roger anticipated Coindet (No. 3812). Roland of Parma [Rolando Capelluti or Capezutti] (fl. early 13th century) was a pupil of Roger, and edited his master’s books about a.d. 1230. The work was one of the most important emanating from the School of Salerno. A color facsimile with Italian translation of an illuminated medieval manuscript of Roland’s version of Roger’s work in the Bibliotheca Casanatense Roma was published in Rome, 1927. Digital facsimile of the 1854 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Italy, DERMATOLOGY, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Italy, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Italy › Schola Medica Salernitana, SURGERY: General
  • 5555

La chirurgie de maître Jean Yperman, le père de la chirurgie flamande (1295-1351). Mise au jour et annotée par J. M. F. Carolus.

Gand, Belgium: F. & E. Gyselynck, 1854.

Jan Yperman, became the first authority on surgery in the Low Countries during the 14th century. He was also the first medical writer in the Dutch language. He probably born in or near Ypres in Belgium, and may have studied in Paris under Lanfranc, whom he often mentions in his work. His work was first printed in Ann. Soc. Méd. Gand, 1854, 32, and re-issued as above. Another edition was published in Paris, 1936. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Belgium, SURGERY: General
  • 5355

Klinische und anatomische Beobachtungen über die Krankheiten von Aegypten.

Arch. physiol. Heilk., 13, 528-75, 1854.

Griesinger connected the worm of ankylostomiasis with Egyptian chlorosis, a condition in which the worm had previously been noted without its being considered the causal agent (pp. 555-61). Apparently Bilharz in 1853 came to the same conclusion. The disease was for a time called “Griesinger’s disease”. Partial English translation in Kean (No. 2268.1).



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Egypt, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › DISEASES DUE TO METAZOAN PARASITES › Hookworm Disease
  • 5604

Die Galvanokaustik.

Wroclaw (Vratislava, Breslau): J. Max u. Co, 1854.

Middeldorpf improved the galvano-cautery and introduced it in major surgery.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments, SURGERY: General
  • 5872

Vorlaüfige Notiz über das Wesen des Glaucoms.

v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal., 1, 1 Abt., 371-82., 18541855.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye › Glaucoma
  • 5874

Report on the ophthalmoscope.

Brit. for. med.-chir. Rev., 14, 549-57, 1854.

Jones reported that Charles Babbage (1792-1871), the computer pioneer, had produced a simple ophthalmoscope in 1847. After the success of Helmholtz’s instrument in 1851 (No. 5866) Jones wrote about Babbage’s instrument and of his role in discouraging it. See No. 5862.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Ophthalmoscope, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ophthalmoscopy
  • 5875

Die pyämische Ophthalmie in Beziehung zur feinsten Organisation des Entzündungs-Produkts und zu der eigenthümlichen Struktur des Glaskörpers.

Ann. Charité-Krankenh., 5, 2 Heft, 276-89., 1854.

First account of metastatic ophthalmia.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye
  • 6040

Extirpation of the uterus and ovaries for sarcomatous disease.

Nelson’s Amer. Lancet, 8, 147, 1854.

First successful abdominal hysterectomy, 25 May, 1853. An account of Burnham’s work is given by J. C. Irish in Trans. Amer. med. Ass. 1878, 29, 447-61.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY › Hysterectomy
  • 6041

Ueber die Heilung der Blasen-Scheidenfisteln.

Giessen: E. Heinemann, 1854.

Simon is perhaps best remembered as being the first in Europe to excise the kidney; he also wrote a fine monograph on vesico-vaginal fistula.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY › Vesicovaginal Fistula
  • 5871

Notiz über die Behandlung der Mydriasis

v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal., 1, 1 Abt., 351-19., 18541855.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures
  • 6181

On the displacements of the uterus.

Edinb. med. surg. J., 81, 321-48, 1854.

“Duncan’s folds”, the peritoneal folds of the uterus. Republished in book form, Edinburgh, 1854. Duncan, a leading Edinburgh obstetrician, became lecturer on the subject at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS
  • 6182

Difficult labors and their treatment.

Cincinnati, OH: Jackson, White & Co, 1854.

Wright was responsible for the introduction of combined cephalic version.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS
  • 5454.1

Fiebre amarilla.

Gaceta Oficial de Cumaná, Año 4, No. 57, Mayo 23 , 1854.

Beauperthuy was the first protagonist of the mosquito theory of the transmission of yellow fever. Reprinted in Beauperthuy’s La Obra, Caracas, 1963, pp. 260-70; French translation in Travaux scientifiques de Louis-Daniel Beauperthuy, Bordeaux, 1891, pp. 131-42. Digital facsimile of the 1891 edition from the Wellcome Library at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Venezuela, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Yellow Fever, Latin American Medicine
  • 6261

Schilderungen neuer Beckenformen und ihres Verhaltens im Leben.

Mannheim: Bassermann & Malthey, 1854.

First description of pelvis spinosa.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Pelvis: Pelvic Anomalies
  • 6262

De spondylolisthesi gravissimae pelvangustiae causa nuper detecta.

Bonn: C. Georg, 1854.

An important study of the spondylolisthetic pelvis, which Kilian called “pelvis obtecta”.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Pelvis: Pelvic Anomalies
  • 4464

Ueber Resectionen und Amputationen.

Wroclaw (Vratislava, Breslau) & Bonn: E. Weber, 1854.


Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Amputations: Excisions: Resections
  • 6833

[In Persian script] Cheragh haa rewshenaaa der asewl pezeshekea [Illumination of the fundamentals of medicine].

Tabriz, Iran: Dar al-Tabae [State Printing House], 1854.

Issued in 1271 A. H. (1854 CE), this entirely lithographed book introduced Western anatomical illustration to Persian culture. As part of an effort to modernize medical education in Persia, medical textbooks such as Mirza Mohammad-Vali’s Illumination of the Fundamentals of Medicine were written or translated by Persian authors and printed by lithography for publication by the Dar al-Fonun or the Dar al-Tabae, the state printing house established in the 1840s. Mirza Mohammad-Vali, who had been named chief physician of the Persian army in 1852, was also supervisor of the physicians at the Government Hospital and most likely taught at the Dar al-Fonun. Mirza Mohammad’s dependence on Western sources in this early period of modern Persian medical education is evident in his book’s numerous anatomical illustrations, adapted from Vesalius, Scarpa, Fabrici and other European authors. Afkhami, “Epidemics and the emergence of an international sanitary policy in Iran,” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 19 (1999): 122-134. Shcheglova, Olimpiada P. “Lithography i. In Persia.” Encyclopaedia Iranica. N.p., 15 Aug. 2009, accessed 04-24-2015). Ebrahimnejad, Medicine, Public Health and the Qajar State: Patterns of Modernization in Nineteenth-Century Iran (2004) 51. For a more detailed annotation see the entry in HistoryofInformation.com at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Iran (Persia), Persian (Iranian) Islamic Medicine
  • 6860

Lectures on the theory and practice of homoeopathy.

Manchester: Henry Turner, 1854.

A series of lectures given at the London Hahnemann Hospital between 1852 and 1853, presenting an early account of Hahnemann’s life and the development of homeopathy. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Homeopathy, ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Homeopathy › History of Homeopathy
  • 7447

Himalayan journals; or, notes of a naturalist in Bengal, the Sikkim and Nepal Himalayas, the Khasia Mountains, &c. 2 vols.

London: John Murray, 1854.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY, Biogeography, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Nepal, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 8383

The claims of the Negro, ethnologically considered: An address before the literary societies of Western Reserve College, at commencement, July 12, 1854.

Rochester, NY: Printed by Lee, Mann & Co., Daily American Office, 1854.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: AFRICAN AMERICANS & MEDICINE & BIOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY
  • 8827

Types of mankind: or, ethnological researches based upon the ancient monuments, paintings, sculptures and crania of races, and upon their natural, geographical, philological, and biblical history; illustrated by selections from the indedited papers of Samuel George Morton, and by additional contributions by L. Agassiz, W. Usher, and H. S. Patterson. By J. C. Nott and Geo. R. Gliddon.

Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo & Co., 1854.

Nott, a prominent physician and anthropologist in Mobile, Alabama, employed polygenist arguments to justify slavery. This required resoilving the problem of racial hybridity. Polygenists claimed that different races were different species. Species, however, were supposed to be incapable of producing fertile offspring, while it was obvious that different races, specifically white and black could reproduce and create mulattoes. To keep the designation of races as 'species' intact, Nott redefined the definition of species, making its essential characteristic not hybrid infertility, but morphological distinctness through time-time longer than could be inferred from the Bible. . . . Nott sought to disassociate anthropology from the Bible. His alternative explanation was that races had been separately created before Biblical time. His medical experience convinced him that blacks and whites possessed different susceptibilities to disease, attributable to innately different 'vitalities.' Nott argued against monogenist anthropologists, who believed that races had a recent and common origin. . . .Nott's comments on race brought him to the attention of other members of the American School, including its proclaimed leader, Samuel George Morton. After Morton's death, George Glidden, then the U.S. consul in Cairo, persuaded Nott to co-author a book, Types of mankind, dedicated to Morton's memory. Gliddon's contribution was to show that blacks and whites had been distinct as early as Egypt's first dynasty. Nott's contribution was also intended to demonstrate the antiquity of racial differences, as well as to show that races were immune to major change. Digital facsimile of the 1854 second edition from the Internet Archive at this link. Sttee Paul A. Erickson, The anthropology of Josiah Clark Nott avaiable from digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu at this link.



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY › Craniology, ANTHROPOLOGY › Ethnology, ANTHROPOLOGY › Physical Anthropology
  • 8892

Dictionnaire d'hygiène publique et de salubrité ou répertoire de toutes les questions relatives à la santé publique, considérées dans leurs rapports avec les subsistances, les épidémies, les professions, les établissements et institutions d'hygiène et de salubrité, complété par le texte des lois, décrets, arrêtés, ordonnances et instructions qui s'y rattachen. 3 vols.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1854.

For the second edition (1862) Tardieu expanded the work to 4 volumes. Digital facsimile of the first edition from Google Books at this link; of the second edition (1862) from BnF Gallica at this link.



Subjects: Dictionaries, Biomedical, Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine), PUBLIC HEALTH
  • 8965

Geschichte der Botanik. 4 vols.

Königsberg, 18541857.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY › History of Botany
  • 9116

On the construction, organization and general arrangements of hospitals for the insane.

Philadelphia: [No publisher identified], 1854.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), HOSPITALS, PSYCHIATRY
  • 10130
  • 1862

On the medicinal and toxicological properties of the cryptogamic plants of the United States.

Trans. Amer. Med. Ass., 7, 167-284., 1854.

Separate edition: New YorkBaker, Godwin & Co1854. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY › Cryptogams, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS, TOXICOLOGY
  • 10404

Voyage médical en Californie.

Paris: Union Médicale, 1854.

Translated into English by L. Jay Oliva, introduced and annotated by Doyce B. Nunis, Jr. as A medical journey in California (Los Angeles: Zeitlin & Ver Brugge, 1967).



Subjects: U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › California, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 10439

Histoire de l'électricité médicale, comprenant l'étude des instruments et appareils, le résumé des auteurs, un choix d'observations.

Paris: Victor Masson & Toulouse: Fiellès, Chauvin, 1854.

The first history of medical electricity and electrotherapy.  Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology › History of Electrophysiology
  • 11549

Notes of M. Bernard's lectures on the blood; with an appendix by Walter F. Atlee.

Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo & Co., 1854.

This record of Bernard's actual lectures contains the first published description of Bernard's technique of right and left heart cathererization, a technique that Bernard invented. The appendix includes notes of lectures by Charles Robin. Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.

Bernard published a detailed account of the procedure in "Recherches experimentales sur la temperature animale," Comptes rendus Acad. Sci, 43, 551-569. He undertook the proceedure in an attempt to study the difference in temperature between the two circulations.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology › Cardiac Catheterization, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 12342

Histoire de la découverte de la circulation du sang.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1854.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link. Revised edition, 1857, of which a digital facsimile is also available from the Hathi Trust at this link.  Translated into English by J. C. Reeve as A history of the discovery of the circulation of the blood, Cincinnati, 1859. Digital facsimile of the 1859 edition from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 615
  • 812.1

Leçons de physiologie expérimentale appliquée à la médecine. 2 vols.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 18551856.

Claude Bernard made strenuous efforts to introduce experimental methods into physiology. The above includes his classic work on the function of the liver, pancreas, and gastric glands. Vol. 1, p. 126: Catheterization of the heart of a dog (in some editions, p. 119). See also No. 634.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology › Cardiac Catheterization, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 1000

Sur le mécanisme de la formation du sucre dans le foie.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 41, 461-69, 1855.

The culmination of Bernard’s work on the glycogenic function of the liver. He invented the term “internal secretion” and can be said to have started the scientific investigation of the internal secretions, although for 30 years the significance of his work was not generally realized. By his research on glycogen Bernard showed that the body can not only break down, but can also build up, complex chemical substances.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology
  • 417

Handbuch der systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. 3 vols.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 18551871.

Considered by many authorities to be the greatest of the 19th-century systems of anatomy. Many structures are named after Henle, including the looped portion of the uriniferous tubules of the kidney, the layer of cells in the root sheath of a hair, and the ampulla of the uterine tube.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Anatomy
  • 422

Medical anatomy: or, illustrations of the relative position and movements of the internal organs. 7 pts.

London: John Churchill, 18551869.

Sibson was professor of medicine at St. Mary’s Hospital. “Sibson’s fascia” and “muscle” are named after him. Plates 19-21 show movements, structure and sounds of the heart.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century
  • 2164

Maximen der Kriegsheilkunst.

Hannover: Hahn, 1855.

A landmark in military surgery, written by the founder of modern military surgery in Germany. Stromeyer, surgeon-general to the army of Hanover, is also notable for his important contributions to orthopedics. See Nos. 4320-21.



Subjects: MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE
  • 485

Untersuchungen überdie Entwickelungder Wirbelthiere.

Berlin: G. Reimer, 1855.

Simplification of von Baer’s classification of the germ-layers.



Subjects: EMBRYOLOGY
  • 1995
  • 614

De l’électrisation localisée et de son application à la physiologie, à la pathologie, et à la thérapeutique.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1855, 1862.

Duchenne classified the electrophysiology of the entire muscular system and summed up his findings in the above work. The application of his results to pathological conditions marks him as the founder of electrotherapy. An Album de photographies pathologiques was published in 1862 to accompany the text of the second edition, 1861. Engl, trans. of 3rd ed., Philadelphia, 1871. See Nos. 1993 & 4543.

Duchenne, most famous of the electrotherapists, employed faradic current in treating patients as early as 1830. An English translation of the third edition of his book appeared in 1871.



Subjects: IMAGING › Photography / Photomicrography , PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology, THERAPEUTICS › Medical Electricity / Electrotherapy
  • 1995.1

Ueber methodische Electrisirung gelähmter Muskeln.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1855.

Discovery of the motor points, the entry points of the nerves into the muscles – essential for stimulating the muscles by electricity.



Subjects: Neurophysiology, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 1510

Ueber die Bewegung der Iris: Für Physiologen und Ärzte,

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 1855.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1511

Osservazioni sul nervo ottico.

G. r. Ist. Lomb. Sci., 237-52, 1855.

Panizza was the first to attribute the vision function to the posterior cortex.



Subjects: Neurophysiology, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1742

Deformities after fractures.

Trans. Amer. med. Ass., 8, 347-443, 1855.

Hamilton was a medical inspector of the U.S. Army and later became Professor of Surgery at Bellevue Hospital. See No. 4420.



Subjects: Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine), ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations
  • 3063

Die Haemophilie oder die Bluterkrankheit.

Leipzig: O. Wigand, 1855.

First full clinical description of hemophilia.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Blood Disorders › Hemophilia, HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders
  • 1969

New method of treating neuralgia by the direct application of opiates to the painful joints.

Edinb. med. surg. J., 82, 265-81, 1855.

