An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

14973 entries, 12870 authors and 1842 subjects. Updated: May 10, 2021

Browse by Publication Year 1840–1849

438 entries
  • 4494

Traité clinique du rhumatisme articulaire.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1840.

Extension of Bouillaud’s work on the coincidence of heart disease and acute rheumatism. He regarded fever as the effect of endocarditis (see also No. 2749).

  • 328

Ueber die Lymphherzen der Schildkröten.

Berlin: Druckerei d. k. Akad, 1840.

  • 329
  • 3681.1

Odontography, or, a treatise on the comparative anatomy of the teeth. 2 vols.

London: Hippolyte Baillière, 18401845.

Owen’s first large-scale original work covered the whole range of the toothed vertebrates, living and fossil, and discussed in detail the micrsocopic structure of the teeth and the physiology of dentition. Includes 168 plates. His comprehensive investigation of the morphology of mammalian teeth led him into palaeontology, of which he soon became one of the masters. Owen, son-in-law of William Clift, was from 1836-56 Hunterian professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. During the 1860s he was one of the most virulent opponents of Darwinism. Some copies of this work were issued on large paper.

Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, DENTISTRY › Comparative Anatomy of the Mouth, Teeth & Jaws
  • 542

On the minute structure and movements of voluntary muscle.

Phil. Trans., 130, 457-501; 131, 69-72., 1840, 1841.

Classical description of striated muscle

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century
  • 4664

Beobachtungen über Lähmungszustände der untem Extremitäten und deren Behandlung.

Stuttgart: F. H. Köhler, 1840.

First description of acute anterior poliomyelitis, which Heine separated from other forms of paralysis; he described the deformities arising from the disease. He also called attention to congenital spastic paraplegia, which, following Little’s classic description (No. 4691.1), was termed “Little’s disease”.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions › Poliomyelitis
  • 59

Oeuvres complètes d’Ambroise Paré revues et collationnées sur toutes les éditions, avec les variantes; ornées de 217 planches et du portrait de l'auteur; accompagnées de notes historiques et critiques et précédées d'une introduction sur l'origine et les progrès de la chirurgie en occident du sixième au seizième siècle, et sur la vie et les ouvrages d'Ambroise Paré. Par J.-F. Malgaigne. 3 vols.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 18401841.

The best edition of Paré’s works, edited by Malgaigne. An English translation of Pare's Oeuvres by Thomas Johnson appeared as early as 1634. See also No. 5565. Janet Doe published A bibliography of the works of Ambroise Paré, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1943 and F. R. Packard published Life and times of Ambroise Paré.,. New York, 1921. Malgaigne's comprehensive historical introduction to his edition was translated by Wallace Hamby as Surgery and Ambroise Paré, Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, SURGERY: General
  • 2163.1
UNITED STATES. War Dept. Surgeon General's Office

Statistical report on the sickness and mortality in the Army of the United States. Vol. 1 (1819-1839), Vol. 2 (1839-1855), Vol. 3 (1855-1860).

Washington, DC, 18401856, 1860.

Vol.1 by Thomas Lawson; Vols 2 & 3 by Richard H. Coolidge. Digital facsimiles from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE
  • 768

Recherches expèrimentales sur le mouvement des liquides dans les tubes de très petits diamètres.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 11, 961-67, 1041-48; 12, 112-15., 1840, 1841.

Poiseuille’s law of the flow of liquids in tubes – fundamental in blood viscosimetry. Abstract; complete monograph in Mém. Acad. roy. Sci. (Paris), 1846, 9, 433-544. First book-form edition, Paris, 1844.

  • 1396.1

Recherches sur la structure de la couche cortical des circonvolutions du cerveau.

Mém Acad. roy. Méd. (Paris), 8,149-83, 1840.

Baillarger demonstrated that the cortex is made up of layers and that fibers connect the cortex with the internal white matter. English translation in von Bonin, Some papers on the cerebral cortex, Springfield: Charles C Thomas, 1960.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1263

Nuovi organi scoperti nel corpo humano.

Pistoia: Cino, 1840.

“Pacini’s corpuscles”, end organs of sensory nerves, earlier described by Vater in 1717.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1700

Principes généraux de statistique médicale.

Paris: Bechet jeune & Labé, 1840.

In his work on medical statistics Gavarret improved and systematized the method of Louis and gave special consideration to therapeutic problems.

Subjects: DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics
  • 1499

On the conversion of relief by inverted vision.

Trans. roy. Soc. Edinb., 15, 657-62, 18401844.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1500

On the knowledge of distance given by binocular vision.

Trans. roy. Soc. Edinb., 15, 663-75, 18401844.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 2099

On a remarkable effect upon the human gums produced by the absorption of lead.

Med.-chir. Trans., 23, 63-79, 1840.

Burton was the first to note the blue line on the gums in lead poisoning – “Burton’s blue line" – an important diagnostic sign. He was physician to St. Thomas’s Hospital, London.

  • 2533

Von den Miasmen und Contagien. In his Pathologische Untersuchungen, pp. 1-82.

Berlin: August Hirschwald, 1840.

Bassi’s work on the muscardine disease of silkworms (see No. 2532), with its prophecy of the discovery of microbes as the causal agents of other diseases, inspired Henle to write this famous essay on miasms and contagions. He laid down postulates on the aetiological relation of microbes to disease which became fundamentals of bacteriology and which did much to check the reckless speculation which had arisen regarding micro-organisms. Koch later developed these postulates (see Nos. 2331, 2332, 2536, and 5167). Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

English translation in Bull. Hist. Med., 1936, 6, 911-83.

  • 3058.1

Successful transfusion of blood.

Lancet, 1, 185-88., London, 18401841.

Blood transfusion used in treatment of hemophilia.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, THERAPEUTICS › Blood Transfusion
  • 3816

Exophthalmos durch Hypertrophie des Zellgewebes in der Augenhöhle.

Wschr. ges. Heilk., 6, 197-204, 220-28., 1840.

In Europe, outside the British Isles, exophthalmic goitre, or Graves’s disease, is known as “Basedow’s disease”. His accurate description of four cases in which he described exophthalmos, goitre and palpitation led to the phrase “Merseburg triad”, associating these conditions with the name of his own town. He also mentioned emaciation, excessive perspiration, and nervousness as additional symptoms and anticipated later methods of treatment by his advocacy of mineral waters containing iodide and bromide of sodium. Partial English translation in No. 2241.

Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 3882

Hypertrophie der Hypophysis cerebri und dadurch bedingter Druck auf die Hirngrundfläche, insbesondere auf die Sehnerven, das Chiasma derselben und den linkseitigen Hirnschenkel.

Wschr. ges. Heilk., 6, 565-71., 1840.

The first case of pituitary obesity with infantilism (Fröhlich’s syndrome) was reported by Mohr. Coincidentally, this appears in the same volume of the Wochenschrift as does Basedow’s classic description of exophthalmic goitre.

Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 3223

Essay on the treatment of and cure of pulmonary consumption.

London: Longmans & Co, 1840.

Bodington was one of the first to advocate the sanatorium treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, with “cold dry air for healing and closing cavities and ulcers of the lungs”. His idea was much criticized and he was discouraged from pursuing it. The first sanatorium to be run on lines similar to those suggested by Bodington was that established by H. Brehmer at Görbersdorf in 1859. The book was reprinted in 1906.

Subjects: PULMONOLOGY › Lung Diseases › Pulmonary Tuberculosis
  • 5322

Violent symptoms from the bite of a rat.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 26, 245-46, 1840.

First report of rat-bite fever to appear in a medical journal.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Animal Bite Wound Infections › Rat-Bite Fever
  • 5025

Some considerations on the nature and pathology of typhus and typhoid fever, applied to the solution of the question of the identity or non-identity of the two diseases.

Edinb. med. surg. J., 54, 289-339, 1840.

Typhoid and typhus were often confused. Stewart made a careful analysis of a number of cases of both fevers and clearly demonstrated that there were in Britain two distinct fevers – typhoid and typhus.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Salmonellosis › Typhoid Fever, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Lice-Borne Diseases › Typhus
  • 5769.1

On the anatomy of the breast. 2 vols.

London: Longman, 1840.

Anatomical sequel to No. 5769, with outstanding illustrations.

Subjects: SURGERY: General › Diseases of the Breast
  • 5770

Lecture on sero-cystic tumors of the breast.

Lond. med. Gaz., 25, 808-14, 1840.

“Brodie’s tumor”. Reprinted in Med. Classics, 1938, 2, 941-54.

Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, SURGERY: General › Diseases of the Breast
  • 5790

Histoire de la chirurgie en Occident depuis de VIe jusqu’au XVIe siècle, et histoire de la vie et des travaux d’Ambroise Parè.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1840.

Billings considered Malgaigne “the greatest surgical historian and critic the world has ever seen”; Leonardo (No. 5812) says that his greatest contribution to surgery was his unique manner of evaluating surgical techniques and innovations by which the then new methods of statistical computation were conjoined with actual surgical experiments. This work was also published in vol. 1 of No. 59. English translation by W. Hamby, Norman, Oklahoma, 1965. Digital facsimile of the 1840 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: SURGERY: General › History of Surgery
  • 6031

Vesico-vaginal fistula.

Boston med. surg. J., 22, 154-55, 1840.

The first successful operation for vesicovaginal fistula is believed to be that performed in August 1838, by Mettauer, a Virginian gynecologist. He introduced metallic sutures and a retention catheter.

Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY › Vesicovaginal Fistula
  • 6031.1

Hydatids, terminating fatally, by haemorrhage.

Lancet, 1, 691-693, London, 1840.

First report of a chorionic tumor.

  • 6502

Geschichte der arabischen Aerzte und Naturforscher.

Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1840.

This has traditionally been considered the first major history of Arab medicine. It was written mostly in the form of a chronological series of bio-bibliographies, and should also be considered a pioneering bibliography of Arab medicine and natural history. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Subjects, ISLAMIC OR ARAB MEDICINE › History of Islamic or Arab Medicine, NATURAL HISTORY › History of Natural History
  • 5267

Observations on the disease lethargus: with cases and pathology.

Lond. med. Gaz., 26, 970-76, 1840.

Clarke left a detailed account of African trypanosomiasis; he saw cases of the disease while serving as a colonial surgeon at Sierra Leone, and named it “narcoleptic dropsy”.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Triatomine Bug-Borne Diseases › Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis)
  • 6604.94

Némésis médicale illustrée, recueil de satires par François Fabre....contenant trente vignettes dessinées par M. Daumier... 2 vols.

Paris: Bureau de la Gazette des Hôpitaux, 1840.

The only medical book illustrated by Honoré Daumier (1808-79), and a great satire in verse on the medical profession. Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link.

Subjects: ART & Medicine & Biology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › France, Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession, Satire / Caricature & Medicine
  • 6921

Der Chemismus in der thierischen Organisation.

Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus, 1840.

Hünefeld accidentally observed the first protein crystals— those of hemoglobin—in partically dried samples of mammalian blood blood pressed between glass plates. On page 160 Hünefeld noted that he had seen, in some samples, “tabular, crystalline precipitations, which under the microscope appeared sharply defined and colored bright red.” Figures 7 and 8 in the plate illustrating Hünefeld’s work show the crystals he observed in pig’s blood and human blood respectively; these represent the first published illustrations of hemoglobin crystals. Digital facsimile from the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek at this link.

  • 6946

Verzeichniss der vom weil. Obermedicinalrath Blumbach nachgelassen Bucher. . . .

Gottingen, 1840.

Catalogue of the library of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, prepared for its sale at auction. Books were listed for sale individually, organized by size. Author and title and place published were listed, as were the number of pages, and whether or not there were plates; date of publication was not mentioned, however. Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries
  • 7137

Précis de l'histoire de l'anatomie, comprenant l'examen comparatif des ouvrages des principaux anatomistes anciens et modernes.

Gand, Belgium: Host, 1840.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy
  • 7437

The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, under the command of Captain Fitzroy, R. N., during the years 1832 to 1836. Edited by Charles Darwin. 5 pts in 3 vols.

London: Smith, Elder, 18401843.

Part 1: Fossil mammalia by Richard Owen; Part 2: Mammalia by George Waterhouse; Part 3: Birds by John Gould; Part 4: Fish by Leonard Jenyns; Part 5: Reptiles by Thomas Bell. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Ecuador, EVOLUTION, NATURAL HISTORY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists, ZOOLOGY, ZOOLOGY › Herpetology, ZOOLOGY › Ichthyology, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 7587

Catalogue of anatomical preparations in the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow.

Glasgow: Printed for George Richardson, 1840.

"The following Catalogue is, to the best of our knowledge and belief, a true Catalogue of the Anatomical Prepartions left by the late Dr. William Hunter.--G. Fordyce, David Pitcairn, W. Combe."

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological
  • 8465

A practical essay on some of the principal surgical diseases of India.

Calcutta: Wm. Thacker & Co., 1840.

Includes a discussion of the Hindu method of rhinoplasty and other plastic operations. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: INDIA, Practice of Medicine in, PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY › Rhinoplasty, SURGERY: General
  • 8828

Catalogue of skulls of man, and the inferior animals, in the collection of Samuel George Morton.

Philadelphia: Printed by Turner & Fisher, 1840.

Numbers 901-929 in Morton's catalogue are "Thirty Skulls of genuine unmixed NEGROES born in Africa. This interesting series series was collected by Don José Rodriguez Cisnerso, M. D. of Havana, in the island of Cuba, and by him presented to me for the purpose of ascertaining the internal capacity of the cranium in the pure AFRICAN race."

Morton believed that he could define the intellectual ability of a race by the skull capacity. A large volume meant a large brain and high intellectual capacity, and a small skull indicated a small brain and decreased intellectual capacity. He also claimed that each race had a separate origin, and that a descending order of intelligence could be discerned that placed Caucasians at the pinnacle and Negroes at the lowest point, with various other races in between. Considered the origin of scientific racism, this theory provided a "scientific" justification for slavery.