Wood of Edinburgh was the first (1853) to employ hypodermic injection that used a true syringe and hollow needle as a therapeutic procedure. He referred to his invention as "subcutaneous" rather than hypodermic. See also Brit. med. J., 1858, 721-23, for a later paper by him. A full account of his work is given by Howard-Jones (No. 2063). Digital facsimile from ncbi.nlm.nih.gov at this link.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Intravenous Anesthesia, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Hypodermic Needle , INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Syringe, PAIN / Pain Management, THERAPEUTICS
  • 3370

Beiträge zur Physiologie des menschlichen Ohres.

Vjschr. prakt. Heilk, 45, 71-123; 46, 45-72, 1855.

Rinne’s test.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Audiology › Hearing Tests, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 3864

On the constitutional and local effects of disease of the supra-renal capsules.

London: S. Highley, 1855.

Addison was the first to draw attention to the importance of the adrenals in clinical medicine. The above work first appeared in the Lond. med. Gaz., 1849, 43, 517-18, and was later expanded into book form. It described the conditions, which later became known as “Addison’s disease” and pernicious anemia, which was later renamed “Addisonian anemia” by Trousseau. Text reprinted in Med. Classics, 1937, 2, 244-77. Facsimile edition, London, Dawson, 1968.



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Adrenals, HEMATOLOGY › Anemia & Chlorosis
  • 4330

Zur Pathologie des menschlichen Fusses.

Med. Zeitung, 24, 169, 175, 1855.

First description of osteoperiostitis of the metatarsal bones, named “Busquet’s disease” after the latter’s description of it in Rev. Chir. (Paris), 1897, 17, 1065.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton
  • 4331

Exsection of the head of the femur and removal of the upper rim of the acetabulum, for morbus coxarius, with perfect recovery.

N. Y. J. Med., n.s. 14, 70-82, 1855.

Resection of the hip for ankylosis.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Hip
  • 3453

Note sur l’emploi du chlorate de potasse dans le traitement de la stomatite ulcéreuse.

Rec. Mém. Méd. mil, 2 sér., 16, 1-46, 1855.

Classic description of ulcero-membranous stomatitis and its treatment.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Diseases of the Digestive System › Gastric / Duodenal Ulcer
  • 5107

Unterschungen und Beobachtungen über die Verbreitungsart der Cholera.

Munich: J. G. Cotta, 1855.

Pettenkofer gave much attention to the etiology of cholera. He postulated the theory that a specific germ, certain local conditions, certain seasonal conditions, and certain individual conditions are all necessary for an epidemic to occur (the Boden theory).



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Cholera
  • 5164

Mikroskopische und mikrochemische Untersuchung des Milzbrandblutes sowie über Wesen und Kurdes Milzbrandes.

Vjschr. gerichtl. öff. Med., 8, 103-14, 1855.

Pollender discovered the B. anthracis in 1849, but did not record this fact until 1855. He gave a more exact account of the organism than did Rayer (No. 5163).



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Bacillus › Bacillus anthracis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Anthrax, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 5341

Die in und an dem Körper des lebenden Menschen vorkommenden Parasiten. Ein Lehr- und Handbuch der Diagnose und Behandlung der thierischen und pflanzlichen Parasiten des Menschen. Zum Gebrauche für Studirende der Medicin und der Naturwissenschaften, für Lehrer der Zoologie, Botanik, Physiologie, pathologischen Anatomie und für praktische Ärzte. 2 vols.

Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1855.

English translation of 2nd ed. by Edwin Ray Lankester as On animal and vegetable parasites of the human body: A manual of their natural history, diagnosis, and treatment. 2 vols. London: Sydenham Society, 1857. Digital facsimile of the 1855 edition from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link, of the English translation at this link.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › DISEASES DUE TO METAZOAN PARASITES, PARASITOLOGY
  • 5873

Ueber die Coremorphosis als Mittel gegen chronische Iritis und Iridochorioiditis.

v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal., 2, 2 Abt., 202-57., 18551856.

Graefe introduced iridectomy in the treatment of iritis and iridochoroiditis.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures
  • 5876

Quelques considérations sur la nature de l’ophthalmie dite militaire, par rapport à son apparition dans l’armée danoise depuis 1851.

Ann. Oculist. (Brux.), 33, 164-76., 1855.

Description of trachoma.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Trachoma, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye
  • 5877

Ophthalmoskopische Notizen 4. Seitliche Beleuchtung und mikroskopische Untersuchung am lebenden Auge.

v. Graefes Arch Ophthal., 1, 2, Abt., 351-56, 1855.

Liebreich introduced lateral illumination in microscopic investigation of the living eye.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ophthalmoscopy
  • 6042

Successful case of extirpation of the uterus.

Boston med. Surg. J. 52, 249-55, 1855.

First successful abdominal hysteroscopic myomectomy (for fibromyoma), 1 September 1853.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY
  • 5454.2

Yellow fever, considered in its historical, pathological, etiological, and therapeutical relations: including a sketch of the disease as it has occurred in Philadelphia from 1699 to 1854, with an examination of the connections between it and the fevers known under the same name in other parts of temperate, as well as in tropical, regions. 2 vols.

Philadelphia: Blanchard & Lea, 1855.

The most important 19th century American monograph on yellow fever. La Roche’s work sketched the disease in its appearances from 1699 to 1854 at Philadelphia, which saw some of the worst yellow fever epidemics, and provided an excellent bibliography along with discussion of the pathology, aetiology and therapeutics of the disease. Digital facsimile from the National Library of Medicine, Internet Archive, at this link.



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › History of Infectious Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Yellow Fever, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Yellow Fever › History of Yellow Fever, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Pennsylvania
  • 6712

Biographie médicale par ordre chronologique. 2 vols.

Paris: A. Delahaye, 1855.

Reprinted, Amsterdam, B. M. Israël, 1967.



Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works)
  • 6276

Puerperal fever, as a private pestilence.

Boston, MA: Ticknor & Fields, 1855.

Because his first paper (No. 6274) had been published in a short-lived journal with very small circulation, Holmes enlarged his famous essay on the contagiousness of puerperal fever, and in this reiteration mentioned the steps already being taken by Semmelweis. Reprinted in Med. Classics, 1936, 1, 245-68.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Puerperal Fever
  • 6503

Médecine et hygiène des Arabes. Études sur l’exercice de la médecine et de la chirurgie chez les Musulmans de l’Algérie, leurs connaissances en anatomie, histoire naturelle, pharmacie, médecine légale, etc. Leurs conditions climatériques générales, leur pratiques hygiéniques publiques et privées, leurs maladies, leurs traitements les plus usités. Précédées de considérations sur l’état général de la médecine chez les principales nations Mahométanes.

Paris: Germer Baillière, 1855.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive, at this link.



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Medical Anthropology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Algeria, ISLAMIC OR ARAB MEDICINE › History of Islamic or Arab Medicine
  • 7545

Physical, sexual and natural religion: by a student of medicine.

London: Edward Truelove, 1855.

Drysdale emphasized that sexual intercourse should be pleasurable for both sexes, but believed that the ever-present possibility of pregnancy prevented it from being so. He also believed that overpopulation itself was a major cause of poverty for which birth control was a solution. He also believed that fear of having more children encouraged men to turn to prostitutes, and was also a strong inhibitor of a women's willingness to express their sexuality. Drysdale also believed that immoderate amounts of sexual activity were dangerous, and he was horrified by variant sexuality, including masturbation. In spite of the limitations of Drysdale's ideas, Havelock Ellis was greatly influenced to enter the field of sex research by reading Drysdale's book.

Only six pages of Drysdale's book were devoted to contraception. He discussed five techniques, two of which, the sponge and the douche, he advised were to be used together. His douche solution, however, was simply tepid water, which he held would flush out the sperm from the vagina, after which the sponge could be removed. He also advocated that women use a safe period, which he said was from two to three days before menstruation to eight days after  Coitus interruptus, he wrote, was “physically injurious” because it might cause mental disorders and illness in the man and it also interfered with pleasure.The condom, in his mind, was unaesthetic, dulled enjoyment, and might even produce impotence. Digital facsimile from the National Library of Australia at this link.



Subjects: Contraception , SEXUALITY / Sexology
  • 8809

Elephantiasis orientalis, and especially elephantiasis genitalis in Bengal.

Calcutta: F. Carbery, Bengal Military Orphan Press, 1855.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, INDIA, Practice of Medicine in, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Lymphatic Filariasis (Elephantiasis)
  • 9921

Portraits of diseases of the skin.

London: John Churchill, 1855.

Wilson's atlas, with 48 plates drawn and engraved by the medical artist, William Bagg, was the first English large folio atlas of dermatology in the style of similar folios issued in France by Alibert and Cazenave. The plates are classified under “General diseases,” “Syphilitic eruptions,” “Disordered chromatogenous function,” “Diseases of the sebiparous glands,” “Diseases of the hair follicles,” and “Specific diseases,” this last category containing illustrations of kelis (keloid), lupus and syphiloderma. 



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 9982

On the mode of communication of the cholera. Second edition, much enlarged.

London: John Churchill, 1855.

The second edition of Snow's book on cholera, with 162pp. compared to 31pp. in the first edition, incorporated the results of five more years of research, and contained so much additional material that it was essentially a new work. Snow set out his views that cholera was caused by a living organism, a belief later confirmed by Koch's discovery of the cholera vibrio in 1883. Snow included statistical surveys made during the great cholera epidemic of 1854, demonstarting that the number of cholera deaths in each area of southern London corresponded to the degree of contamination of the local drinking water. In this edition he told the famous story of the Broad Street pump for the first time, and included the famous spot map of the district showing the location of each pump and the fatal cholera cases. This was the first use of a spot map in epidemiology. Digital facsimile of the 1855 second edition from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Cartography, Medical & Biological, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Cholera
  • 10103

History of the American Medical Association, from its organization up to January, 1855. To which is appended biographical notices, with portraits of the presidents of the association, and of the author. By Nathan Smith Davis. Edited by S. W. Butler.

Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo & Co., 1855.

The first history of the American Medical Association, founded in 1847, written by one of its chief founders. Digital facsimile from Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession, Ethics, Biomedical, Medical Societies and Associations
  • 10884

Des caractères anatomiques des grands singes pseudo-anthropomorphes.

Arch. Mus. d'Hist. Nat., 8, 1- 248, 18551856.

With 16 lithographed plates, this continues to be one of the most frequently cited of all works in the history of primate anatomy.



Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy › Primatology
  • 11522

Topografía médica de la isla de Cuba.

Havana: Encuadernacion del Tiempo, 1855.

Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.



Subjects: Biogeography, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Cuba
  • 11566

Self-adjusting stethoscope of Dr. Cammann.

New York Medical Times, 4, 142, 1855.

The American physician George P. Cammann invented the binaural flexible stethoscope. By 1852 Cammann "had developed a stethoscope with flexible tubing (spirals of wire covered with silk, later rubber, or as he called it caoutchouc), ivory ear-pieces, and spring cross piece to hold the ear-pieces in place. The formal announcement of the stethoscope appeared in 1855" (McKusick, Cardiovascular sound in health and disease [1958] 13).



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Stethoscope, PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS › Auscultation
  • 11884

Géographie botanique raisonnée ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l'époque actuelle. 2 vols.

Paris: V. Masson, 1855.

This work work organized and systematized the huge mass of data being collected by the numerous scientific expeditions of the time to explain the geographical distribution of plants. Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, Biogeography › Phytogeography
  • 13002

Ueber das Erythroxylin, dargestellt aus den Blättern des in Südamerika cultivirten Strauches Erythroxylon Coca Lam.

Arch. d. Pharmazie, 132, 141-150, 1855.

Gaedcke, a chemist and pharmacologist, was the first to isolate the cocaine aklaloid.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Cocaine
  • 4531

De l’hémiplégie alterne envisagée comme signe de lésion de la protrubérance annulaire et comme preuve de la décussation des nerfs faciaux.

Gaz. hebd. Méd. Chir., 3, 749-54, 789-92, 811-16, 1856.

“Gubler’s paralysis” – crossed hemiplegia. English translation in Wolf, The classical brain stem syndromes, Springfield: Charles C Thomas, 1971.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System
  • 2079
  • 616

Analyse physiologique des propriétés des systèmes musculaires et nerveux au moyen de curare.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 43, 825-29., 1856.

Bernard paralysed motor nerve-endings with curare and demonstrated the independent excitability of muscle. He showed that curare acted by stopping the transmission of impulses from motor nerves to voluntary muscles.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA, Neurophysiology, TOXICOLOGY › Neurotoxicology, TOXICOLOGY › Venoms
  • 617

Die medizinische Physik.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg, 1856.


Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › Biophysics
  • 618

Nachweis der negativen Schwankung des Muskelstroms am natürlich sich contrahirenden Muskel.

Verh. phys.-med. Ges. Würzburg, 6, 528-33., 1856.

Kölliker and Müller were the first to measure action currents from cardiac muscle.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 4638

Ueber Gehirnabscesse.

Virchows Arch. path. Anat., 10, 78-109, 352-400, 426-48, 1856.

First systematic account of brain abscess.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions
  • 1000.1

Mémoire sur le pancréas et sur le rôle du sue pancréatique dans les phénomènes digestifs.

Suppl. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 1, 379-563, 1856.

The most beautifully illustrated of all Bernard’s writings, which summed up the results of his work on the role of the pancreas in digestion. English translation reproducing the color plates in color. London, 1985.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Anatomy, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology
  • 1140

Recherches expérimentales sur la physiologie et la pathologie des capsules surrénales.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 43, 422-25; 542-46, 1856.

Brown-Séquard found that excision of both adrenals in animals invariably proved fatal, thus determining their indispensability. He also believed that they had an antitoxic influence upon the blood. His experimental work was of great importance in the development of our knowledge of the internal secretions.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1141

Note sur quelques réactions propres à la substance des capsules surrénales.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 43, 663-65, 1856.

Vulpian discovered adrenaline in the adrenal medulla.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 4813

Recherches expérimentales sur la production d’une affection convulsive épileptiforme, à la suite de lésions de la moëlle épiniére.

Arch. gén. Med., 5 sér., 7, 143-49, 1856.

Experimental epilepsy (section of sciatic nerve). See also Arch. Physiol. norm. path., 1869, 2, 211-20, 422-38, 496-503; 1870, 3, 153-60.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 773

Études expérimentales sur les lésions organiques du coeur.

Ann. Soc. Méd. Lyon, 2 sér., 4, 180-88., 1856.

Faivre made the first accurate estimation of the blood-pressure in man, by connecting the artery with a mercury manometer and making direct readings. These investigations were important, since they established normal values. The paper was republished in book form in 1856. English translation of part 2 in Ruskin (No. 3160.1).



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES
  • 2028.56

On a new mode of effecting artificial respiration.

Lancet, 1, 229, 1856.

Marshall Hall’s method of artificial respiration.



Subjects: RESPIRATION › Artificial Respiration, Resuscitation
  • 1461

Grundzüge der Physiologie und Systematik der Sprachlaute für Linguisten und Taubstummenlehrer.

Vienna: C. Gerold’s Sohn, 1856.


Subjects: Speech, Anatomy and Physiology of
  • 1862.1

Lehrbuch der Arzneimittellehre.

Leipzig: L. Voss, 1856.

Buchheim created the first pharmacological institute in the world at the University of Dorpat.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY
  • 2078

Physiologische Untersuchungen über die Wirkung einiger Gifte.

Virchows Arch. path. Anat., 10, 3-77, 235-96., 1856.

First investigation of the effects of poisons on muscular contraction.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY
  • 2384

Aerztliches Intelligenz-Blatt, 3, 425-28., 1856.

First demonstration of the experimental inoculability of syphilis. The information is given in a discussion on the subject by the Society of Physicians of the Palatinate; it appeared anonymously, without title, and identity of the writer was not disclosed until fifty years later. See the footnote on page 585 of Garrison’s Introduction for further details; a biographical note appears in Derm. Z., 1913, 20, 220-23.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2534

Bidrag til Laeren om den saakaldte putride eller septiske Infection.

Bibl. Laeger, 4 R., 8, 253-85, 1856.

Panum was the first to investigate the chemical products of putrefaction. His work had great significance for the doctrine of putrid intoxication. An abstract of the above paper is in jb. in-u. ausländ. ges. Med., 1859, 101, 213-17. See Hans Jørn Kolmos, "Panum's studies on "putrid poison" 1856. An early description of endotoxin," Danish Medical Bulletin , 53 (4) (2006) 450-2.