 "Samuel George Morton is often thought of as the originator of "American School" of ethnography, a school of thought in antebellum American science that claimed the difference between humans was one of species rather than variety and is seen by some as the origin of scientific racism.[6]

"Morton argued against the single creation story of the Bible (monogenism) and instead supported a theory of multiple racial creations (polygenism). Morton claimed the Bible supported polygenism, and within working in a biblical framework his theory held that each race had been created separately and each was given specific, irrevocable characteristics.[7]

"After inspecting three mummies from ancient Egyptian catacombs, Morton concluded that Caucasians and Negroes were already distinct three thousand years ago. Since the Bible indicated that Noah's Ark had washed up on Mount Ararat, only a thousand years ago before this, Morton claimed that Noah's sons could not possibly account for every race on earth. According to Morton's theory of polygenesis, races have been separate since the start[7] " (Wikipedia article on Samuel George Morton, accessed 01-2017).

Digital facsimile of the 1840 edition from the Internet Archive at this link. Morton continued to develop and expand his collection, which reached 1512 human and animal skulls in the third edition of his catalogue published in 1849. That catalogue contained an introduction, some illustrations, and a complete index. Digital facsimile of the 1849 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Morton's last paper on the measurement of cranial capacity and its relationship to intellectual ability may have been "Observations on the size of brain in various races and families of man," Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, October, 1849.  Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.


Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Craniology, ANTHROPOLOGY › Ethnology, ANTHROPOLOGY › Physical Anthropology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological , Slavery and Medicine, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Pennsylvania
  • 9555

Tableau de l'état physique et moral des ouvriers employés dans les manufactures de coton, de laine et de soie, ouvrage entrepris par ordre... de l'Académie des sciences morales et politiques. 2 vols.

Paris: Jules Renouard et Cie, 1840.

Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link.

  • 11832

Anecdota medica graeca e codicibus MSS. expromsit. F. Z. Ermerins.

Leiden: S. and J. Luchtmans, 1840.

Extensively annotated critical texts of Theophilus Protospatharius, Leo the Physician, Constantinus Pogonatos (De cibis; On foods). Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 13112

The Birds of America, from drawings made in the United States and their territories. 7 vols.

Philadelphia: J. B. Chevalier, 18401844.

Audubon created 65 new images for the octavo edition, supplementing the original 435 in the double-elephant folio edition of 1827-1838. The resulting series of 500 plates constituted the most extensive American color-plate book produced up to that time. The Philadelphia printer J.T. Bowen reduced the double-elephant folio plates by camera lucida. The original configurations of the elephant folio were altered so that only one species is depicted per plate, and the resulting chromolithographs incorporated significant changes in the backgrounds and compositions. The text in the Ornithological biography was rearranged according to Audubon's A synopsis of the birds of North America (1839).  Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 13194

Narrative of a voyage to Madeira, Teneriffe and along the shores of the Mediterranean, including a visit to Algiers, Egypt, Palestine, Tyre, Rhodes, Telmessus, Cyprus and Greece. With observations on the present state and prospects of Egypt and Palestine, and on the climate, natural history, antiquities, etc, of the countries visited. 2 vols.

Dublin: William Curry, Jun. and Company, 1840.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 543
  • 769

Allgemeine Anatomie. Lehre von den Mischungs- und Formbestandtheilen des menschlichen Körpers.

Leipzig: Leopold Voss, 1841.

Many of the histological discoveries of Henle are described in the above. He classified tissues histologically. In the section on Gefässnerven (pp. 510, 690) Henle demonstrated the presence of smooth muscle in the endothelial coat of small arteries. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Anatomy of the Heart & Circulatory System
  • 4526

Traité des néuralgies ou affections douloureuses des nerfs.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1841.

Includes (p. 40 et seq.) description of ”Valleix’s points”, tender points on the course of certain nerves in neuralgia.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 534.6

Monstrorum sexcentorum descriptio anatomica.

Wroclaw (Vratislava, Breslau): F. Girt, 1841.

Brief but accurate descriptions of 600 human and animal specimens, with 30 outstanding plates.

  • 1994

Ueber den Galvanismus als chemisches Heilmittel gegen örtliche Krankheiten.

St. Petersburg, Russia: K. Kray, 18411843.

Crusell began to use electrolysis as a cauterizing agent in 1839. See No. 5604.

Subjects: THERAPEUTICS › Medical Electricity / Electrotherapy
  • 1219

Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Geschlechtsverhältnisse und der Samenflüssigkeit wirbelloser Thiere.

Berlin: W. Logier, 1841.

Subjects: Genito-Urinary System
  • 1220

Ueber das Wesen der sogenannten Saamenthiere.

N. Notiz. a.d. Geb. d. Natur-und Heilk., 19, 4-8, Weimar, 1841.

Demonstration of the cellular origin of spermatozoa.

Subjects: Genito-Urinary System
  • 1858

Treatise on the oleum jecoris aselli, or cod liver oil.

Edinburgh: Maclachlan, Stewart & Co, 1841.

Bennett visited Paris and Germany, and learned there of the beneficial effects of cod liver oil. His book drew the attention of English medical men to the value of the oil.

  • 2470

Histoire naturelle des zoophytes.

Paris: Lib. encyclopéd. de Roret, 1841.

Further modification of and improvements in the classification of bacteria.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteria, Classification of, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 3588

Operation for strangulated hernia.

Lond. med. Gaz., 28, 863-66., London, 1841.

Luke’s operation for femoral hernia.

Subjects: SURGERY: General › Hernia
  • 3932

Unterscheidung von Gummi, Dextrin, Traubenzucker, und Rohrzucker.

Ann. Chem. (Heidelberg), 39, 360-62., Heidelberg, 1841.

Trommer’s test for glucose in urine.

Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 4259.1

Recherches anatomiques, pathologiques et thérapeutiques sur les maladies des organes urinaires et génitaux considerés specialement chez les hommes agés.

Paris: Bechet jeune & Labé, 1841.

Mercier emphasized the importance of the muscle fibres around the bladder neck, “Mercier’s bar”, in prostatism.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4030

Mémoire sur une végétation qui constitue la vraie teigne.

C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 13, 72-75, 1841.

Independently of Schönlein (No. 4029) Gruby discovered the achorion of favus, describing it definitely as the cause of the disease, a point about which Schönlein was in doubt.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses, PARASITOLOGY › Parasitic Fungi
  • 4031

Notice of the molluscum contagiosum.

Edinb. med. surg. J., 56, 213-18, Edinburgh, 1841.

See No. 4032.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 4032

Cases and observations on the molluscum contagiosum of Bateman, with an account of the minute structure of the tumours.

Edinb. med. J. 56, 279-88., 1841.

Henderson and Paterson described the inclusion body of molluscum contagiosum, “Henderson–Paterson body”.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 3444

Maladies de la glande parotide et de la région parotidienne.

Paris: Germer Baillière, 1841.

First important treatise on parotid tumors.

  • 4323

Ueber die Durchschneidung der Sehnen und Muskeln.

Berlin: A. Förster, 1841.

Report on 140 cases of tenotomy for treatment of club-foot.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Foot / Ankle, Podiatry
  • 5518

Torsk i mikroskopiskt anatomiskt hänseende.

Hygiea (Stockh.), 3, 541-50., Stockholm, 1841.

Discovery of Candida albicans in thrush.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Candidiasis, Mycology, Medical
  • 5854

On the anatomy and pathology of certain structures in the orbit not previously described.

Dublin J. med. Sci., 19, 329-56, 1841.

Ferrall’s operation for enucleation of the eyeball (p. 354).

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures
  • 6531

Coup d’oeil sur les institutions médicales belges, depuis les derniéres années du dix-huitième siècle jusqu’a nos jours, suivie de la bibliographie de cette époque.

Brussels: Soc. Encyclographique des Sciences Médicales, 1841.

  • 6575

Anales históricos de la medicina en general, y biografico-bibliográficos de la española en particular. 8 vols.

Valencia: Lopez, Cervera, 18411846.

Includes No. 6576, together with Historia particular de las operaciones quirúrgicas, 1841; Historia general de la medicina, 2 vols. 1841-43; and Vade mecum histórico y bibliográfico, etc., 1844. Facsimile reproduction, 1964.

  • 6576

Historia de la medicina española. 4 vols.

Valencia: Lopez, Cervera, 18411846.

Forms Vols. 3-6 of No. 6575.

  • 5267.1

Ueber ein Entozoon im Blute von Salmo fario.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 435-36, 1841.

Valentin was the first to discover a trypanosome; this was in a salmon. English translation in Kean (No. 2268.1).

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Triatomine Bug-Borne Diseases › Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) , PARASITOLOGY › Trypanosoma
  • 1984

Des Asclepiades von Bithynien Gesundheitsvorschriften, nach den vorhandenen Handschriften zum ersten Male vollständig bearbeitet und erläutert. Von Robert Ritter von Welz.

Würzburg: Druck von Friedrich Ernst Thein, 1841.

The Greek physician Asclepiades acquired a great reputation in Rome. His remedies included change of diet, friction, bathing, and exercise. The above edition includes Greek, Latin, and German texts. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 6875

Nouveau traité théorique et pratique de l'art du dentiste.

Paris: Fortin & Chamerot, 1841.

Lefoulon introduced the term "orthodontia" in this book, and went into more detail and recorded more notable advances in the practice of orthodontics than any of his predecessors.

"Lefoulon introduced treatment without extraction. He had the happy idea of treatment both by an elastic excentric force (lingual spring) and by an elastic concentric force (vestibular spring). He was the first to obtain transversal maxillary expansion" (Dechaume & Huard, Histoire illustrée de l'art dentaire, p. 76). Hoffmann-Axthelm, History of Dentistry, pp. 364-65. Weinberger, History of Orthodontics 253-71. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: DENTISTRY › Orthodontics
  • 7478

Illustrations of cutaneous disease: A series of delineations of the affections of the skin in their more interesting and frequent forms.

London: Hippolyte Baillière, 1841.

Large folio, with 94 hand-colored lithographed plates by Archibald Henning (1805-64).

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Dermatopathology
  • 7774

The North American sylva; or, A description of the forest trees of the United States, Canada, and Nova Scotia, considered particularly with respect to their use in the arts, and their introduction into commerce; to which is added a description of the most useful of the European trees. Illustrated by 156 coloured engravings. Translated from the French of F. Andrew Michaux ... With three additional volumes, containing all the forest trees discovered in the Rocky Mountains, the Territory of Oregon, down to the shores of the Pacific and into the confines of California, as well as in various parts of the United States. Illustrated by 122 finely coloured plates. 6 vols.

Philadelphia: J. Dobson, 18411849.

The first study of all the trees of North America. Digital facsimile of all 6 vols. from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, BOTANY › Dendrology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Canada, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.)
  • 8968

Physici et medici Graeci minores. Congressit, ad fidem codd. mss. praesertim eorum, quos beatus Diezius contulerat, veterumque editionum partim emendavit partim nunc prima vice edidit, commentariis criticis indicibusque tam rerum quam verborum instruxit. Edited by Julius Ludwig Ideler. 2 vols.

Berlin: G. Reimer, 1841.

Includes texts of the following authors:  Abitianus, Actuarius, Johannes, Alexander, of Aphrodisias, Andromachus (Senior), Apollonius, Dyscolus, 2nd cent, Archelaus (philosophus), Cassius (Iatrosophistes), Hermes, Trismegistus, Hierophilus (Sophistes), Hierotheus, Marcellus Sidetes, Maximus Planudae, Mercurius, Cyrus, Palladius Alexandrinus, Psellus, Michael, Soranus, of Ephesus, Sotion, Stephanus (Alexandrinus), Symeon Magister, Theophrastus, Theophylactus Simocatta, Xenocrates Aphrodisiensis. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, BYZANTINE MEDICINE, Compilations and Anthologies of Medicine
  • 9063

Da prostituição na cidade de Lisboa; ou considerações historicas, hygienicas e administrativas em geral sobre as prostitutas, e em especial na referida cidade: com a exposição da legislação portugueza a seo respeito, e proposta de medidas regulamentares, necessarias para a manutenção da saude publica, e da moral.

Lisbon: Typ. Lisbonese., 1841.

In this comprehensive study of prostitution in Lisbon Cruz analyzed the history of prostitution in Portugal and compared it to the practice in Japan, India, Egypt, ancient Greece and Rome, as well as a number of modern states. He defended legally regulated prostitution as a necessary public health measure. The leaves and folding tables between pp. 438 and [552] consist of 13 numbered “Mappas” containing statistical tables and explanations thereof for various districts of the city of Lisbon pertaining to the theme of the book. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 10072

Notes on the United States of North America during a phrenological visit in 1838-9-40. 3 vols.

Edinburgh: Maclachlan, Stewart & Co. & London: Longman & Co., 1841.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Phrenology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientsts
  • 10723

The American vegetable practice, or, a new and improved guide to health: Designed for the use of families. : In six Parts. Part I. Concise view of the human body, with engraved and wood-cut illustrations. Part II. Glance at the old school practice of physic. Part III. Vegetable materia medica, with colored Illustrations. Part IV. Compounds. Part V. Practice of medicine, based upon what are deemed correct physiological and pathological principles. Part VI. Guide for women, containing a simplified treatise on childbirth, with a description of the diseases peculiar to females and infant. 2 vols.

Boston, MA: Daniel L. Hale, 1841.

The first American book with chromolithographed illustrations printed in America. The chromolithographed images depict American medicinal plants. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 11902

Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l'Océanie sur les corvettes l'Astrolabe et la Zélée, exécuté...pendant...1837-1840, sous le commandement de M. J. DUMONT D'URVILLE... publié... sour la direction supérieure de M. [C. H.] Jacquinot, &c. 23 vols. in 22.

Paris: Gide, Éditeur, 18411854.

In 1836 King Louis-Philippe, enthusiastic for Southern Hemisphere exploration, sponsored Dumont d'Urville's plan for a circumnavigation focusing on the South Seas. D'Urville had already distinguished himself on two Pacific expeditions and was eager to rival the achievements of James Cook. Between 1837 and 1840, the ships Astrolabe and Zélée explored the waters of the Antarctic area and Oceania in extremely harsh conditions; almost forty crew members died or deserted. However, d'Urville discovered a new portion of the Antarctic coast, shed light on the ethnography of several Pacific islands and brought back multitudes of botanical specimens. D'Urville published his account of the voyage, including his contributions to geography, natural history and ethnography in 10 vols, from 1841 to1846. Vol. 10, includes extracts from his correspondence, as well as a biography. The extensive scientific team who sailed on the voyage published their reports in 13 additional volumes. Their works are listed below.

Histoire du Voyage par M. Dumont d'Urville 10 vols, 1841-1843-46- [47]. Text. Plus Atlas pittoresque. 2 vols. 200 plates, 8 maps.