 



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Food-Borne Diseases › Botulism
  • 2676.1

On the self-adjusting double stethoscope.

Lancet, 2, 138, 202, 1856.

Leared demonstrated a binaural stethoscope at the Great Exhibition, London, 1851. Camman introduced the pattern whose main design continues in use today; this was illustrated in the N.Y. med. Times, Jan. 1855, and reproduced in Lancet, 1856, 1, 398.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Stethoscope, PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS › Auscultation
  • 203

Crania Britannica. Delineations and descriptions of the skulls of the aboriginal and early inhabitants of the British Islands: With notices of their other remains. 6 "Decades" in 2 vols.

London: Printed for the subscribers, 18561865.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Craniology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom)
  • 3064

Ueber farblose Blutkörperchen und Leukämie. In his Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur wissenschaftlichen Medicin, pp. 147-218.

Frankfurt: Meidinger, 1856.

Includes his paper on “weisses Blut” (see No. 3062) and three later papers on leukemia. See No. 3006.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia
  • 3265

Case of pharyngotomy.

Lancet, I, 125-26, 1856.

First pharyngotomy in England. Fuller report in Guy’s Hosp. Rep., 1858, 3 ser., 4, 217.



Subjects: OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat)
  • 3169

Beiträge zur Lehre von den beim Menschen vorkommenden pflanzlichen Parasiten.

Virchows Arch. path. Anat., 9, 557-93., 1856.

First description of pulmonary aspergillosis.



Subjects: PULMONOLOGY, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Diseases
  • 3764

Cases of a peculiar enlargement of the lymphatic glands frequently associated with disease of the spleen.

Guy’s Hosp. Rep., ser., 2, 114-32; 3 ser., 11, 56-67., 1856, 1865.

Wilks really put Hodgkin’s disease “on the map”; the second paper for the first time attached Hodgkin’s name to the disease



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Lymphoma, Spleen: Lymphatics
  • 3992

Atlas der Hautkrankheiten. 10 parts.

Vienna: k.k. Hof- und Staatsdr, 18561876.

Hebra's work includes 104 spectacular folio-sized chromolithographed plates reproducing paintings by Anton Elfinger and Carl Heitzmann.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, Illustration, Biomedical
  • 3992.1

Leçons sur les maladies de la peau.

Paris: Labé, 1856.

Cazenave was among the first to classify skin diseases on an anatomical basis. He founded the first journal devoted entirely to dermatology (Annales des maladies de la peau et de la syphilis). This large folio atlas is the most visually impressive of all his books. From publication in fascicules, 1845-56.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY
  • 3934

Bericht über einige Versuche, um den Ursprung des Harnzuckers bei künstlichem Diabetes zu ermitteln.

Nachr. Georg-Aug. Univ. k. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, 243-47., 1856.

Schiffs important experiments on the production of artificial diabetes.



Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 3006

Thrombose und Embolie. Gefässentzündung und septische Infektion. In his Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur wissenschaftlichen Medicin.

Frankfurt: a.M., Meidinger, Sohn u. Co., 1856.

Reprints of papers published between 1846 and 1853. Virchow gave the first clear description of thrombosis and embolism (see especially Beitr. exp. Path.,1846, 2,227-380). This work was translated into English by A. C. Matzdorff and W. R. Bell as Thrombosis and Emboli (1846-1856), Canton, MA, 1998.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Thrombosis / Embolism
  • 4044

Pityriasis pilaris, maladie de peau non décrite par les dermatologistes.

Gaz. hebd. Méd. 3, 197-201, 1856.

Devergie is remembered for his clear description of pityriasis rubra pilaris, (“Devergie’s disease”). He was the first to demonstrate the presence of a fungus in eczema marginatum.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses, Mycology, Medical
  • 3683.1

On the presence of fibrils of soft tissue in the dentinal tubes.

Phil. Trans., 146, 515-522, 1856.

Tomes described and drew the protoplasmic processes from the odontoblasts, which are known as “Tomes’s fibrils”. These had been previously seen by Johannes Müller and others.



Subjects: DENTISTRY › Dental Anatomy & Physiology
  • 4933

The treatment of the insane without mechanical restraints.

London: Smith, Elder, 1856.

As early as 1839, Conolly treated the insane without any form of restraint at Hanwell Asylum, now St. Bernard’s Hospital. Facsimile reprint with introduction by R. Hunter and I. Macalpine, London, Dawsons, 1973. Digital facsimile of the 1856 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: PSYCHIATRY
  • 5183.2

Clinica médica. Abcesos del higado.

México: M. Murguia, 1856.

Jimenez gave a classic account of liver abscess in amoebiasis.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Mexico, HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Liver, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Amoebiasis, PARASITOLOGY › Amoeba
  • 5878

Iritis – non-mercurial treatment.

Boston med. surg. J., 55, 49-55, 69-74, 92-99., 1856.

The second and third papers are entitled “On the treatment of iritis without mercury”.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye
  • 4532

Cases of paraplegia [with autopsies of ataxic cases, showing lesions in the posterior columns of the spinal cord].

Guy’s Hosp. Rep., 3 ser., 2, 143-90; 3 ser., 4, 169-216., 1856, 1858.

Gull showed the lesions of tabes dorsalis to be located in the posterior columns of the spinal cord.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System
  • 22
  • 2433
  • 3162
  • 3163
  • 3612
  • 3925
  • 4484
  • 4510
  • 4808
  • 4915
  • 5046
  • 5089
  • 5146

Тα ∑ωζομενα. The extant works of Aretaeus, the Cappadocian. Edited and translated by Francis Adams.

London: Sydenham Society, 1856.

Aretaeus left many fine descriptions of disease; in fact Garrison ranks him second only to Hippocrates in this respect. In the printed editions of this bibliography, before the present online version, the Adams edition was cited no less than 12 times for individual diseases, plus its first citation in "Collected Works" (No. 22.) This number of citations is, of course, greater than any other specific work by any other author, though the number of citations may be a reflection of idiosyncracies of the compilers rather than a proportionate measure of the significance of Aretaeus in the history of medicine. The citations are as follows:

 

3162. On angina, or quinsey. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams, 249-52, 404-07.

3163. On pleurisy. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams, 255-58, 410-16.

2433. On elephas, or elephantiasis. In his Extant works, ed. by F. Adams, 366-73, 494-98. Classic description of “elephantiasis Aretaei”, nodous leprosy.

5046. On ulcerations about the tonsils. In hiis Extant works, ed. F. Adams, 253-55. Aretaeus’s description of ulcerations about the tonsils, which he called “ulcera Syrica”, clearly referred to diphtheria, of which it was the first unmistakable description. For his treatment of the disease, see pp. 409-10 of the same work.

5089. On dysentery. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams. 353-57. Prior to Lösch’s discovery of E. histolytica, all forms of dysentery were differentiated only on clinical grounds.

4915. Extant works. Ed. F. Adams. Aretaeus wrote important accounts of melancholy (298-300, 473-78) and madness (301-04).

5146. On tetanus. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams,  246-49, 400-04. Aretaeus left a full account of tetanus.

4484,  On arthritis and sciatica. In his Extant works, ed. by F. Adams,  362-65, 492-93,

3612. On jaundice, or icterus. In his Extant works, ed F. Adams, 324-28.

4510. On paralysis. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams.

4808. On epilepsy, in his Extant works, ed F. Adams,  243, 296, 399, 468. Aretaeus was well acquainted with hemi-epilepsy from local injury in the opposite half of the brain; partly from this knowledge he formulated the “decussation in the form of the letter X” of the motor path. He first described epilepsy resulting from a depressed fracture of the skull. In his excellent description he made the first mention of the aura.

3925. On diabetes.In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams. 338-40, 485-86. The first accurate account of diabetes, to which Aretaeus gave its present name; he insisted on the part which thirst plays in the symptomatology. 

According to the Wikipedia article on Headache, Aretaeus also provied the first recorded classification system for headaches: "He made a distinction between three different types of headache: i) cephalalgia, by which he indicates a shortlasting, mild headache; ii) cephalea, referring to a chronic type of headache; and iii) heterocrania, a paroxysmal headache on one side of the head." 

Digital facsimile of Adams's Greek and Latin edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

 



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Roman Empire, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Liver, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Bacillary Dysentery, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Diphtheria, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tetanus, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Lymphatic Filariasis (Elephantiasis), Medicine: General Works, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Headache, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Sciatica, NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy, NEUROLOGY › Paralysis, PSYCHIATRY, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Diseases, RHEUMATOLOGY › Arthritis
  • 2384

Aerztliches Intelligenz-Blatt, 3, 425-28., 1856.

First demonstration of the experimental inoculability of syphilis. The information is given in a discussion on the subject by the Society of Physicians of the Palatinate; it appeared anonymously, without title, and identity of the writer was not disclosed until fifty years later. See the footnote on page 585 of Garrison’s Introduction for further details; a biographical note appears in Derm. Z., 1913, 20, 220-23.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 7809

Eastern hospitals and English nurses; the narrative of twelve months' experience in the hospitals of Koulali and Scutari by a lady volunteer. 2 vols.

London: Hurst and Blackett, 1856.

Taylor accompanied Florence Nightingale to Scutari, and worked as nurse in the military hospitals. She provided one of the first eye-witness acounts of military hospitals at Scutari and Koulali, and wrote about the management of military hospitals generally. While in the Crimea she converted to Catholicism. After she became a nun she was known as Mother Magdalen of the Sacred Heart. Digital facsimile of the revised third edition (1857) from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Crimean War, NURSING, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1800 - 1899
  • 7875

Illustrations of the birds of California, Texas, Oregon, British and Russian America. Intended to contain descriptions and figures of North American birds not given by former American authors, and a general synopsis of North American ornithology. 1853 to 1855.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1856.

Originally issued in ten parts from 1853 to 1855. Cassin ran an engraving and lithographing firm in Philadelphia, which produced illustrations for government and scientific publications. He pursued ornithology as an amateur, devoting his spare time as unpaid curator of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, which was developing the largest bird specimen collection then in existence. He arranged and catalogued 26,000 specimens, and published regular reports of the results of his research. In this work Cassin described species discovered since the appearance of Audubon's Birds of America. Digital facsimile of the 1862 printing from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.) › American West, NATURAL HISTORY, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › California, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Oregon, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Texas, ZOOLOGY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 8215

Die geographischen Verhältnisse der Krankheiten oder Grundzüge der Noso-Geographie. Vol. 1: Allgemeine Gesetze und Lehren der Noso-Geographie; Vol. 2: Thesaurus Noso-Geographicus.

Leipzig & Heidelberg: C. F. Winter, 1856.

Digital facsimile from Heinrich Heine Universität Düsseldorf at this link.



Subjects: Bioclimatology, Geography of Disease / Health Geography
  • 9603

Nicandrea. Theriaca et Alexipharmaca recensuit et emendavit fragmenta collegit, commentationes addidit Otto Schneider. Accedunt scholia in Theriaca excensione Henrici Keil.

Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1856.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, TOXICOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY › Zootoxicology
  • 9667

Traité d'hygiène navale, ou de l'influence des conditions physiques et morales dans lesquelles l'homme de mer est appelé à vivre et des moyens de conserver sa santé.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1856.

One of the first naval manuals to include discussions of zootoxicology. Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link. Much expanded second edition (1877); digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link.



Subjects: MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Navy, Maritime Medicine, TOXICOLOGY › Zootoxicology
  • 10112

Clinical researches on disease in India. 2 vols.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1856.

One of the most comprehensive studies of disease in India during the mid-19th century; includes 556 case reports. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, INDIA, Practice of Medicine in, TROPICAL Medicine
  • 10261

The camel: His organization habits and uses considered with reference to his introduction into the United States.

Boston, MA: Gould and Lincoln, 1856.

Marsh, who is remembered today for his contributions to ecology in his book, Man and nature, was appointed by president Zachary Taylor  United States minister resident in the Ottoman Empire from 1849-1854. There he undoubtedly became familiar with camels, and believed that there would be economic and other benefits of introducing the camel into the United States. His book covers a broad range of issues relating to the camel, including breeds, diet, diseases, temperament and training. Marsh also includes a chapter on the military uses of the camel, which he felt was perfectly suited for the warfare of his day. According to Marsh, the camel "is a much less timid animal than the horse or mule." He also believed that riding a camel offered a better range of vision, because it is two feet higher than the horse. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy
  • 10458

Du suicide et de la folie suicide, considérés dans leur rapports avec la statistique, la médecine et la philosophie.

Paris: Germer Baillière, 1856.

Pioneering monograph on this subject. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: DEATH & DYING › Suicide, PSYCHIATRY
  • 11072

De l'homicide et de l'anthropophagie.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1856.

One of the earliest works on cannibalism, and probably the first work to combine a discussion of homicide and cannibalism from the medical viewpoint. The author, who was very widely read on these subjects, searched for cures for both phenomena.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Social Anthropology, Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine)
  • 11146

Manuel d'anatomie pathologique générale et appliquée: Contenant la description et le catalogue du Musée Dupuytren.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1856.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological , PATHOLOGY
  • 11301

Catalogue of the pathological museum of Prof. T. D. Mutter.

Philadelphia: [Privately Printed], 1856.

Digital facsimile from U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.



Subjects: MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological
  • 12026

Catalogue of the library of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society of London [by Benjamin Robert Wheatley]. 2 vols.

London: Printed for the Society, 18561879.

Digital facsimile of Vol. 1 from Google Books at this link, of Vol. 2 at this link.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Institutional Medical Libraries
  • 12319

Anatomical and surgical lectures.

San Francisco, CA: Elias S. Cooper, 1856.

A one-page advertising circular dated December 10, 1856 advertising Cooper's first course of private lectures in San Francisco. Cooper, founder of California’s (and the West Coast’s) first medical school, came to San Francisco in May 1855 and immediately embarked on an ambitious program to advance the status of medicine in the state. He not only established his own medical and surgical practice in the city (which he promoted vigorously, to the dismay of some of his rivals), but also began his own private medical teaching program (advertised in the present circular), agitated for improvements in the teaching of anatomy, helped to found both the San Francisco County Medico-Chirurgical Association and the California State Medical Society, began publishing the prestigious Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal, and in 1858 founded California’s first medical school, attached to the University of the Pacific. The medical school’s faculty originally consisted of Cooper and six others; Cooper’s nephew, Levi Cooper Lane, joined the faculty in 1859. Cooper served as professor of anatomy and surgery at the school from its inception until his death eight years later. After Cooper’s death the school went into decline, being eclipsed by the foundation in 1864 of the rival Toland Medical College, ancestor of the University of California’s medical school. In 1870 Cooper’s school was revived by Levi Cooper Lane and Henry Gibbons; in 1882 it was renamed Cooper Medical College after its founder. After several decades of independent existence, Cooper Medical College was acquired by Stanford University; Stanford University’s School of Medicine thus can trace its ancestry back to the first medical school founded on the West Coast.



Subjects: Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › California
  • 4466

Dell’amputazione del femore al terzo inferiore e della disarticulazione del ginocchio.

Ann. univ. Med. (Milano), 161, 5-32, Milan, 1857.

Gritti’s amputation of the thigh was later improved by Stokes (see No. 4470).



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Amputations: Excisions: Resections
  • 4496

A treatise on rheumatic gout, or chronic rheumatic arthritis, of all the joints.

London: John Churchill, 1857.

An excellent description of chronic rheumatic arthritis. Adams also published Illustrations of the effects of rheumatic gout, London, 1857.



Subjects: RHEUMATOLOGY › Arthritis, RHEUMATOLOGY › Gout (Podagra)
  • 934

Die Gase des Blutes.

Z. rat. Med., 8, 256-316, 1857.

Meyer showed that the oxygen in the blood was not held in simple solution but came off in quantity only when the air pressure was reduced to one fiftieth of an atmosphere.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Gases, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 333

Contributions to the natural history of the United States. 5 vols.

Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 18571877.