Anthropologie par M. [Pierre-Marie-Alexandre] Dumoutier, texte ...par M. É[mile]. Blanchard. 1854.

Anthropologie Atlas (50 plates) 1842-47.

Zoologie, par MM. [Jacques Bernard] Hombron et [C. H.] Jacquinot

Vol. 1. De l'homme dans ses rapports avec la Création, par M. Hombron. 1846.

Vol. 2. Considérations générales sur l'anthropologie suivies d'observations sur les races humaines de l'Amérique méridionale et de l'Océanie, par M. H. Jacquinot.

Vol. 3. Mammifères et oiseaux, par M. H. Jacinot et M. [Jacques] Pucheran.

           Reptiles et poissons, par M. H. Jacquinot et M. A. Guichenot.

           Crustacés par M. H. Jacquinot et M. H. Lucas. 1853.

Vol. 4. Description des insects, par E[mile]. Blanchard. 1853. 

Vol. 5. Description des mollusques, coquilles et zoophytes, par L. Rousseau. 1854.

Zoologie Atlas: Mammifères, 29 colored plates; Oiseaux, 37 colored plates; Reptiles, 18 colored plates; Poissons, 5 colored plates, Insectes, 25 colored plates; Crustacés, 9 colored plates; Mollusques, 20 colored plates; Zoophytes, 3 colored plates. 1842-53.


Vol. 1. Plantes cellulaires par  [Jean Pierre François] C[amille] Montagne.

Vol. 2. Description des plantes vasculaires, par J. Decaisne.

Botanique Atlas. 66 plates (20 colored). 1852.

Géologie, Minérologie et Géographie physique...par M. J. Grange. 2 vols. 1848, 1854.

Géologie Atlas. 9 plates, 4 colored maps.

Physique, par MM. Vincendon-Dumoulin et Coupvent-Desbois. Vol. 1. 1842.

Hydrographie, [par M. Vincendon-Dumoulin. 2 vols. 1843, 1851.

Hydrographie Atlas. 57 maps. 1847.

Digital facsimile of d'Urville's 10 vols. texte from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY, BOTANY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology, ZOOLOGY › Ichthyology, ZOOLOGY › Malacology, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 12685

Études sur André Vésale: Précédées d'une notice historique sur sa vie et ses écrits.

Gand, Belgium: C. Annoot-Braeckman, Imprimeur, 1841.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, Renaissance Medicine › History of Renaissance Medicine
  • 12867

Essay on the importance of regulating the teeth of children before the fourteenth year, or the period of life when the second set of teeth become perfectly developed.

New York: J. A. Fraetas, 1841.

This 11-page pamphlet was the first American work on orthodontics.

Subjects: DENTISTRY › Orthodontics
  • 12926

On the structure, economy, and pathology of the human teeth, with careful instructions for their preservation and culture: And concise descriptions of the best modes of surgical treatment; equally adapted to the uses of the medical practitioner, the student in medicine, and the public.

London: John Churchill, 1841.

The author described himself as "Surgeon. Surgical and Mechanical Dentist."  Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: DENTISTRY › Orthodontics
  • 13014

Journals of two expeditions of discovery in North-West and Western Australia, during the years 1837, 38, and 39...describing many new discovered, important, and fertile districts, with observations on the moral and physical conditions of the aboriginal inhabitants, &c. &c. 2 vols.

London: T. and W. Boone, 1841.

"In 1837, at the age of 25, Grey led an ill-prepared expedition that explored North-West Australia. British settlers in Australia at the time knew little of the region and only one member of Grey's party had been there before. It was believed possible at that time that one of the world's largest rivers might drain into the Indian Ocean in North-West Australia; if that were found to be the case, the region it flowed through might be suitable for colonisation. Grey, with Lieutenant Franklin Lushington, of the 9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot, offered to explore the region. On 5 July 1837, they sailed from Plymouth in command of a party of five, the others being Lushington; Dr William Walker, a surgeon and naturalist; and Corporals John Coles and Auger of the Royal Sappers and Miners. Others joined the party at Cape Town, and early in December they landed at Hanover Bay (west of Uwins Island in the Bonaparte Archipelago). Travelling south, the party traced the course of the Glenelg River. After experiencing boat wrecks, near-drowning, becoming completely lost, and Grey himself being speared in the hip during a skirmish with Aboriginal people, the party gave up. After being picked up by HMS Beagle and the schooner Lynher, they were taken to Mauritius to recover.[5][10][11][12]

"Two years later, Grey returned to Western Australia and was again wrecked with his party, again including Surgeon Walker, at Kalbarri; they were the first Europeans to see the Murchison River, but then had to walk to Perth, surviving the journey through the efforts of Kaiber, a Whadjuk Noongar man (that is, indigenous to the Perth region), who organised food and what water could be found (they survived by drinking liquid mud). At about this time, Grey learnt the Noongar language.[5][13][14][15] 

(Wikipedia article on George Grey, accessed 7-2020).

From the standpoint of human origins this work is notable for containing the first illustrations of rock art reproduced as 4 plates in vol. 1 (pp. 201-204, 213-215), 3 of which were printed in color. See A. P. Elkin, "Grey's Nothern Kimberley cave-paintings re-found," Oceania, 19 (1948) 1-15. These were aboriginal rock art works, dated in 2020 at 12,000+-500 years old, now known as Wandjina style art
Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Australia, EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists › History of Voyages & Travels by Physicians....
  • 606

Bemerkungen über die Kräfte der unbelebten Natur.

Ann. Chem. Pharm. (Lemgo), 42, 233-40., 1842.

Mayer demonstrated the principle of the conservation of energy as far as physiological processes are concerned.

  • 607

Handwörterbuch der Physiologie … hrsg. von R. Wagner.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 18421853.

Wagner was professor at Göttingen. His literary output was enormous. In the above work he contributed the sections on sympathetic nerves, nerve-ganglia, and nerve-endings. This work contained 63 extensive review articles from 30 authors.

Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 677

Die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Physiologie und Pathologie.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg, 1842.

First classification of the organic foodstuffs and the processes of nutrition. With this book Liebig introduced the concept of metabolism into physiology. English translation, London, 1842.

  • 678

Umwandlung der Benzoësäure in Hippursäure im lebenden Organismus.

Ann. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig), 56, 638-41., Leipzig, 1842.

Discovery that benzoic acid taken in with food is excreted in the urine as hippuric acid – a discovery of importance in the chemistry of metabolism. (But see the footnote to p. 474 of Garrison’s History of medicine, 1929.)

  • 864

De l’origine des globules du sang, de leur mode de formation et de leur fin.

C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 14, 366-68, 1842.

Announces the discovery of the blood platelets.

  • 4691

Practice of medicine: A treatise on special pathology and therapeutics. 2 vols.

Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard, 1842.

A case of chronic hereditary chorea in adults (“Huntington’s chorea”, see No. 4699) is described on pp. 312-13 of vol. 2. This is in the form of a letter from one of Dunglison's recently graduated students at Jefferson Medical College, Charles Oscar Waters. Waters account of the disease was one of the first to note that the disease is hereditary, "within the third generation at farthest." Dunglison included Waters' description of the disease in his book even though he had never personally seen a case. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Inherited Neurological Disorders › Huntington's Chorea, NEUROLOGY › Movement Disorders › Chorea
  • 1318

Die Selbständigkeit des sympathischen Nervensystems durch anatomische Untersuchungen nachgewiesen.

Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1842.

These writers showed the sympathetic nervous system to consist largely of small, medullated fibers originating from the sympathetic and spinal ganglia.

Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 484

Entwickelungsgeschichte des Kaninchen-Eies.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 1842.

Bischoff contributed important original work on the development of the rabbit.

  • 1608

Report…from the Poor Law Commissioners on an inquiry into the sanitary conditions of the labouring population of Great Britain.

London: William Clowes & Sons, 1842.

Chadwick devoted his life to social reform. He was secretary to the Poor Law Commission when he made the above report to Parliament. In it he included a careful analysis of causes of death in 1838 and 1839 and gave a vivid picture of insanitary conditions in England and Wales. The complete report was issued in 3 vols. in 1842 (though the 2nd and 3rd volumes are infrequently found) plus a supplementary summary volume published in 1843. As a result of this and an earlier (1833) report, the foundations of later systems of government inspection were laid, a Public Health Act was passed (1848) and a General Board of Health was established. Chadwick included various lithographed maps illustrating public health issues such as deaths, contagious or epidemic diseases,  housing conditions, etc. See also No.1625.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Wales, Cartography, Medical & Biological, DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics, PUBLIC HEALTH
  • 1231

On the structure and use of the Malpighian bodies of the kidney with observations on the circulation through that gland.

Phil. Trans., 132, 57-80, 1842.

“Bowman’s capsule”. Bowman provided convincing evidence that the glomerular corpuscle is continuous with the renal tubule and gave the first adequate description of the vascular supply of the nephron. He described the afferent and efferent arterioles as they enter and emerge from the capsule which now bears his name. In the same paper he stated his theory of renal secretion. Bowman’s work became the basis for all future studies on the physiology of the kidney. Reprinted in Med. Classics, 1940, 5, 258-91.

Subjects: Genito-Urinary System › Kidney: Urinary Secretion, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Anatomy, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology
  • 1397

Recherches physiologiques et cliniques sur le liquide céphalo-rachidien ou cérébro-spinal. 1 vol. and atlas.

Paris: Méquignon-Marvis, 1842.

“Foramen of Magendie” described.

Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, Neurophysiology
  • 2293
  • 3618

Handbuch der pathologischen Anatomie. 3 vols.

Vienna: Braumüller & Seidel, 18421846.

Rokitansky ranks with Morgagni as among the greatest of all writers on gross pathology. He is said to have performed over 30,000 autopsies himself. His Handbuch was for many years pre-eminent among its contemporaries. Although Rokitansky embraced more than one false doctrine, he was quick to admit and correct his mistakes. Virchow’s criticism of the first edition of the Handbuch led Rokitansky to re-write it. He foresaw the eventual importance of chemical pathology, at that time non-existent. Vol. 1 of the first edition was published last; vol. 3 was published first.

Vol. 3 (1842), p. 313: Rokitansky’s classic description of the pathological picture of acute yellow atrophy of the liver. Rokitansky named the disease; it has also been called “Rokitansky’s disease”.

English translation, 4 vols., London, 1849-54.

Subjects: HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Liver, PATHOLOGY
  • 2471

History of a case in which a fluid periodically ejected from the stomach contained vegetable organisms of an undescribed form.

Edinb. med. surg. J., 57, 430-43, 1842.

First description of Sarcina ventriculi, discovered by Goodsir.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Sarcina, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 202

Om formen af nordboernes cranier.

Förhandl. skand. Naturforsch., 3, 157-201., 1842.

Retzius introduced the method of classifying races according to the cranial or cephalic index. A German translation of his paper is available in the Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 1845, 84-129.

Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Craniology
  • 3116

Notes on anhaemia, principally in its connections with the puerperal state, and with functional disease of the uterus: with cases.

New Engl. quart. J. Med. Surg., 1, 157-88., 1842.

First description of pernicious anemia of pregnancy. Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Anemia & Chlorosis
  • 217

Om Fortplantning og Udvikling gjennem vexlende Generations-raekker.

Copenhagen: Bianco Lunos Bogtrykkeri, 1842.

Steenstrup is responsible for the theory of the “alternation of generations”. He showed that certain animals produce offspring which never resemble them but which, on the other hand, bring forth progeny which return in form and nature to their grandparents or more distant ancestors. An edition in German was also published in 1842. An English translation of the book was published by the Ray Society of London in 1845.

  • 2752

Observations on the diseases of the orifice and valves of the aorta.

Guy’s Hospital Reports, 7, 387-442, 1842.

First clear account of chronic constrictive pericarditis.

  • 30

Antylli veteris chirurgi quae apud Oribasium libro xliv, xlv et L leguntur fragmenta. Dissertatio inauguralis chirurgico-historica....By Friedrich C. F. Wolz.

Jena: typ. Schreiberi, 1842.

Antyllus, a Greek surgeon who lived in Rome during the second century CE. is particularly remembered for his work on the surgery of aneurysm. He was first to recognize two forms of aneurysm–one caused by dilatation and the other following wounding of an artery. Much of his writing is available to us only through the industry of Oribasius who included it in his compilations. A German version of Antyllus is in Janus, 1847, 2, 298-329, 744-71; 1848, 3, 166-84. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 2959

Gun-shot wound of the face and neck; ligature of the carotid artery.

New Engl, quart. J. Med. Surg., 1, 188-93, 18421843.

First successful ligature of the carotid artery (for secondary haemorrhage) Oct. 18, 1807, eight months before Sir Astley Cooper (No. 2929). Published 35 years after the event, this paper may set some kind of record for late reporting.

Subjects: VASCULAR SURGERY › Ligations
  • 4033

Om den spedalske sygdom. Elephantiasis graecorum.

Norsk. Mag. Laegevid. 4, 1-73; 127-216, 1842.

Boeck, eminent Norwegian dermatologist and syphilologist, was the first to describe Norwegian itch, scabies crustosa (“Boeck’s scabies”).

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses, PARASITOLOGY › Sarcoptes scabiei (Itch-Mite)
  • 4034

Sur une espèce de mentagre contagieuse résultant du développement d’un nouveau cryptogame dans la racine des poils de la barbe de l’homme.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 15, 512-15, Paris, 1842.

First accurate description of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, the fungus responsible for sycosis barbae. English translation of this and Gruby’s other five papers read to l’Académie des Sciences in Zakon & Benedek, David Gruby and the centenary of medical mycology, 1841-1941, Bull. Hist. Med., 1944, 16, 155-68.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses, Mycology, Medical
  • 3445

On acute ulceration of the duodenum, in cases of burn.

Med.-chir. Trans., 25, 260-81, 1842.

“Curling’s ulcer”. Although not first to report duodenal ulcers as a complication of burns, Curling correlated the work of previous writers on the subject and directed attention to it.

Subjects: Diseases Due to Physical Factors › Burns, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Diseases of the Digestive System › Gastric / Duodenal Ulcer
  • 4323.1

Excision of a portion of the scapula.

Lancet, 1, 917-18, 18421843.

First description of operation for partial excision of scapula.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Shoulder
  • 3682

Systematisches Handbuch der Zahnheilkunde. Bd. 2: Anatomie des Mundes.