Vols. 1-4 by Louis Agassiz were published from 1857-1862; Vol. 5, North American starfishes by Alexander Agassiz, appeared in 1877. Louis Agassiz was, for his time, the leading comparative anatomist in America and a virulent opponent of Darwinism. Ten volumes of this set were planned but only 5 appeared. Volume one contains Louis Agassiz's theoretical work, Essay on Classification. The remainder of the set is valuable for its descriptions of American turtles. Digital facsimiles of the 5 vols. from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › Marine Biology, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), NATURAL HISTORY, ZOOLOGY, ZOOLOGY › Herpetology
  • 619

On the formation of the skeletons of animals, and other hard structures formed in connexion with living tissues.

Brit. for. med.-chir. Rev., 20, 451-76., 1857.

Includes description of “Rainey’s tubes” or “corpuscles” in connexion with the process of calcification of tissues.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Muskuloskeletal System › Physiology of Bone Formation, PHYSIOLOGY › Comparative Physiology
  • 1001

Sur une fonction peu connue du pancréas. La digestion des aliments azotés. 10 pts.

Paris: V. Masson, 18571863.

Corvisart showed that pancreatic proteolysis takes place at body temperature, in acid, alkaline, or neutral media.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology
  • 687

On the immediate principles of human excrements in the healthy state.

Phil. Trans., 147, 403-13., 1857.

First important publication on coprosterol as a product of excretion.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY
  • 1327

Essays on the secretory and the excito-secretory system of nerves.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1857.

Campbell saw in the sympathetic a nervous system related to secretion and nutrition and having intimate connexion with the sensory nerves. He coined the ter “excito-secretory” to designate his theory; although this term has fallen into desuetude, the same idea was more recently advanced to explain the action of certain glands of internal secretion.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 4813.1

[Contribution to discussion on paper by E.H. Sieveking.]

Lancet, 1, 528, London, 1857.

Locock, physician accoucheur to Queen Victoria, recommended bromide of potassium in the treatment of epilepsy.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4814

Cases of epilepsy, associated with amenorrhoea and vicarious menstruation, successfully treated with the iodide of potassium.

Lancet, 1, 525, 1857.

O’Connor was apparently the first to use potassium bromide for the treatment of epilepsy.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 1996

Die Electricität in der Medicin.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1857.

Ziemssen confirmed Remak’s discovery of the motor points, established their exact location, and published exact instructions for finding the motor points for stimulating the various muscles of the body.



Subjects: Neurophysiology, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology, THERAPEUTICS › Medical Electricity / Electrotherapy
  • 1233

Researches into the structure and physiology of the kidney.

Trans. N.Y. Acad. Med., 1, 377-435, 1857.


Subjects: Genito-Urinary System › Kidney: Urinary Secretion, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Anatomy, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology

On the function of the Malpighian bodies of the kidney.

Trans. N.Y. Acad. Med., 1, 437-56, 1857.

Isaacs confirmed and corrected the findings of Bowman; he introduced dye experiments in the study of the kidney, from which he drew the important conclusion that the Malpighian bodies are the most important agency in the secretion of urine.


  • 1462

Anatomie und Physiologie des menschlichen Stimm- und Sprach-Organs (Anthropophonik).

Leipzig: A. Abel, 1857.


Subjects: Speech, Anatomy and Physiology of
  • 1863

Leçons sur les effets des substances toxiques et médicamenteuses.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1857.

Bernard included a summary of his experiments with curare in the Leçons to establish his priority in researching its effects. He demonstrated in these experiments the susceptibility of the nerve-muscle preparation to a chemical (pharmacological) effect.



Subjects: Neurophysiology, PHARMACOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY
  • 2297.1

Traité d’anatomie pathologique générale et spéciale. 4 vols.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 18571861.

Lebert set out to cover both general and special pathology. The superb hand-colored folio-sized copperplate engravings of macro- and micropathology in this work are among the finest ever published.



Subjects: Illustration, Biomedical, PATHOLOGY, PATHOLOGY › Pathology Illustration
  • 2472

Mémoire sur la fermentation appelée lactique.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 45, 913-16, 1857.

First demonstration of the connection between a specific fermentation and the activity of a specific living micro-organism. This paper is often considered the beginning of bacteriology as a modern science. The above work is a very much abridged “Extrait par l’auteur” of the complete text of Pasteur’s full paper which underwent roughly simultaneous publication in Mémoires de la Société des Sciences, de l’Agriculture et des Arts de Lille, 2e sér., 1858, 5, 13-26, and in Ann. de Chim. et de Phys., 3e sér., 1858, 52, 408-18.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Lactobacillus , MICROBIOLOGY, Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 1743

Practisches Handbuch der gerichtlichen Medicin. 2 vols. plus atlas of nine chromolithographed plates.

Berlin: August Hirschwald, 18571858.

Casper was the greatest name in forensic medicine in his time. His book was published in English by the New Sydenham Society in 1861-65; it was unsurpassed for many years.



Subjects: Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine)
  • 3064.1

Ein neuer Fall von Leukämie.

Virchows Arch. path. Anat., 12, 37-58., 1857.

Acute leukemia first described.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia
  • 3591

Hernia retroperitonealis. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte innerer Hernien.

Prague: F. A. Crednar, 1857.

Treitz described retroperitoneal hernia through the duodeno-jejunal recess – “Treitz’s hernia”.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Czech Republic, SURGERY: General › Hernia
  • 3765

Die Exstirpation der Milz am Menschen.

Giessen: Heyer, 1857.


Subjects: Spleen: Lymphatics
  • 3935

Untersuchungen über die Honigharnruhr.

Vjschr. prakt. Heilk., 55, 81-94., 1857.

Petters discovered acetone in diabetic urine.



Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 4045

Lichen exsudativus ruber.

Allg. Wien. med. Ztg., 2, 75-76, Vienna, 1857.

First description of this condition (“Hebra’s pityriasis”).



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 4046

Sur la coloration partielle en noir ou en bleu de la peau chez les femmes.

Bull. Acad. Méd. (Paris), 23, 1141-44; 26, 773-75, Paris, 18571858, 18601861.

Chromidrosis first described.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 3454

On the pathology, symptoms, and treatment of ulcer of the stomach.

London: John Churchill, 1857.

A comprehensive account of peptic (duodenal) ulcer; includes a review of the results of more than 7,000 post mortems.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Diseases of the Digestive System › Gastric / Duodenal Ulcer
  • 3455

Infusorier, sasom intestinaldjur hos menniskan.

Hygiea (Stockh.), 19, 491-501, 1857.

Discovery of Balantidium coli, the first parasitic protozoon to be discovered and recognized as such. German translation in Virchows Arch. path. Anat., 1857, 12, 302-09. English translation in Kean et al. (No. 2268.1).



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Esophagus: Stomach: Duodenum: Intestines, PARASITOLOGY › Protozoa
  • 3456

De polypis oesophagi atque de tumore ejus generis primo prospere exstirpato.

Wroclaw (Vratislava, Breslau): apud Max & Soc, 1857.

First operation for tumor of the esophagus.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, SURGERY: General › Surgical Oncology, Thoracic Surgery
  • 4933.1

Traité des dégénérescences physiques, intellectuelles et morales de l’espèce humaine. 1 vol. and atlas.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1857.

The main support for the theory of mental illness as regression which dominated psychiatric practice for several decades. Morel described and illustrated the nature, causes, and signs of human degeneration. He focused on physical signs but also included various intellectual and moral deviations. This led to the classification of criminals and geniuses as types of degenerates or deviates along with the insane and neurotic. Morel emphasized the hereditary factor and his work helped bring about a deemphasis on therapeutic work in the psychiatry of his time. The atlas reproduces by lithography some of the earliest photographs of the insane.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS, PSYCHIATRY
  • 5879

On the treatment of lacrymal obstructions.

Ophthal. Hosp. Rep., 1, 10-20, 88, 18571859.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures
  • 5880

Beiträge zur Lehre vom Schielen und von der Schiel-Operation.

v. Graefes Arch Ophthal., 3, 1 Abt., 177-286., 1857.

Graefe’s operation for strabismus.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures › Strabismus
  • 5881

Ueber die Iridectomie bei Glaucom und über den glaucomatösen Process.

v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal., 3, 2 Abt., 456-560; 4, 2 Abt., 127-61;1862, 8, 2 Abt., 242-313., 1857, 1858.

Iridectomy for the treatment of glaucoma was introduced by Graefe.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye › Glaucoma
  • 6043

System of practical surgery. 4th ed.

London: John Churchill, 1857.

Fergusson’s vaginal speculum is described on p. 724.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY
  • 6634

Geschichte christlicher Krankenpflege und Pflegerschaften.

Berlin: W. Hertz, 1857.

Reprinted, Bad Reichenhall, Kleinert, 1966.



Subjects: NURSING › History of Nursing, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 6518

Storia documentata della scuola medica di Salerno. 2nd. ed.

Naples: Nobile, 1857.

An account of the School was provided by P.O. Kristeller in Bull. Hist. Med., 1945, 17, 138-94. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession › History of Biomedical Education & Medical Profession, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › History of Medieval Medicine, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Italy › Schola Medica Salernitana
  • 5269

Missionary travels and researches in South Africa.

London: John Murray, 1857.

Livingstone gave an accurate account of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans and of the disease in cattle following its bite (see pp. 80-83; picture of the tsetse fly on p. 571). In his time the bite of the fly was thought to be (and perhaps was) harmless to man.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tsetse Fly-Borne Diseases › Sleeping Sickness (African Trypanosomiasis), TROPICAL Medicine , VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 1234

On the function of the Malpighian bodies of the kidney.

Trans. N.Y. Acad. Med., 437-56, 1857.

Isaacs confirmed and corrected the findings of Bowman; he introduced dye experiments in the study of the kidney, from which he drew the important conclusion that the Malpighian bodies are the most important agency in the secretion of urine.



Subjects: Genito-Urinary System › Kidney: Urinary Secretion, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology
  • 7250

[On the Feldhofer Neanderthal.]

Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereines der preussischen Rheinlande und Westphalens 14 (1857): xxxviii-xlii, l-lii, 1857.

The first account of the Neanderthal remains (Neanderthal 1), discovered in 1856 in the the Feldhofer cave of the Neander valley. The remains, which consist of a partial skull, pelvis and assorted long bones, were sent to Johann Carl Fuhlrott, a science teacher in Elberfeld, who immediately recognized that they were a previously unknown type of human. This conclusion was borne out by Hermann Schaaffhausen, a physician and anthropologist in Bonn to whom Fuhlrott sent a cast of the cranium. Over the winter of 1856–57 Schaaffhausen examined the Neanderthal bones in detail, and in 1857 he and Fuhlrott published preliminary announcements of the discovery in the Verhandl. des naturhis. Vereines des preuss. Rheinlande und Westphalens. Fuhlrott’s account appears on page l. 



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Physical Anthropology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Germany, EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 7470

Catalogue raisoneé of the medical library of the Pennsylvania Hospital.

Philadelphia: Printed by T. K. & P. G. Collins, 1857.

Listing 10,500 items, the library of the Pennsylvania Hospital, founded in 1763, was undoubtedly the largest hospital library in the United States in 1857, and possibly the largest medical library in America. The first catalogue of the library was published in 1790, with supplements or new catalogues in 1793, 1806, 1829, and 1838. What was remarkable about the 1857 catalogue was its complex arrangement by medical specialty laid out in an 18-page Table of Contents set in fairly small type. This organizational scheme indicates much about the organization of medical knowledge at the time. The author, identified in this bibliography as "librarian" to prevent confusion with the biochemist of the same name, was a physician as well as a librarian. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Institutional Medical Libraries, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Pennsylvania
  • 8190

Traité de géographie et de statistique médicales et des maladies endémiques comprenant la météorologie et la géologie médicales, les lois stastisuqes de la population et de la mortalité, la distribution géographique des malades et la pathologie comparée des races humaines. 2 vols.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1857.

Digital facsimile of vol. 1 from Google Books at this link; of vol. 2 from BnF Gallica at this link.



Subjects: Bioclimatology, Geography of Disease / Health Geography
  • 8825

Indigenous races of the earth; or new chapters of ethnological enquiry: Including monographs on special departments of philology, iconography, cranioscopy, palaeontology, pathology, archaeology, comparative geography and natural history: Contributed by Alfred Maury, Francis Pulszky, and J. Aiken Meigs. With contributions from Jos. Leiden and L. Agassiz. Presenting fresh investigations by J. C. Nott and Geo. R. Glidden.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1857.

Expensively produced, and sold in both standard and large paper subscriber editions, Nott and Gliddon's work was one of the most egregiously racist publications in the history of physical anthropology. Nott, a prominent Southern physician, was a member of Samuel George Morton's American School of Anthropology, which held that that the different races of humankind represented separate species with separate, ancient origins predating the Biblical "creation." Polygenist arguments about race were particularly attractive in the antebellum South, as they provided support for slavery without overtly contradicting the Bible's account of the creation. One of the most outrageous of these arguments (by our standards) was Agassiz's correlation of the geographical distribution of monkeys with that of the "inferior" (i.e., non-white) races of man, an idea further developed by Gliddon in a fold-out chart. This chart, as well as the large folding "Ethnographic Tableau" at the front of the book, are hand-colored in the subscriber's edition; in the regular small-paper edition they are uncolored. Digital facsimile  of a "Subscriber's Copy" from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY › Craniology, ANTHROPOLOGY › Ethnology, ANTHROPOLOGY › Physical Anthropology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.) › American South
  • 8829

Catalogue of human crania, in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia: Based upon the third edition of Dr. Morton's "Catalogue of Skulls," &c.

Philadelphia, 1857.

"Since the death of the late lamented President of the Academy of Natural Sciences,- Dr. Samuel George Morton,- his magnifcent Collection of Human Crania, recently increased by the receipt of 67 skulls from various sources, has been permanently deposited in the Museum of the Academy. Prior to his demise, Dr. M. had recieved 100 crania in addition to those mentioned in the third edition of his Catalogue. Since 1849, therefore, the Collection has been augmented by the addition of 167 skulls. To complete the Catalogue in a uniform manner, these have been carefully numbered and measured in accordance with the methods recorded in the Crania Americana, &c....

"The entire Collection,- numbering 1035 crania,- was purchased by forty-two gentlemen from the executors of Dr. Morton, for the sum of $4,000 and by them generously presented to the academy.

"The Collection occupies 16 cases on the first gallery, on the south side of the lower room of the Museum. For convenience of study and examination I have grouped the crania according to Race, Family, Tribe, &c., strictly adhering, however, to the classification of Dr. Morton....(p, 3).

"Extensive and unique as is the Collection, it is, nevertheless, still too limited to justify positive and comprehensive conclusions concerning the great fundamental problems of Ethnology. That it will be capable, when sufficiently extended, of throwing much light upon these obscure and unsettled questions is amply attested by the scientific publications of Dr. Morton. It is earnestly hoped, therefore, that this magnificent nucleus, the result of much pecuniary sacrifice and many years of enthusiastic labor on the part of its late illustrious owner and founder, will not be neglected, but that its efficiency will be increased, and the objects for which it was gathered together attained by contributions from all who may be interested in the advancement of this youngest, most intricate, and most important of the sciences" (p. 11). Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Craniology, ANTHROPOLOGY › Ethnology, ANTHROPOLOGY › Physical Anthropology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological , U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Pennsylvania
  • 8854

Compendio storico della scuola anatomica di Bologna dal Rinascimento delle scienze e delle letters a tutto il secolo XVIII. Con un paragone fra la sua antichità e quella delle scuole di Salerno e di Padova.

Bologna: Tipografia Governativa della Volpe e del Sassi, 1857.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Italy, Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession › History of Biomedical Education & Medical Profession
  • 8891

Étude médico-légale sur les attentats aux moeurs.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1857.

In this work Tardieu analyzed 632 cases of sexual abuse in females (mostly children) and 302 cases in males, describing physical signs according to the severity of the abuse. Digital facsimile of the expanded fifth edition (1867) from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine), PSYCHIATRY › Child Psychiatry, PSYCHIATRY › Forensic Psychiatry
  • 8981

Soyer's culinary campaign. Being historical reminiscences of the late war. With the plain art of cookery for military and civil institutions, the army, navy, public, etc., etc.

London & New York: G. Routledge, 1857.

During the Crimean War, Soyer, probably the most famous English celebrity chef of his time, joined the troups at his own expense to advise the army on cooking and diet. "Later he was paid his expenses and wages equivalent to those of a Brigadier-General. He reorganized the provisioning of the army hospitals. He designed his own field stove, the Soyer Stove, and trained and installed in every regiment the "Regimental cook" so that soldiers would get an adequate meal and not suffer from malnutrition or die of food poisoning. He wrote A Culinary Campaign as a record of his activities in the Crimea. Catering standards within the British Army would remain inconsistent, however, and there would not be a single Army Catering Corps until 1945. This is now part of the Royal Logistics Corps, whose catering HQ is called Soyer's House. His stove, or adaptions of it, remained in British military service into the late 20th century" (Wikipedia) Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Crimean War, NUTRITION / DIET
  • 9165

The seaman's medical friend, a companion to the government medicine chest, intended for use in ships not carrying surgeons. Containing directions for the preservation of health and the cure of diseases, wounds, fractures, dislocations, and other accidents likely to occur at sea. Comprising also the Admiralty scale of medicines. Second edition.

Liverpool: W. Fernall & Co., 1857.

"The present edition of The Seaman's Medical Friend is a new book rather than a mere revision of an old one; since the whole of that portion which relates to the Preservation of health, and the symptoms and treatment of diseases and injuries, has been entirely rewritten. The part on medicines, their doses, &c., has been printed but with a few alterations from the former edition. In the description of the nature and cure of Diseases and Accidents, I have avoided, as far as possible, the use of technical terms, and I believe, therefore, that the whole will be found intelligible to all its readers.

"It will be obvious that a complete treatise on all diseases is not demanded here, but simply an account of those likely to arise among sailors; with directions for such treatment as the remedies and assistance at hand render possible—and it is hoped that in this respect the present work will be found to justify its name of The Seaman's Medical Friend" (Preface). Digital facsimile of the 1857 second edition from Google Books at this link.

When I created this entry in February 2017 no record of the first edition was available in OCLC.



Subjects: Emergency Medicine, Household or Self-Help Medicine, Maritime Medicine, Survival Medicine
  • 10376

Observations on the human crania contained in the Museum of the Army Medical Department, Fort Pitt, Chatham.

Dublin: McGlashan & Gill, 1857.

Reprinted from the Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science, May and August, 1857. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Physical Anthropology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Ireland, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE, MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological
  • 10427

Der Staat Californien in medicinisch-geographischer Hinsicht.

Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1857.

Dr. Praslow practiced medicine in San Francisco from 1849-1856, after which he returned to Germany. His book provides information concerning health and epidemics in San Francisco during this early period. Translated into English by Frederick C. Cordes as The State of California: a medico-geographical account (San Francisco: John J. Newbegin, 1939). Digital facsimile of the 1857 from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Biogeography, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.) › American West, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › California
  • 10514

Report on the United States and Mexican boundary survey: Made under the direction of the secretary of the Interior. By William H. Emory. 2 vols. in 4.

Washington, DC: A. O. P. Nicholson, Printer, 18571859.

Vol. 1, pt. by W. H. Emory.

Vol. 1, pt. 2: Geological reports by C.C. Parry and Arthur Schott, notes by W. H. Emory; Paleontology and geology of the boundary by James Hall; Description of cretaceous and tertiary fossils by T. A. Conrad.

Vol. 2, pt. 1: Botany of the boundary: Introduction by C. C. Parry; General botany by John Torrey; Cataceae by George Engelmann.

Vol. 2, pt. 2: Zoology of the boundary: Mammals, Birds, Repitles by S. F. Baird; Fishes by C. Girard.

The natural history reports are extensively illustrated.

Digital facsimiles, including the Senate and House versions of Vol. 2, pt. 1, from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Mexico, NATURAL HISTORY, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Texas, ZOOLOGY › Ichthyology, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 11701

Adnotationes ad Rhinoplasticen. Commentatio quam consensu et auctoritate ....ad veniam legendi.

Dorpat (Tartu) Estonia: Typis vidua J.C. Schünmanni..., 1857.

Digital facsimile of the 1847 edition from dspace.ut.ee at this link. Szymanoski's dissertation was translated into German as "Zur plastischen Chirurgie," Vierteljahrschrift für die praktische Heilkunde, 60 (1858) 127-159. Blair O. Rogers, "J. von Szymanowski, His Life and Contribution to Plastic Surgery," Plast. & Reconstr. Surg,. 64, 465-78.



Subjects: PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY › Rhinoplasty
  • 11784

Noticia da vida e trabalhos scientificos do medico Bernardino Antonio Gomés.

Memorias da Acad. Real das Sciencias de Lisboa, 2, pt. 1, 3-25, , 1857.

Biography and annotated bibliography of the physician and botanist Gomés senior, written by his son. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Individual Authors, BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals
  • 11806

Omphalos: An attempt to untie the geological knot.

London: John van Voorst, 1857.

In Omphalos, published in 1857, two years before the publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species, Gosse attempted to reconcile the paleontological record with creationist religious beliefs by arguing that the fossil record was not evidence of evolution, but an act of creation by God to make the world appear older than it actually is. This tautology parallels how Gosse chose to explain why Adam, who could have had no mother, had a navel: Though Adam would have had no need of a navel, God gave him one anyway to give him the appearance of having human ancestry. Following this argument, the title of Gosse's book, Omphalos, means "navel" in Greek.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: EVOLUTION, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 12016

Leçons sur la physiologie et l'anatomie comparée de l'homme et des animaux faites a la Faculté des Sciences de Paris. 14 vols.

Paris: Masson, 18571881.

Digital facsimile of all the volumes from Google Books; vol. 1 at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Comparative Anatomy, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 12018

Histoire naturelle des coralliaires, ou polypes proprement dits. 3 vols. + Atlas.

Paris: Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, 18571860.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Anthozoology
  • 12091

Climatology of the United States, and of the temperate latitudes of the North American Continent. Being a full comparison of these with the climatology of the temperate latitudes of Europe and Asia. And especially in regard to agriculture, sanitary investigations, and engineering. With isothermal and rain charts for each season, the extreme months, and the year...

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1857.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Bioclimatology, Biogeography
  • 12322

Report of an operation for removing a foreign body from beneath the heart. Published by the San Francisco County Medico Chirurgical Association as an additional paper to its Transactions for the year 1857.

San Francisco, CA: Whitton, Towne & Co. Printers and Publishers, 1857.

Perhaps the earliest separate publication on a surgical operation issued in California.



Subjects: SURGERY: General , U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › California
  • 12788

Catalogue des sciences médicales. Bibliothèque nationale, Département des imprimés. 4 vols.

Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot Frères, Fils et Cie, 18571889.

When the first volume was published in 1857 the library was designated Bibliothèque Impériale. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Institutional Life Sciences Libraries
  • 12886

A treatise on the use of adhesive gold foil.

Philadelphia: Jones, White & McCurdy, 1857.

In 1855, Robert Arthur discovered that by heating the gold foil impurities could be driven off, and the gold could be made to adhere to itself, a property known as cohesion. He passed each portion of foil through a flame before inserting it in the cavity, and devised methodical routines for filing cavities of different shapes with metal of consistent density, by using plugging instruments with small working ends, and so exerting high pressures to compact the gold, and weld it into a solid mass. 

Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.



Subjects: DENTISTRY › Dental Restoration
  • 12921

Étude sur le développement des dents humaines. Thèse pour le doctorat en médecine.

Paris: Rignoux, Imprimeur de la Faculté de Médecine, 1857.


Subjects: DENTISTRY › Dental Anatomy & Physiology
  • 12966

Berceau incubateur pour les enfants nés avant terme.

J. de Méd. de Bordeaux, 723-724, 1857.

This brief notice, about 400 words long, citing no references, was the first published account of an incubator for premature infants. Denucé built a double-walled zinc tub in which the space between the walls was filled with warm water.



Subjects: PEDIATRICS › Neonatology
  • 12973

Catalogue de la bibliothèque scientifique de MM. de Jussieu, dont la vente aur lieu le lundi 14 janvier 1858 et jours suivants, à sept heurs du soir....

Paris: Henri Labitte, Libraire, 1857.

Auction catalogue of the library of the de Jussieu dynasty of botanists.  Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.


Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Botany / Materia Medica, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries
  • 4467

On amputation by a long and a short rectangular flap.

London: John Churchill, 1858.

Teale’s method of amputation.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Amputations: Excisions: Resections
  • 935

De sanguine oxydo carbonico infesto.

Wroclaw (Vratislava, Breslau): typ. Grasii, Barthii et soc, 1858.

Investigation of the blood gases.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Gases, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 548

Mikroskopische Studien aus dem Gebiete der menschlichen Morphologie.

Erlangen: Ferdinand Enke, 1858.

Gerlach introduced several staining methods, the most important of which (a transparent solution of ammonia carmine and gelatin) is called “Gerlach’s stain”; it was the first satisfactory histological stain.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology)
  • 4533

Note sur une paralysie peu connue de certains muscles de l’oeil, et sa liaison avec quelques points de l’anatomie et la physiologie de la protubérance annulaire.

Bull. Soc. Anat. Paris, 33, 393-414, Paris, 1858.

“Foville’s syndrome”– crossed paralysis of the limbs on one side of the body and of the face on the other side, together with loss of ability to rotate the eyes to that side. English translation in Wolf, The classical brain stem syndromes, Springfield: Charles C Thomas, 1971.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System
  • 1996.1
  • 4534

Galvanotherapie der Nerven- und Muskelkrankheiten.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1858.

Remak was a pioneer of galvanotherapy. Having treated some 700 patients with galvanic current, he believed that it was superior to faradic current for electrotherapy.

 

 



Subjects: THERAPEUTICS › Medical Electricity / Electrotherapy
  • 999.1

Nouvelles recherches expérimentales sur les phénomènes glycogéniques du foie.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Memoires), (1857) 2 sér. 4, 1-7, 1858.

Isolation of glycogen. See also C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 1857, 44, 578-86, 1325-31.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology
  • 868

Bestimmungen der Menge des Körperblutes und der Blutfärbekraft, sowie Bestimmungen von Zahl, Maass Oberfläche und Volum des einzelnen Blutkörperchens bei Thieren und bei Menschen.

Z. rat. Med., 3 R., 4, 145-67; 3 R., 20, 257-307, 1858, 1863.

Welcker was the first to determine the total blood volume and the volume of the normal red blood cells. Earlier paper in Vjschr. prakt. Heilk., 1854, 44, 63.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY
  • 418

Anatomy, descriptive and surgical. By Henry Gray. The drawings by H. V. Carter. The dissections jointly by the author and Dr. Carter.

London: John W. Parker & Son, 1858.

Gray’s textbook of anatomy remains today a standard work on the subject in the English-speaking world. The 37th edition appeared in 1989; the first American edition was published at Philadelphia, 1859. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration
  • 419

A treatise on the human skeleton, including the joints.

Cambridge, England: Macmillan, 1858.

Humphry was professor of anatomy at Cambridge and became the first professor of surgery there. He founded the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology in 1867. “Humphry’s ligament” of the knee-joint is described on p. 546 of the above book and pictured on plate 53, fig. 1.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ORTHOPEDICS › Muskuloskeletal System
  • 420

Des moyens chirurgicaux de favoriser la reproduction des os après les résections

Gaz. hebd. Méd. Chir. 5, 572-7, 651-3, 733-6, 769-70, 853-7, 890, 899-905., 1858.

“Ollier’s layer”, the osteogenetic layer of the periosteum.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century
  • 2165
GREAT BRITAIN. War Office. Medical Services

Medical and surgical history of the British Army which served in Turkey and the Crimea during the war against Russia, in the years 1854-56. 2 vols.

London: Harrison & Sons, 1858.

First official medical and surgical history of a war.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Russia, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Turkey, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Crimean War
  • 1561

Ueber die Endigungsweise des Hörnerven im Labyrinth.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 343-81, 1858.

Schultze’s great monographs on the nerve-endings of the sense organs were of prime importance in the development of the science of histology. Besides that dealing with the internal ear, he wrote others dealing with the nose and the retina. See Nos. 936, 1512.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 4774

De l’ataxie locomotrice progressive.

Arch. gén. Méd., 5 sér., 12, 641-52;13, 36-62, 158-81, 417-51, 18581859.

Although far from being the first to describe tabes dorsalis, Duchenne gave a classic account of the condition, earning the eponym “Duchenne’s disease”.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neurosyphilis
  • 774

De l’influence de deux ordres de nerfs qui déterminent les variations de couleur du sang veineux dans les organes glondulaires.

C. R. Acad. Sci., (Paris), 47, 245-53; 393-400., 1858.

Discovery of the vasoconstrictor and vasodilator nerves and description of their function of regulating the blood supply to the different parts of the body.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Cardiovascular System, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology
  • 775

Die Erscheinungen und Gesetze der Stromgeschwindigkeiten des Blutes.

Frankfurt: Meidinger Sohn & Co., 1858.

Vierordt estimated, by means of a “hemotachometer” of his own invention, the rate of the blood flow in various arteries, and also the influence of the blood volume, pulse rate and respiratory rate upon it.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES
  • 1399

Leçons sur la physiologie et la pathologie du système nerveux. 2 vols.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1858.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, Neurophysiology
  • 2028.57

A new method of resuscitating still-born children, and of restoring persons apparently drowned or dead.

Brit. Med. J., 576-79., 1858.

Silvester’s method of artificial respiration.



Subjects: Resuscitation
  • 1463

Beiträge zur Theorie der Sinneswahrnehmung.

Z. rat. Med., 4, 229-93; 7, 279-318, 321-96; 12, 145-262; 14, 1-77; 15, 104-79., 1858, 1859.

Sensory perception. Wundt was one of the founders of experimental psychology.



Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY › Experimental, PSYCHOLOGY › Sensation / Perception
  • 2298

On the early stages of inflammation.

Phil. Trans., 148, 645-702., 1858.

This paper reports the results of one of Lister’s most valuable researches; his conclusions still hold today.



Subjects: PATHOLOGY
  • 2299

Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begründung auf physiologische und pathologische Gewebelehre.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1858.

Virchow was the greatest figure in the history of pathology. His best work, Die Cellularpathologie, is one of the most important books in the history of medicine and the foundation stone of cellular pathology. The English translation, London, 1860, was reprinted several times in the 19th century, and in recent years. Virchow founded the Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie (“Virchow’s Archiv”). Biography by E. H. Ackerknecht, 1953. See the annotated bibliography by L. J. Rather, A Commentary on the Medical Writings of Rudolf Virchow, San Francisco: Norman Publishing, 1990.



Subjects: PATHOLOGY
  • 2385

Ueber die Natur der constitutionell-syphilitischen Affectionen.

Virchows Arch. path. Anat., 15, 217-336., 1858.

Virchow’s great work on the pathology of syphilis confirmed the fact that it was a disease which involved all organs and tissues of the body and showed that the causal organism was transferred through the blood to the various organs and tissues. Issued as offprint, Berlin, 1859.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2386

Report on the effects of infantile syphilis in marring the development of the teeth.

Trans path. Soc. Lond., 9, 449-55, 1858.

Hutchinson of St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, is memorable for his original description of the notched incisors (“Hutchinson’s teeth”) in congenital syphilis. His name is also associated with “Hutchinson’s triad” (interstitial keratitis, notched incisors and labyrinthine disease) in congenital syphilis.



Subjects: DENTISTRY › Oral Pathology , GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Syphilis
  • 204

Zur Kenntniss der ältesten Rassenschädel.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 453-78., 1858.

The first comprehensive description of the Neanderthal skull, following Schaaffhausen’s and Fuhlrott’s preliminary announcements of the discovery in the Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereines der preussischen Rheinlande und Westphalens. The Neanderthal I skull discovered in 1856 was the first human fossil skull morphologically distinct from the skulls of modern Homo sapiens, to be discovered. English translation, with comments, by G. Busk entitled “On the crania of the most ancient races of man” in Nat. Hist. Rev., 1861, 1, 155-76. Huxley (No. 165) made much of this discovery; however, because the skull was not unearthed from demonstrably ancient strata, its age was disputed until a more rigorously unearthed find occurred in 1886.



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Physical Anthropology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Germany, EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 3620

Klinik der Leberkrankheiten. 2 vols. and atlas.