Vienna: Braumüller & Seidel, 18421844.

Original description (p. 107) of “Carabelli’s cusp”, tuberculus anomalus, sometimes found on the lingual surface of the upper permanent molars. It was first illustrated on Tab. XI, Fig. 4e, and Tab. XIV, Fig. 4, of Kupfertafeln zu v. Carabelli’s Anatomie des Mundes, Vienna, 1842, and later described in Carabelli's Systematisches Handbuch der Zahnkunde, Band 2, which was published posthumously in 1844.

Digital facsimile of the 1842 atlas from Google Books at this link.


Subjects: DENTISTRY › Dental Anatomy & Physiology
  • 4416

Ueber spontane und congenitale Luxationen.

Stuttgart: Ebner & Seubert, 1842.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations
  • 4992.3

Satanic agency and mesmerism reviewed. In a Letter to the Rev. H. Mc. Neile A.M. of Liverpool: In reply to a sermon preached by him in St. Jude's Church, Liverpool, on Sunday, April 10th, 1842.

Manchester: Simms & Dinham, 1842.

Braid’s scientific investigations of mesmerism convinced him that its effects did not depend on an outside force, but were natural phenomena arising from the subject’s heightened suggestibility. This 10-page pamphlet contains his first statement of these discoveries and contains the first use of the term “neuro-hypnotism”, which Braid coined to replace the unscientific “mesmerism” and “animal magnetism”.

Subjects: PSYCHOTHERAPY › Hypnosis, Quackery
  • 5519

Recherches anatomiques sur une plante cryptogame qui constitue le vrai muguet des enfants.

C. R. Acad. Set. (Paris), 14, 634-36., Paris, 1842.

Independently of Berg, Gruby found Candida albicans in thrush. He demonstrated its fungal nature.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Candidiasis, Mycology, Medical
  • 5744

Die plastische Chirurgie.

Berlin: G. Reimer, 1842.

  • 5745

Operations for fissure of the hard and soft palate (palatoplastie).

New Engl. quart. J. Med. Surg., 1, 538-47., 18421843.

Warren devised the first operation for closure of complete clefts of the palate.

  • 5595

Die angeborenen chirurgischen Krankheiten des Menschen in Abbildungen dargestellt. 2 vols.

Berlin: F. A. Herbig, 1842.

Subjects: SURGERY: General
  • 5596

A system of practical surgery.

London: John Churchill, 1842.

Fergusson was the founder of conservative surgery. He was surgeon of the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, before being appointed to the chair of surgery at King’s College Hospital, London, a position to which he was succeeded by Lister.

Subjects: SURGERY: General
  • 5856

Ueber das Schielen und die Heilung desselben durch eine Operation.

Berlin: A. Förstner, 1842.

The first successful attempt at treating strabismus by myotomy. The operation was later abandoned owing to the frequently disastrous final effects. A preliminary paper appeared in Med. Ztg., 1839, 8, 227.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures › Strabismus
  • 5650.1

Account of a case of sccessful amputation of the thigh during the mesmeric state.

London: J.-B. Baillière, 1842.

The original account of the first major operation performed in England using hypnosis as a form of anesthesia. The amputation was performed by Ward. Topham, a lawyer interested in mesmerism, performed the hypnosis. The controversy caused by this operation led to Elliotson’s book (No. 5650.2). Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Hypnosis (Mesmerism)
  • 6032

Cases of peritoneal section, for the extirpation of diseased ovaria, by the large incision from sternum to pubes, successfully treated.

Med. Times, 7, 43, 59, 67, 83, 99, 139, 153, 270, 1842.

Clay, pioneer ovariotomist in Great Britain, introduced the word “ovariotomy”. (See also his later paper, No. 6054.)

  • 6033

Invention du spéculum plein et brisé.

Bull. Acad. Méd. (Paris), 8, 661-68, 18421843.

Description of the speculum invented by Récamier.

  • 5855

A treatise on strabismus, with a description of new instruments designed to improve the operation for its cure.

Richmond, VA: P. D. Bernard, 1842.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures › Strabismus
  • 6274

The contagiousness of puerperal fever.

N. Engl. quart. J. Med. Surg., 1, 503-30, 18421843.

Oliver Wendell Holmes was the first to establish the contagious nature of puerperal fever. His essay on the subject took a strong line against the opinions then prevailing, stirring up violent opposition among the obstetricians of Philadelphia. Reprinted in Med. Classics, 1936, 1, 211-43.

  • 6756

Bibliotheca medico-historica: sive, catalogus librorum historicorum de re medica et scientia naturali systematicus.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1842.

Additamenta, by Julius Rosenbaum, 2 parts, 1842-47. Reprinted (without Additamenta), 1960.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics
  • 6576.1

Historia bibliográfica de la medicina española. 7 vols.

Madrid: Carlos Bailly-Baillière, 18421852.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Spain
  • 7001

The anatomy of sleep; or, the art of procuring sound and refreshing slumber at will.

London: John Churchill, 1842.

This semi-popular work was one of the first scientific studies of sleep. It was also the first book typeset by a mechanical typesetting machine, rather than hand-set type. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link. For further information see the entry at at this link.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY, NEUROLOGY › Sleep Physiology & Medicine
  • 7599

A descriptive and illustrated catalogue of the calculi and other animal concretions contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in London.

London: Printed by Richard and John E. Taylor, 1842.

The collection formed by John Hunter, to which was added the collection formed by Hans Sloane acquired from the British Museum in 1809, and material from other donors. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological
  • 8424

De auctorum graecorum versionibus et commentariis syriacis, arabicis, armeniacis persicisque commentatio.

Leipzig: Sumptibus Fr. Chr. Guil. Vogelii, 1842.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece › History of Ancient Medicine in Greece, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Manuscripts & Philology, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Manuscripts & Philology › Translations to and from Arabic, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Armenia, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › History of Medieval Medicine, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Persian Islamic Medicine, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Syria and Syriac Texts
  • 8916

The structure and distribution of coral reefs. Being the first part of the geology of the voyage of the Beagle, under the command of Capt. Fitzroy, R. N. During the years 1832 to 1836.

London: Smith, Elder, 1842.

With slight modification, Darwin's work remains the accepted explanation for these phenomena. "Even if he had done nothing else, the theory of the coral islands alone would have placed Darwin in the very front of investigations of nature" (Geikie).

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, BIOLOGY › Marine Biology, EVOLUTION, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists, ZOOLOGY › Anthozoology
  • 9083

Natural history of the insects of China, containing upwards of two hundred and twenty figures and descriptions by E. Donovan. A new edition, brought down to the present state of the science, with systematic characters of each species, synonyms, indexes, and other additional matter by J. O. Westwood.

London: Henry G. Bohn, 1842.

Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › China, People's Republic of, NATURAL HISTORY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 10064

The history, diagnosis, and treatment of typhoid and of typhus fever: With an essay on the diagnosis of bilious remittent and of yellow fever.

Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard, 1842.