Braunschweig: F. Vieweg u. Sohn , 18581861.

Frerichs’s classic monograph on diseases of the liver summarized the existing knowledge and included his own important work on the subject. He discovered leucine and tyrosine in the liver in acute yellow atrophy (Dtsch. Klin., 1855, 7, 341-43), a condition to which he devoted much study. Frerichs was Professor of Pathology at Berlin and enjoyed a great reputation; more than any other man he was responsible for the development of scientific teaching in Germany. English translation, London, 1860.



Subjects: HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Liver
  • 3330

Der Kehlkopfrachenspiegel und die Methode seines Gebrauches.

Z. k. k. Ges. Aerzte Wien, n.F. 1, 401-09, 1858.

Türck, at first sceptical of Garcia’s laryngoscope, later adopted it and claimed from Czermak priority in its clinical employment; these two gentlemen fought one another bitterly for some years over this point.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Laryngoscope, OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Laryngology › Laryngoscopy
  • 3331

Physiologie Untersuchungen mit Garcia’s Kehlkopfspiegel.

S. B. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien., math.-nat. Cl., 29, 557-84, 1858.

Czermak was the first to demonstrate the utility of the laryngoscope invented by Garcia. He substituted artificial light for sunlight and made other improvements.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Laryngoscope, OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Laryngology › Laryngoscopy
  • 2761

On malformations, etc., of the human heart.

London: John Churchill, 1858.

Includes an account of the “tetralogy of Fallot” (see No. 2792). Peacock’s book was “the first comprehensive study covering the whole field” (Maude Abbott). Reprinted, Boston, Mass., 1973.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects
  • 2960

Case of aneurism of the femoral artery for which ligatures were successively applied to the femoral, profunda, external and common iliac.

N.Y.J. Med., 3 ser, 5, 305-11, 1858.


Subjects: VASCULAR SURGERY › Ligations
  • 3457

Description of the operation of gastrotomy.

Guy’s Hosp. Rep., 3 ser., 4, 13-18, 1858.

First gastrostomy in Britain.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Esophagus: Stomach: Duodenum: Intestines, SURGERY: General › Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery
  • 4854

Exsection of the trunk of the second branch of the fifth pair of nerves, beyond the ganglion of Meckel, for severe neuralgia of the face; with three cases.

Amer. J. med. Sci., n.s. 35, 134-43, 1858.

First excision of the superior maxillary nerve for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 3684

On certain irregularities of the teeth with cases illustrative of a novel method of successful treatment.

Bath, England: C. W. Oliver, 1858.

First work devoted exclusively to irregularities of the teeth.



Subjects: DENTISTRY › Orthodontics
  • 4934

A manual of psychological medicine.

London: John Churchill, 1858.

Bucknill and Tuke were both distinguished neurologists, and advocates of no restraint in the institutional treatment of mental patients. Their book was for many years the standard English work on psychological medicine. Reprinted 1968.



Subjects: PSYCHIATRY
  • 5525

Historia de la verrugas.

Gac. méd. Lima, 2, 161-64, 175-78, 1858.

Verruga peruana.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Peru, DERMATOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Sandfly-Borne Diseases › Oroya Fever
  • 5605

Silver sutures in surgery.

New York: S. S. & S. W. Wood, 1858.

Sims, famous American gynecologist, introduced a silver wire suture, in order to avoid sepsis. See No. 6037.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Sepsis / Antisepsis, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY, SURGERY: General
  • 5883

Klinische Analyse der Motilitätsstörungendes Auges.

Berlin: H. Peters, 1858.

Alfred Carl Graefe, cousin of Albrecht, made a careful clinical analysis of disordered movements of the eye. He also invented a special “localization ophthalmoscope”, and, with Saemisch, edited the great Handbuch der gesamten Augenheilkunde (see No. 5944).



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Ophthalmoscope, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ophthalmoscopy
  • 6044

On epicystotomy.

N.Y.J. Med., 3 ser., 4, 9-24, 1858.

Noeggerath, who devised the operation of epicystotomy, spent many years in America, where he became a leading gynecologist and obstetrician.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY
  • 6045

Der Gebärmutterkrebs.

Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1858.

In this work Wagner presented the first important contribution to the knowledge of the gross pathology of uterine cancer.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY, ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 6614

Etudes médicales sur les poètes latins.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1858.


Subjects: LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology › Poetry
  • 6757

Graphische lncunabeln für Naturgeschichte und Medicin. Enthaltend Geschichte und Bibliographie der ersten naturhistorischen und medicinischen Drucke des XV. und XVI. Jahrhunderts, welche mit illustrirenden Abbildungen versehen sind.

Leipzig: R. Weigel, 1858.

Reprint, Munich, 1924, Hildesheim, 1963.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › 15th Century (Incunabula) & Medieval, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History
  • 5270

Arsenic as a remedy for the tsetse bite.

Brit. med. J., 360-61, 1858.

Livingstone was probably the first to administer arsenic for the treatment of “nagana”, a disease of horses caused by trypanosomes. This followed a suggestion by James Braid. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tsetse Fly-Borne Diseases › Sleeping Sickness (African Trypanosomiasis), TROPICAL Medicine , VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 5666

On chloroform and other anaesthetics: Their action and administration. Edited, with a memoir of the author, by Benjamin W. Richardson.

London: John Churchill, 1858.

Snow, the first specialist in anesthesiology, delivered Queen Victoria with the aid of chloroform in 1853 and 1857. This work was edited for publication after Snow's premature death by Richardson, who included a biography of Snow. Snow's final book, which consisted of 538pp. compared to only 88pp. in his first book on anesthesia published in 1847, put the administration of chloroform and ether on a scientific basis. Snow also investigated amylene, which he was the first to administer. Digital facsimile of William T. G. Morton's copy in the Countway Library of Medicine from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Chloroform, ANESTHESIA › Ether
  • 7481

Notes on matters affecting the health, efficiency, and hospital administration of the British Army. Founded chiefly on the experience of the late war. Presented by request to the Secretary of State for War.

London: [Privately Printed], 1858.

This privately printed pamphlet contained a color statistical graphic entitled "Diagram of the causes of mortality in the Army of the East" which showed that epidemic disease, which was responsible for more British deaths in the course of the Crimean War than battlefield wounds, could be controlled by a variety of factors including nutrition, ventilation, and shelter. The graphic, which Nightingale used as a way to explain complex statistics simply, clearly, and persuasively, became known as Nightingale's "Rose Diagram." In January 1859 Nightingale conventionally published and distributed a 16-page pamphlet entitled  A Contribution to the the Sanitary History of the British Army during the late war with Russia. This also contained a copy of the Rose Diagram. The statistical tables used by Nightingale were prepared by William Farr from Andrew Smith's tables and other official documents. Digital facsimile of the 1859 edition from Harvard' Library at this link.



Subjects: DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics, DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics › Graphic Display of, GRAPHIC DISPLAY of Medical & Scientific Information, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Crimean War, PUBLIC HEALTH, Ventilation, Health Aspects of , WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1800 - 1899
  • 9178

On the general geographical distribution of the members of the class Aves.

J. Proc. Linn. Soc., 2, 130-145., 1858.

Sclater defined and named six zoological regions: the PalaearcticAethiopianIndianAustralasianNearctic and Neotropical. With some name revision (Afrotropic for Aethiopian, and Indomalayan for Indian,) these zoogeographic regions are still in use. Digital facsimile from the Linnean Society at this link.



Subjects: Biogeography, Biogeography › Zoogeography
  • 9312

Notes on the surgery of the war in the Crimea, with remarks on the treatment of gunshot wounds.

London: John Churchill, 1858.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link. Reprinted in Richmond, Virginia in 1862 during the American Civil War for the Confederate States Army by J. W. Randolph; digital facsimile of the Richmond edition from the Internet Archive at this link. Also reprinted in Philadelphia in 1862 for the Union Army by J. B. Lippincott; digital facsimile of the Philadelphia edition from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: American (U.S.) CIVIL WAR MEDICINE, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Crimean War
  • 10218

Histoire du Collegium Medicum Antverpiense.

Antwerp: Imprimerie J.-E. Buschmann, 1858.

Text in French. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Belgium, Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession
  • 10278

Mémoire sur les vers intestinaux.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1858.

Beneden's treatise on the development, transformation, and life-histories of parasitic worms won the Grand prix des sciences physiques of the Institut de France. It was published in the "International Scientific Series" (1875), under the title Les commensaux et les parasites dans le règne animal, and was translated into English and German. The 1875 edition introduced the key biological concept Commensalism. In ecology this is defined as "a class of relationships between two organisms where one organism benefits from the other without affecting it. This is in contrast with mutualism, in which both organisms benefit from each other, amensalism, where one is harmed while the other is unaffected, and parasitism, where one benefits while the other is harmed." Digital facsimile of the 1858 edition from the Internet Archive at this link. English translation with commensaux quaintly translated as "messmates" in Animal parasites and messmates (1876). Digital facsimile of the English translation from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Parasitic Worms
  • 11133

Traité de la folie des femmes enceintes, des nouvelles accouchées et des nourrices et considérations médico-légales qui se rattachent à ce sujet.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1858.

The first work on psychiatric illnesses of women during and after pregnancy. Marcé provided extensive clinical descriptions of syndromes, with 79 case examples, and summarized etiological theories and treatments characteristic of his era and place. This work was based on cases that he personally evaluated and on other reported cases, drawn from a wide range social and economic backgrounds. Marcé showed an appreciation of epidemiological evidence and a critical approach to the conventional pathophysiological and therapeutic views of his time. His work anticipated modern rediscovery of the high risk of depression in pregnancy and of both acute mood disorders and psychoses, postpartum. 

Digital facsimile from BnFgallica at this link.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS, PSYCHIATRY
  • 11302

Catalogue of the surgical and pathological museum of Valentine Mott and of his son Alexander B. Mott.

New York: Wm. M. Taylor, Book and Job Printer, 1858.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological
  • 11660

Horae subsecivae. Locke and Sydenham with other occasional papers. [Vol. 2:] Rab and his friends and other papers.

Edinburgh: Thomas Constable and Co., 18581882.

William Osler promoted the value of the writings of the popular medical essayist John Brown to the medical community. He wrote:

"To the medical student the writings of Dr. John Brown have this special value - they impress him with the necessity of a wider culture than that which is merely professional. The 'Horae subsecivae', which I first read when a student in London in 1872-73, made a lasting impression, and my interest in Locke and Sydenham date from the reading of the essay that gave the title to the volume. A present from my class-mate and dear friend, Arthur Browne --himself sealed mentally and morally of the fellowship of Sir Thomas and Charles Lamb, it stimulated my love general literature.

"That Brown's fine spirit, perturbed with spiritual doubts, should have descended into the hell so vividly described by Burton [in Anatomy of melancholy] is an inexplicable tragedy; but it is comforting to know that the clouds passed and there was sun-shine at the close" (Osler, Bibliotheca Osleriana, 4396). Digital facsimile of the first and various editions from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology
  • 12065

Speech of Charles Dickens, Esq., on behalf of The Hospital for Sick Children, 49, Great Ormond Street. Patron, - Her Majesty the Queen. The objects of the institution are - I. The medical and surgical treatment of poor children. II. The attainment and diffusion of knowledge regarding the diseases of children. 3. The training of nurses for children.

London: Printed by Folkard and Sons, 1858.

Speech of Charles Dickens as Chairman at the Dinner on Behalf of the Hospital for Sick Children, February 9th, 1858. This 10-page pamphlet was first published in 1858 and reprinted in 1864, in 1865, and in 1874 to raise money for the hospital. Digital facsimile of the 1874 printing from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: HOSPITALS, LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology
  • 12152

Diphtheritis: A concise historical and critical essay on the late epidemic pseudo-membranous sore throat of California (1856-7), with a few remarks illustrating the diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of the disease.

Sacramento, CA: James Anthony & Co., 1858.

For publishing this 46-page pamphlet Fourgeaud has been called "California's first medical historian." Digital facsimile from U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Diphtheria, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › California
  • 12256

Des appareils l'electriques des poissons l'electriques. 2 vols. (Text and atlas).

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1858.

Digital facsimile of the text from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology, ZOOLOGY › Ichthyology
  • 12482

Impressions of Western Africa. With remarks on the diseases of the climate and a report on the peculiarities of trade up the rivers in the Bight of Biafra.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans & Roberts, 1858.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, Slavery and Medicine, TROPICAL Medicine , VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 13193

Anatomie chirurgicale homolographique, ou Déscription et figures des principales regions du corps humain, representées de grandeur naturelle, d'après des sections planes pratiquées sur des cadavres congeles....

Paris: Baillière, 1858.

Contains 25 plates lithographed by Lemercier after drawings by the author representing natural size sections taken in horizontal, sagittal and oblique planes from various portions of the body. The first plate of the surface of a male figure serves as a key to the various planes of the sections. The introduction is probably the first survey of literature to date on cross-sectional anatomy.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Cross-Sectional
  • 4497

The nature and treatment of gout and rheumatic gout.

London: Walton & Maberly, 1859.

Garrod was the leading authority of his time on gout, which he separated from other forms of arthritis by his discovery of excess of uric acid in the blood of gouty sufferers. He gave to rheumatoid arthritis its present name.



Subjects: RHEUMATOLOGY › Arthritis, RHEUMATOLOGY › Gout (Podagra)
  • 935.1

Experimental inquiries into the chemical and other phenomena of respiration, and their modifications by various physical agents.

Phil. Trans., 149, 681-714, 1859.

Smith invented a respirometer to study changes in respiratory function under various conditions. See also the following paper (pp. 715-42) on the effects of foods on respiration. For an account of his work in this and other fields, see C. B. Chapman, J. Hist. Med., 1967, 22, 1-26.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Respirometer, NUTRITION / DIET, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 812.2

Fissura sterni congenita. New observations and experiments made in Amerika [sic] and Great Britain with illustrations of the case and instruments.

Hamburg: J. E. M. Köhler, 1859.

Records first use of telegraphy to record and measure the heart beat and pulse, written and published by the patient, who lived to the age of 45. This was done in Boston with an instrument placed against Groux’s chest, the other end of which was in contact with the circuit breaker of the telegraph. Dr. J. B. Upham called his device a sphygmosphone. Includes reprint of "Report of the Committee of the N.Y. Pathological Society, appointed to examine the case of Mr. E. A. Groux….", American medical monthly, 1859, 11, 35-40 with supplementary material, and new illustrations.  



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Cardiac Electrophysiology, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES
  • 334

Die Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs, wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild.

Leipzig: C. F. Winter, 18591969.

This great systematic work, begun by Bronn, was continued by other naturalists. It deals with both recent and fossil zoology. Bronn wrote the volumes dealing with AmorphozoaActinozoa, and Malacozoa, published 1859-1862.  Digital facsimile  of some of the volumes from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link. The Wikipedia article on Bronn listed the following volumes published in the series, as of 02-2017:

"Die Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs (alternative title Dr. H.G. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnugen des Thier-Reichs: wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild). C.F. Winter, Leipzig und Heidelberg, 1859. Some volumes were not published. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.2054.

  • First editions:
    • Band 1: Amorphozoa, von H.G. Bronn, 1859, [1].
    • Band 2: Actinozoa, von H.G. Bronn, 1860, [2].
    • Band 3, Malacozoa, Abt. 1: Malacozoa acephala, von H.G. Bronn, 1862, [3].
    • Band 3, Malacozoa, Abt. 2: Malacozoa cephalophora, von W. Keferstein, 1862-1866, [4].
    • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 1, Crustacea, Halfte 1: Entomostraca. Von A. Gerstaecker, 1866-1879, [5].
    • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 1, Crustacea, Halfte 2: Malacostraca. Von A. Gerstaecker, und A. E. Ortmann. Princeton, 1901, [6], plates [7].
  • Band 1, Protozoa, Abt. 1: Sarkodina und Sporozoa, von O. Bütschli, 1880–82, [8].
  • Band 1, Protozoa, Abt. 2: Mastigophora, von O. Bütschli, 1883–87, [9], plates [10].
  • Band 1, Protozoa, Abt. 3: Infusoria und System der Radiolaria, von O. Bütschli, 1887–89, [11], plates [12].
  • Band 2, Abt. 1: Spongien (Porifera), von Dr. G.C.J. Vosmaer, 1887, [13].
  • Band 2, Abt. 2, Coelenterata, Buch 1, Abs. 1: Allgemeine Naturgeschichte der Cölenteraten, bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. Carl Chun, 1889-1892, [14].
  • Band 2, Abt. 2, Coelenterata, Buch 1, Abs. 2: Specieller Theil, bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. Carl Chun, 1894-1916.
  • Band 2, Abt. 2, Coelenterata, Buch 2: Scyphomedusae, bearbeitet von M. E. Thiel, 1936-1962.
  • Band 2, Abt. 2, Coelenterata, Buch 3: Anthozoa, bearbeitet von Dr. O. Carlgren, 1903 + atlas, [15].
  • Band 2, Abt. 3, Echinodermen (Stachelhäuter), Buch 1: Die Seewalzen, von Dr. Hubert Ludwig, 1889-1892, [16].
  • Band 2, Abt. 3, Echinodermen (Stachelhäuter), Buch 2: Die Seesterne, begonnen von Dr. Hubert Ludwig, fortgesetzt von Prof. Dr. Otto Hamann, 1899, [17].
  • Band 2, Abt. 3, Echinodermen (Stachelhäuter), Buch 3: Die Schlangensterne, begonnen von Dr. Hubert Ludwig, fortgesetzt von Prof. Dr. Otto Hamann, 1901.
  • Band 2, Abt. 3, Echinodermen (Stachelhäuter), Buch 4: Die Seeigel, begonnen von Dr. Hubert Ludwig, fortgesetzt von Prof. Dr. Otto Hamann, 1904, [18].
  • Band 2, Abt. 3, Echinodermen (Stachelhäuter), Buch 5: Die Seelilien, von Dr. Hubert Ludwig, 1889-1907, [19].
  • Band 3, Mollusca, Abt. 1: Amphineura und Scaphopoda, von Dr. H. Simroth, 1892-1895, [20].
  • Band 3, Mollusca, Abt. 2, Buch 1: Gastropoda prosobranchia, von Dr. H. Simroth, 1896-1907 + atlas, [21].
  • Band 3, Mollusca, Abt. 2, Buch 2: Pulmonata, von Dr. H. Simroth, fortgeführt von Dr. H. Hoffmann, 1896-1907 + atlas.
  • Band 3, Mollusca, Abt. 3: Bivalvia, Teil 1-2, bearbeitet von Dr. F. Haas, 1935-1955.
  • Band 3, Supplement 1, Tunicata (Manteltiere), Abt. 1: Die Appendicularien und Ascidien, begonnen von Dr. Osw. Seeliger, fortgesetzt von Dr. R. Hartmeyer, 1893-1911, [22][23][24].
  • Band 3, Supplement 1, Tunicata (Manteltiere), Abt. 2: Pyrosomen, begonnen von Dr. Osw. Seeliger, fortgesetzt von Dr. G. Neumann, 1910-1913, [25].
  • Band 3, Supplement 2, Tunikaten (Manteltiere), Abt. 2, Buch 2, Lief. 1: Doliolidae, bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. Günther Neumann.
  • Band 3, Supplement 2, Tunikaten (Manteltiere), Abt. 2, Buch 2, Lief. 2-3: Salpidae, bearbeitet von J. E. W. Ihle, 1935-1939.
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 1a: Mionelminthes, Trichoplax und Trematodes, bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. H. Pagenstecher und Prof. Dr. M. Braun, 1879-1893, [26].
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 1b: Cestodes, fortgesetzt von Prof. Dr. M. Braun, 1894-1900 + atlas, [27].
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 1c, Turbellaria, Abt. 1: Acoela und Rhabdocoelida, bearbeitet von Dr. L. von Graff, mit Beiträgen von Prof. Dr. L. Böhmig und Prof. Dr. Fr. von Wagner, 1904-1908 + atlas, [28].
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 1c, Turbellaria, Abt. 2: Tricladida, bearbeitet von Dr. L. von Graff, mit Beiträgen von Prof. Dr. P. Steinmann, Prof. Dr. L. Böhmig und Dr. A. Meixner, 1912-1917 + atlas, [29].
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 1c, Turbellaria, Abt. 3: Polycladida, bearbeitet von R. Stummer-Traunfels, 1933.
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 2, Aschelminthen, Trochelminthes, Buch 1, Teil 1: Rotatorien, Gastrotrichen und Kinorhynchen, bearbeitet von A. Remane, 1929-1933.
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 2, Aschelminthen, Buch 1, Teil 2: Gastrotricha und Kinorhyncha, bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. A. Remane, 1935-1936.
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 2, Aschelminthen, Buch 3: Nematodes und Nematomorpha, bearbeitet von L. A. Jägerskiöld und J. H. Schuurmans Stekhoven Jr, 1913-1959.
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 2, Aschelminthen, Buch 4: Kamptozoa, bearbeitet von Dr. Carl I. Cori, 1936.
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 3, Annelides, Buch 2: Polychaeta, bearbeitet von F. Hempelmann, 1937.
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 3, Annelides, Buch 3: Oligochaeta, bearbeitet von H. A. Stolte, 1935-1969.
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 3, Annelides, Buch 4: Hirudineen, Teil 1-2, bearbeitet von Dr. K. Herter, Dr. W. Schleip und Dr. H. Autrum, 1936-1939.
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 4, Tentaculaten, Chaetognathen und Hemichordaten, Buch 1, Phoronidea, Ektoprokta und Brachiopoda, Teil 1: Phronidea, bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. Carl I. Cori, 1939.
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 4, Tentaculaten, Chaetognathen und Hemichordaten, Buch 2, Chaetognathen und Hemichordaten, Teil 1: Chaetognatha, bearbeitet von Dr. W. Kuhl, 1938.
  • Band 4, Vermes, Abt. 4, Tentaculaten, Chaetognathen und Hemichordaten, Buch 2, Chaetognathen und Hemichordaten, Teil 2: Hemichordata, bearbeitet von Dr. C. J. van der Horst. 1934-1939.
  • Band 4, Vermes, Supplement: Nemertini (Schnurwürmer), bearbeitet von Dr. O. Bürger, 1897-1907, [30].
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 1, Crustacea, Buch 1: Allgemeines.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 1, Crustacea, Buch 2, Teil 1: Phiillopoda.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 1, Crustacea, Buch 2, Teil 2: Ostracoda.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 1, Crustacea, Buch 3, Teil 3: Cirripedia, bearbeitet von Paul Krüger, 1940
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 1, Crustacea, Buch 3, Teil 4: Ascothoracida, bearbeitet von Paul Krüger, 1940
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 1, Crustacea, Buch 4: Thermosbaenacea, bearbeitet von Th. Monod, 1940
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 1, Crustacea, Buch 4, Teil 2: Syncarida, bearbeitet von R. Siewing, 1959
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 1, Crustacea, Buch 5: Isopoda.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 1, Crustacea, Buch 6, Teil 2: Stomatopoda, bearbeitet von Heinrich Balss. 1938
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 1, Crustacea, Buch 7: Decapoda, bearbeitet von Heinrich Balss und W. v. Buddenbrock, 1940-1957.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 2, Myriapoda, Buch 1: Klasse Chilopoda, von Dr. K. W. Verhoeff, 1902-1925.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 2, Myriapoda, Buch 2: Klasse Diplopoda, Teil 1-2, bearbeitet von Dr. K. W. Verhoeff, 1926-1932.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 2, Myriapoda, Buch 3, Symphyla und Pauropoda, bearbeitet von Dr. K. W. Verhoeff, 1933-1934.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 3, Insecta, Buch 6: Embioidea und Orthopteroidea, bearbeitet von Dr. Max Beier, 1955-1959.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 3, Insecta, Buch 8, Teil b.ε: Coccina, [31]; Teil b.γ: Psyllina, [32], bearbeitet von Dozent Dr. Otto Pflugfelder, 1939-1941.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 3, Insecta, Buch 12, Teil a: Neuroptera, bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. Hermann Friedrich, 1953.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 3, Insecta, Buch 13, Teil f: Aphaniptera, bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. Julius Wagner, 1939, [33].
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 4, Arachnoidea, Buch 1: Pentastomida, bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. R. Heymons, 1935.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 4, Arachnoidea, Buch 2: Pantopoda, bearbeitet von H. Helfer und E. Schlottke, 1935.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 4, Arachnoidea, Buch 3: Tardigrada, bearbeitet von Ernst Marcus, 1929.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 4, Arachnoidea, Buch 4: Solifuga, Palpigrada, bearbeitet von C. Fr. Roewer, 1933-1934, [34].
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 4, Arachnoidea, Buch 6, Teil 1: Chelonethi oder Pseudoskorpione, bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. C. Fr. Roewer, 1940.
  • Band 5, Arthropoden, Abt. 4, Arachnoidea, Buch 8: Scorpiones, Pedipalpi, bearbeitet von Franz Werner, 1934-1935.
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 1: Pisces (Fische), Buch 1: Einleitendes, Leptocardii und Cyclostomi, bearbeitet von Dr. E. Lönnberg, G. Favaro, B. Mozejko und M. Rauther, 1924.
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 1: Pisces (Fische), Buch 2, Echte Fische, Teil 1: Anatomie, Physiologie und Entwicklungsgeschichte, bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. M. Rauther und M. Leiner, 1927-1940.
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 1: Pisces (Fische), Buch 2, Echte Fische, Teil 2: Anatomie, bearbeitet von Z. Grodzinski und H. Hoyer und M.Rauther, 1938-1954.
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 1: Pisces (Fische), Buch 2, Echte Fische, Teil 3: Ökologie, Systematik, Geographische Verbreitung und Stammesgeschichte. Bearbeitet von G. Duncker und E. Mohr, Hamburg. Wird 1940 zu erscheinen beginnen.
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 2: Wirbelthiere (Amphibien), fortgesetzt von C. K. Hoffmann, 1873-1878, [35].
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 3, Reptilien, Teil 1: Schildkröten, fortgesetzt von C. K. Hoffmann, 1890, [36].
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 3, Reptilien, Teil 2: Eidechsen und Wasserechsen, fortgesetzt von C. K. Hoffmann, 1890, [37][38].
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 3, Reptilien, Teil 3: Schlangen und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Reptilien, fortgesetzt von C. K. Hoffmann, 1890, [39][40].
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 4, Vögel (Aves), Teil 1: Anatomischer Teil. Von H. Gadow (Cambridge) und E. Selenka (Erlangen), 1891, [41].
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 4, Vögel (Aves), Teil 2: Systematischer Theil, von Hans Gadow, 1893, [42].
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 5, Mammalia, Buch 1 (oder Band 1): Osteologie, Muskulatur, Integument, Verdauungsorgane, Atmungsorgane, Schilddrüse, Thymus, Winterschlaf drüse, bearbeitet von Prof. Dr. C. G. Giebel und Prof. Dr. W. Leche, 1874-1900 + atlas, [43].
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 5, Mammalia, Buch 2, Gefäß- und Urogenitalsystem, Teil 1: Das Gefässystem, bearbeitet von Dr. W. Leche, fortgsetzt von Dr. E. Göppert, 1902-1906.
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 5, Mammalia, Buch 2, Gefäß- und Urogenitalsystem, Teil 2: Das Herz. Bearbeitet E. Ackernecht, Leipzig.
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 5, Mammalia, Buch 2, Gefäß- und Urogenitalsystem, Teil 3: Die Arterien.
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 5, Mammalia, Buch 2, Gefäß- und Urogenitalsystem, Teil 4: Die Venen. Bearbeitet H. Grau, Keredj.
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 5, Mammalia, Buch 2, Gefäß- und Urogenitalsystem, Teil 5, Lieferung 1-4: Urogenitalsystem, herausgegeben von Dr. E. Göppert. Erste Unterabteilung, bearbeitet von Dr. U. Gerhardt, 1914, [44]. Lieferung 5: begonnen von Prof. Dr. U. Gerhardt, fortgsetzt von Prof. Dr. Ludwig Freund, 1939, [45].
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 5, Mammalia, Buch 2, Gefäß- und Urogenitalsystem, Teil 6: Das Lymphgefäßsystem. Bearbeitet H. Grau, Keredj.
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 5, Mammalia, Buch 3, Nervensystem und Sinnesorgane, Teil 1: Das Zentralnervensystem, bearbeitet von Dr. phil. et med. Ernst Scharrer, 1936.
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 5, Mammalia, Buch 3, Nervensystem und Sinnesorgane, Teil 2: Peripheres und autonomes Nervensystem. Bearbeitet H. Chreiber, Frankfurt. Wird 1940 zu erscheinen beginnen.
  • Band 6, Vertebrata, Abt. 5, Mammalia, Buch 3, Nervensystem und Sinnesorgane, Teil 3: Sinnesorgane. Bearbeitet H. Kahmann. München. Wird 1940 zu erscheinen beginnen."

 



Subjects: BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › Marine Biology, ZOOLOGY
  • 620

Untersuchungen über Bewegungen und Veränderungen der contraktilen Substanz.

Arch. Anat. Physiol, wiss. Med., 564-642, 748-835., 1859.

Proof of the coagulability of muscle proteins.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY
  • 621

Untersuchungen über die Physiologie des Electrotonus.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1859.

One of the most interesting works of its time on the physiology of nerve. In it Pflüger first stated the laws governing the make and break stimulation of nerve with the galvanic current. Pflüger was a pupil of Müller and du Bois-Reymond.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 1002

Mémoire sur un point d’anatomie pathologique relatif à l’histoire de la cirrhose.

Mém. Acad. imp. Méd. (Paris), 23, 269-78, 1859.

“Sappey’s veins” in the falciform ligament of the liver.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Anatomy
  • 70

Oeuvres médico-philosophiques et pratiques. 6 vols.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 18591864.

Stahl was responsible for the re-introduction of the idea of a “sensitive soul”, propounded by van Helmont. The Stahlian “animism” considered the body to be composed of passive or “dead” substance, which became animated by the soul during life, returning to passivity or “death” on the departure of the soul from the body.



Subjects: Collected Works: Opera Omnia, Medicine: General Works
  • 2181

Historische Studien über die Beurtheilung und Behandlung der Schusswunden vom fünfzehnten Jahrhundert bis auf die neueste Zeit.

Berlin: G. Reimer, 1859.

English translation in Yale J. Biol. Med., 1931, 4, 16-36, 119-48, 225-57; reprinted in book form, New Haven, 1933.



Subjects: MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › History of Military Medicine
  • 4815

Bau und Functionen der Medulla spinalis und oblongata, und nächste Ursache und rationelle Behandlung der Epilepsie.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 1859.

The work of Schroeder van der Kolk brought histological examination to the forefront in connection with theories on the localization of function. His careful microscopical studies confirmed the medulla as being the ultimate seat of epilepsy. The book was translated into English for the New Sydenham Society in the same year.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 1611

Notes on hospitals.

London: John W. Parker & Son, 1859.

Includes four plans of hospitals. A third edition, completely revised, was published by Longmans, Green & Co., London, 1863.



Subjects: HOSPITALS, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Crimean War, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1800 - 1899
  • 1234.1

Leçons sur les propriétés physiologiques et les altérations pathologiques des liquides de l’organisme.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1859.

Bernard was the first to describe an effect of the renal nerves on urine flow.



Subjects: Genito-Urinary System › Kidney: Urinary Secretion, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology
  • 1464

Ueber ein wichtiges psychophysisches Grundgesetz und dessen Beziehung zur Schätzung der Sterngrössen.

Abh. k. sächs. Ges. Wiss. (Lpz.), maths.-phys. Cl., (1858), 4, 455-532., 1859.

Fechner–Weber law on stimulus and sensation. See also Nos. 1457 & 4972.



Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY › Psychophysics, PSYCHOLOGY › Sensation / Perception
  • 2248

Remarks upon a tabular return (No. 1), or synopsis of sixteen cases of heat-apoplexy.

Indian Ann. med. Sci., 6, 396-406., 1859.

Longmore was an army surgeon in India; he gave an excellent account of heat-stroke.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, Diseases Due to Physical Factors
  • 2473

Nouveaux faits pour server à l’histoire de la levure lactique.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 48, 337-38, 1859.

This and the preceding entry mark Pasteur’s commencement of the study of fermentation. This paper described Pasteur’s method of cultivating micro-organisms in a medium free of organic nitrogen to produce fermentations. The method was absolutely fundamental to his work, but not developed for his initial paper on lactic fermentation. He found that the conversion of sugar to lactic acid in fermentation is due to small corpuscles, isolated or grouped.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, MICROBIOLOGY, Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 4842

Traité clinique et thérapeutique de l’hystérie.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1859.

Includes, p. 297, first description of ataxia analgica hysterica (“Briquet’s ataxia”), and p. 475, hysterical paralysis of the diaphragm with dyspnoea and aphonia (“Briquet’s syndrome”).



Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Hysteria, PSYCHIATRY › Neuroses & Psychoneuroses
  • 219

On the tendency of species to form varieties: and on the perpetuation of varieties and species by natural means of selection.

J. Proc. Linn. Soc. (1858), 3, Zool., 45-62, 1859.

The first printed exposition of the “Darwinian” theory of evolution by natural selection. Had not Wallace independently discovered the theory of natural selection, it is possible that the extremely cautious Darwin might never have published his evolutionary theories during his lifetime. However, Wallace conceived the theory during an attack of malarial fever in Ternate in the Mollucas (February, 1858) and sent a manuscript summary to Darwin, who feared that his discovery would be pre-empted. In the interest of justice Joseph Dalton Hooker and Charles Lyell suggested joint publication of Wallace’s paper, On the tendency of varieties to depart indefinitely from the original type, prefaced by a section of a manuscript of a work on species written by Darwin in 1844, when it was read by Hooker, plus an abstract of a letter by Darwin to Asa Gray, dated 1857, to show that Darwin’s views on the subject had not changed between 1844 and 1857.



Subjects: BIOLOGY, EVOLUTION, ZOOLOGY
  • 220

On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life.

London: John Murray, 1859.

Prepared under the advice of Lyell and Hooker, and brought to press soon after publication of the joint paper by Darwin and Wallace (No. 219), this was Darwin’s greatest work and one of the most important books ever published. The whole edition of 1250 copies was sold on the day of publication. Although the theory of evolution can be traced to the ancient Greek belief in the “great chain of being”, Darwin’s greatest achievement was to make this centuries-old “underground” concept acceptable to the scientific community by cogently arguing for the existence of a viable mechanism – natural selection – by which new species evolve over vast periods of time. Darwin’s influence on biology was fundamental, and continues to be felt today. He remains one of the best-known scientists of all time. Facsimile reproduction, with introduction by E. Mayr, Cambridge, Mass., 1964. See R.B. Freeman, The works of Charles Darwin: an annotated bibliographical handlist. 2nd ed. Folkestone, Kent, Dawson: 1977. See the Online Variorum of Darwin's Origin of Species, edited by Barbara Bordalejo. This is a new variorum edition of the six British editions of Darwin's Origin of Species, published between 1859 and 1872. It identifies and presents every change between the six editions. See the editor's Introduction. Digital facsimile of the 1859 edition from Darwin Online at this link.

 



Subjects: BIOLOGY, EVOLUTION, ZOOLOGY
  • 3718

Ueber akute Rachitis.

Königsb. med. Jb., 1, 377-79, Königsberg, 1859.

Möller was the first to describe the acute form of rickets combined with scurvy now associated with the name of Barlow (No. 3720).



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Deficiency Diseases › Rickets, NUTRITION / DIET › Deficiency Diseases › Scurvy
  • 3332

Ueber die Inspektion des Cavum pharyngo-nasale und der Nasenhöhle durch Choanen vermittelstkleiner Spiegel.

Wien. med. Wschr., 9, 518-20; 10, 257-61, 1859, 1860.

Czermak’s method of exploring the nose and nasopharynx with small mirrors.



Subjects: OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Laryngology › Laryngoscopy
  • 2761.1

Fall af ruptura cordis.

Hygiea (Stockh.), 21, 629-30, 1859.

An important account of myocardial infarction, with a histological finding of myocardial necrosis. Abbreviated translation, in German, in Acta med. scand., 1930, 73, 448-50.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Myocardial Infarction
  • 3819

Untersuchungen über die Zuckerbildung in der Leber und den Einfluss des Nervensystems auf die Erzeugung des Diabetes.

Würzburg: Stahel, 1859.

Schiff’s reports on his experimental thyroidectomies, which were attended with fatal results. Subsequently (Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak., 1884, 18, 25) he showed that intra-abdominal transplantation of the gland would obviate fatal results in thyroidectomy.



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 2905

Sur la claudication intermittente.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), (1858), Mémoires, 2 sér., 5, 225-38, Paris, 1859.

Charcot was among the first to report intermittent claudication in man.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arterial Disease
  • 3913

Lieber das Alcapton; ein neuer Beitrag zur Frage: welche Stoffe des Harns können Kupferreduction bewirken?

Z. rat. Med., 3 R., 7, 130-45, 1859.

Excretion of homogentisic acid (in alkaptonuria) first described.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Inherited Metabolic Disorders › Alkaptonuria, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders
  • 3458

The diseases of the stomach.

London: John Churchill, 1859.

Includes (pp. 310-31) original description of linitis plastica (“Brinton’s disease”). Brinton lectured on physiology and forensic medicine at St. Thomas’s Hospital.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Diseases of the Digestive System
  • 3459

Commentatio de fistulis ventriculi externis et chirurgica earum sanatione.

Wroclaw (Vratislava, Breslau): apud Max & Soc, 1859.

First operation for gastric fistula.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Esophagus: Stomach: Duodenum: Intestines, SURGERY: General › Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery
  • 4170

Plastic operation for exstrophy of the bladder in the male; reported by S. D. Gross.

N. Amer. med.-chir. Rev., 3, 710-11, 1859.

Pancoast performed the first successful operation for exstrophy of the bladder (ectopia vesicae).



Subjects: UROLOGY
  • 5791

Geschichte der Chirurgie von den Urzeiten bis zu Anfang des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts.

Wroclaw (Vratislava, Breslau): Trewendt & Granier, 1859.


Subjects: SURGERY: General › History of Surgery
  • 5606

Traite pratique de la suppuration et du drainage chirurgical. 2 vols.

Paris: V. Masson, 1859.

Chassaignac, who introduced india-rubber tubes to drain abscesses, put the whole subject of surgical drainage on a scientific and methodical footing.



Subjects: SURGERY: General
  • 5607

A system of surgery; pathological, diagnostic, therapeutic, and operative. 2 vols.

Philadelphia: Blanchard & Lea, 1859.

A profound intellect in 19th-century American surgery, Gross was both a surgical innovator and an outstanding author of numerous works that became classics. This massive treatise containing nearly 2500 pages was intended to be “the most elaborate, if not the most complete treatise in the English language”. 



Subjects: SURGERY: General
  • 5882

Ueber Embolie der Arteria centralis retinae als Ursache plötzlicher Erblindung.

v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal., 5, 1 Abt., 136-57., 1859.

Discovery of embolism of the retinal artery as a cause of sudden blindness.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye › Retinal Diseases
  • 5884

Die Krümmung der Homhaut des menschlichen Auges.

Heidelberg: J. C. B. Mohr, 1859.

Knapp wrote valuable monographs on curvature of the cornea (above) and on intraocular tumours (see No. 5902). He became one of the leading ophthalmologists in America.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY
  • 6046

Congenital exstrophy of the urinary bladder, complicated with prolapsus uteri following pregnancy; successfully treated by a new plastic operation.

Amer. med. Gaz., 10, 81-89, 1859.

First successful plastic operation for exstrophy of the female bladder.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY
  • 6631.9

Des hommes célèbres dans les sciences et les arts, et des médailles qui consacrent leur souvenir. 2 vols.

Gand, Belgium: Léonard Hebbelynck, 1859.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Numismatics, Medical
  • 6386

Geschichte der Medicin.

Stuttgart: Ebner & Seubert, 1859.


Subjects: History of Medicine: General Works
  • 4639

Note sur la paralysie ascendante aiguë

Gaz. hebd. Méd. Chir., 6, 472-74, 486-88, 1859.

“Landry’s paralysis” – acute infective polyneuritis. It is difficult to assess the claim of Landry as first to record this condition, since Adolf Kussmaul reported two cases in the same year (Zwei Fälle von Paraplegie, Erlangen).



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions
  • 7251

Menschliche Ueberreste aus einer Felsengrotte des Düssenthals. Ein Beitrag zur Frage über die Existenz fossiler Menschen.

Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins der Rheinland und Westphalens. 16. 131-153., 1859.

Fuhlrott’s first detailed account of the “Neanderthal 1” skeleton discovered in 1856 in the Kleine Feldhofer Grotte, located in the Düssel River gorge in southwestern Germany.



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Physical Anthropology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Germany, EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 7388

On the construction of life-tables, illustrated by a new life-table of the healthy districts of England.

Phil. Trans., 149, pt. 2 : 837-78, 1859.

Preliminary report, describing the use of the Scheutz Engine no. 3, a Babbage-style difference engine, to prepare life tables. The report's table B1, "Life-Table of Healthy English Districts," printed from stereotype plates produced by the calculator, represents the very first application of a difference engine to medical statistics.



Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology, DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics
  • 7446

On the flora of Australia, its origin, affinities, and distribution; being an introductory essay to the Flora of Tasmania. Offprint from The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H. M. Discovery Ships ‘Erebus’ and ‘Terror’, Vol. III (Flora Tasmaniae), part I (June, 1859).

London: Lowell Reeve, 1859.

The first important botanical work by a supporter of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. Hooker, a botanist and plant geographer, had been a close friend of Darwin for many years, and was aware of Darwin’s gradual progression toward a belief in the mutability of species, yet he did not begin fully to support Darwin’s views until shortly after the publication of the Origin of Species (1859). In his introduction to Flora Tasmaniae, the third volume of his massive Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H. M. Discovery Ships ‘Erebus’ and ‘Terror’, Hooker publicly acknowledged his acceptance of Darwinian theory, which had come about “solely and entirely from an independent study of the plants themselves” (letter to W. H. Harvey, c. 1860). (This is a kind of offprint of a portion of No. 7448; it is sometimes viewed as a separate work.) 



Subjects: BOTANY, Biogeography, Biogeography › Phytogeography, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Australia, EVOLUTION, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 7720

The book of nature : containing information for young people who think of getting married: on the philosophy of procreation and sexual intercourse, showing how to prevent conception and to avoid child-bearing : also, rules for management during labor and child-birth.

New York: For the Author, 1859.

Possibly the most enlightened, and detailed book on sex, reproduction, and contraception published during this period; illustrated in color. In addition to outlining the era's five most reliable methods of contraception (withdrawal, condoms, the vaginal sponge, douching and the rhythm method) Ashton explained the most effective means and timing for inducing miscarriage. Digital facsimile of the 1861 reprint from the Internet Archive at this link. The author, a physician, characterized himself on the title page as "Lecturer on Sexual Physiology, and Inventor of the Reveil Nocturne."



Subjects: Contraception , SEXUALITY / Sexology
  • 7935

A practical treatise on diseases, pathology, and treatment of diseases of the heart.

Philadelphia: Blanchard & Lea, 1859.

The first major American textbook on cardiology. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY
  • 8212

Sketch of the medical topography, or climate and soils, of Bengal and the N.W. Provinces.

London: John Churchill, 1859.

Digital facsimile from the internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: Bioclimatology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, Geography of Disease / Health Geography
  • 9317

Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. 8 vols.

18591870.

Digital facsimiles from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Ichthyology
  • 9972

The natural history of the European seas. Edited and continued by Robert Godwin-Austen.

London: John van Voorst, 1859.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Marine Biology, NATURAL HISTORY, Oceanography
  • 10891

Original contributions to the practice of conservative surgery; being a selection from the surgical cases occurring in the practice of James G. Beaney.

Melbourne, Australia: George Robertson, 1859.

The first work on surgery written and published in Australia, and one of the first medical works on any subject written and published in Australia.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Australia, SURGERY: General
  • 11304

Report on the medical topography and epidemics of California.

Philadelphia: Collins, Printer, 1859.

Logan provided an updated report with the same title in 1865. Digital facsimile of the 1865 report from U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY, Geography of Disease / Health Geography, Topography, Medical, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › California
  • 11364

A manual of operative surgery on the dead body.

London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts , 1859.

Smith's concept was the teaching of surgery in a manner analogous to the teaching of anatomy--i.e. from a cadaver. His book organizes and explains the operations that student surgeons could practice on a cadaver.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession, SURGERY: General
  • 11961

Flora capensis: Being a systematic description of the plants of the Cape colony, Caffraria, & Port Natal. 7 vols. in 11.

Dublin: Hodges, Smith, and Co., 18591933.

This work was published over 73 years. Vols. 1-3 were by Harvey and Sonder. The remaining volumes were by "Various Botanists" edited by Thiselton-Dyer, except for Vol. 5, Section 2 (Supplement) edited by Arthur William Hill and published in 1933. Digital facsimile of the whole set from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › South Africa
  • 12470

Mammals of North America: The descriptions of species based chiefly on the collections in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1859.

An overview of North American mammals in three parts, assembled from two previously published sources. Parts 1 & 2 are continuously paginated. The work
consists first of a reprint of the Reports upon the Mammals that appeared, in the Pacific Railroad Survey Reports, Vol. VIII, and second in the U.S. and Mexican
Boundary Survey Reports, Vol. II, pt. 2”.  Thus, the work incorporated sheets that were either remaindered or picked up for free from publications paid for by the U.S. government, and combined in single volume issued by a private publisher for profit.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy
  • 12501

Sulle virtù igieniche e medicinali della coca e sugli alimenti nervosi in generale.

Ann. univ. Med. (Milano), 31, 449-519, 1859.

After a four-year stay in South America Mantegazza published this report on medical observations on the use of Erythroxylon coca leaves of the populations in the places where he stayed and practiced. He reported that, as a result of the drug, natives who constantly chewed a bolus of coca leaves and ingested their juice, exhibited great energy and resistance to hunger, cold, humidity, bad weather and hard work, even in places of high altitude.

Mantegazza also reported that coca leaves, taken as an infusion or chewed, recovered from the most varied gastrointestinal affections. He also reported cases of abuse and the onset of addiction to coca, and the results of the experiments he carried out on himself with the ingestion of increasing quantities of the juice of the chewed coca leaves.

The Wikipedia article on Mantegazza quoted his expression of the high experienced as a result of the drug:

"... I sneered at the poor mortals condemned to live in this valley of tears while I, carried on the wings of two leaves of coca, went flying through the spaces of 77,438 words, each more splendid than the one before...An hour later, I was sufficiently calm to write these words in a steady hand: God is unjust because he made man incapable of sustaining the effect of coca all life long. I would rather have a life span of ten years with coca than one of 10 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 centuries without coca."

Sigmund Freud cited Mantegazza's report in his work Über Coca (1884). That paper concerned the studies of the effects on man of cocaine, the alkaloid extracted from the coca leaves by the chemist Albert Niemann in 1859, rather than coca leaves, themselves.
See Guiliano Dall'Olio, "Paolo Mantegazza: memoria sulle proprietà terapeutiche della coca," Riv. Ital. Med. Lab., 7 (2011) 228-239.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Cocaine
  • 12710

Hippocrates et aliorum medicorum veterum reliquiae...edidit Franciscus Zacharias Ermerins. 3 vols.

Kemink et Filium, Utrecht, 18591864.

Greek text of the Hippocratic corpus with facing Latin translations. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece
  • 12874

Mémoire sur le sang quand il est fluide, pendant qu’il se coagule et lorsqu’il est coagulé.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1859.

The first attempt to isolate and describe fibrinogen, the blood protein essential for clotting. “Prosper-Sylvain Denis, in his Mémoire sur le sang (1859), was the first to recognize that plasma contained a clottable substance, not defined as a liquid fibrin, but different from fibrin, and he attempted to purify and characterize this protein. He independently proposed the name fibrinogène” (Rosenfeld, Four Centuries of Clinical Chemistry, p. 438).



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Coagulation