Bartlett's book contains the first complete description of typhoid fever in English. In 1908 Osler wrote, "The chief interest of the work today lies in the remarkably accurate picture which is given of typhoid fever--a picture the main outlines of which are as well and firmly drawn in any work which has appeared since." Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Salmonellosis › Typhoid Fever, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Lice-Borne Diseases › Typhus, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Yellow Fever
  • 10381

Muséum d'anatomique pathologique de la Faculté de Médecine de Paris, ou Musée Dupuytren. Publié au nom de la Faculté. 2 vols. and atlas.

Paris: Bechet jeune & Labé, 1842.

Plates lithographed after drawings by Émile Beau. Digital facsimile from BnFGallica at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › France, MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological , PATHOLOGY
  • 11109

Theophili Protospatharii De corporis humani fabrica libri v. Edidit Gulielmus Alexander Greenhill.

Oxford: E Typographeo academico, 1842.

Extensively annotated Greek & Latin edition of this Byzantine treatise on anatomy and physiology, edited by William Alexander Greenhill. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Medieval Anatomy (6th to 15th Centuries), BYZANTINE MEDICINE, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , PHYSIOLOGY
  • 11260

Homoeópathy, and its kindred delusions; Two lectures delivered before the Boston Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.

Boston: William D. Ticknor, 1842.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Homeopathy, PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE › Placebo / Nocebo, Quackery
  • 11693

Travels in Europe and the East, embracing observations made during a tour through Great Britain, Ireland, France, Belgium, Holland, Prussia, Saxony, Bohemia, Austria, Bavaria, Switzerland, Lombardy, Tuscany, the Papal States, the Neapolitan Dominions, Malta, the Islands of the Archipelago, Greece, Egypt, Asia Minor, Turkey, Moldavia, Wallachia, and Hungary in the years 1834, '35, '36, '37, '38, '39, '40, and '41.

New York: Harper & Brothers, 1842.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 11764

The botany of Captain Beechey's voyage; comprising an account of the plants collected by Messrs Lay and Collie, and other officers of the expedition during the voyage to the Pacific and Bering's Strait, performed in His Majesty's Ship Blossom, under the command of Captain F. W. the years 1825, 26, 27, and 28. By Sir William Jackson Hooker and G. A. Walker Arnott.

London: Henry G. Bohn, 1842.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12423

On the parasitic fungi found growing in living animals.

Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., 15, 277-294, 1842.

Bennett confirmed and extended the observations and experiments of Gruby concerning the mycodermatous vegetations found in the crusts of the disease called Tinea favosa, or Zorigo lupinosa of Bateman; he announced the occasional existence of, and described, a plant found growing on the lining membrane or cheesy matter of tubercular cavities in the lungs of man. This was the first description of aspergillus (a pathogenic fungus) growing in the lung tissue of humans.

Digital facsimile of the separate offprint (copy inscribed by Bennett to Bischoff) from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Mycosis › Aspergillosis, Mycology, Medical
  • 12480

[New York Natural History and Geological Survey.] Natural history of New York. 30 vols.

Albany, NY: [Various], 18421894.

The New York Natural History and Geological Survey was established by the state legislature in 1836 under the direction of James Ellsworth DeKay. By far the most ambitious scientific project undertaken in the United States to that date, it was issued in six sections: Zoology, Botany, Mineralogy, Geology, Agriculture, and Paleontology. Volumes began to appear in 1842. The first four parts, a total of twelve volumes, were issued in 1842-44, and the five volumes of the Agriculture section between 1846 and 1854. The final section, Paleontology, began publication in 1846, but under its editor, James Hall, it took on a life of its own. Hall managed to turn it into a long career in his position as state paleontologist, ultimately issuing thirteen volumes where only one had been planned. Without Hall’s lobbying for additional state funds, the entire project would have been completed in the 1850s. Instead Hall was still in office, at age 83, when the final volumes were published.

Natural History of New York is notable for its vast array of color plates, and in later volumes its use of other innovative forms of natural history illustration. In all it contains several thousand plates, colored and uncolored, making it a project on the same scale as the Pacific Railroad Survey. The set is much less well known because far fewer volumes were produced than the U.S. government publications, but it clearly was the model on which the great U.S. surveys of the 1850s were based. Meisel includes a detailed collation.

  • 12683

Ibn Khallikan's biographical dictionary. Translated from the Arabic by Bn. Mac Guckin de Slane. 4 vols.

Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, 18421871.

Begun in 1256, this eight-volume biographical dictionary of Islamic scholarship and literature entitled Wafayāt al-aʿyān wa-anbāʾ abnāʾ az-zamān (وفيات الأعيان وأنباء أبناء الزمان) ('Deaths of Eminent Men and the Sons of the Epoch'), was completed in 1274. Khallikān documented the lives of notable writers, scientists, religious and legal scholars.
Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Islamic or Arab Medicine
  • 12862

Arthroplastik oder die sämmtlichen, bisher bekannt gewordenen künstlichen Hände und Füsse, zum Ersatz dieser verloren gegangenen Gliedmassen, nach Manuscripten des...C. A. F. Kluge... bearbeitet und abgebildet von H. E. Fritze. Mit 26 in Stein gravirten Tafeln.

Lemgo, Germany: Meyer'schen Hof-Buchhandlung, 1842.

This work with its elaborate series of 26 lithographed schematic drawings was certainly the most comprehensive work on hand and foot protheses of its time.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: SURGERY: General › Protheses
  • 13121

On the different forms of insanity in relation to jurisprudence, designed for the use of persons concerned in legal questions regarding unsoundness of mind.

London: Hippolyte Baillière, 1842.

In this book Prichard presented his arguments for introducing the concept of diminished responsibility and irresistable impulse into the legal precedents. Hunter & McAlpine, 836-42. 

Digital facsimile from the Wellcome Collection at this link.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Forensic Psychiatry
  • 4459

Amputation at the ankle-joint.

Lond. Edinb. month. J. med. Sci., 3, 93-96, London & Edinburgh, 1843.

“Syme’s amputation” at the ankle joint, an operation first successfully performed by him on 8 Sept, 1842.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Amputations: Excisions: Resections
  • 608

Sur le courant électrique des muscles des animaux vivants ou récemment tués.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 16, 197-200., 1843.

Matteucci’s “rheoscopic frog” effect.

Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 609

Ueber den sogennanten Froschstrom.

Ann. Pbysik. (Berl.), 58, 1-30., 1843.

First description and definition of electrotonus.

Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 992.1

Voie artificielle dans l’estomac des animaux.

Bull. Soc. imp. Naturalistes Moscou, N.S. 16, 315-19, 1843.

First gastric fistula established specially for the purpose of experimentation.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 992.2

Traité analytique de la digestion considérée particulièrement dans l’homme et dans les animaux.

Paris: Fortin, Masson & Cie, 1843.

Gastric fistula for experimental purposes.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 992.3

Du suc gastrique et de son rôle dans la nutrition.

Paris: Rignoux, 1843.

Bernard showed that if sucrose is injected directly into the blood it is eliminated by the kidneys while glucose is retained, and that gastric juice transforms sucrose into assimilable sugar. See F. J. Holmes, Claude Bernard and animal chemistry: The emergence of a scientist, Cambridge, Mass., 1974. This includes a history of research on digestion from 1750-1848.

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Metabolism, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 4691.1

Course of lectures on the deformities of the human frame. Lecture IX.

Lancet, 1, 350-54, 18431844.

Little’s description of congenital cerebral spastic diplegia resulted in the condition being named “Little’s disease”. See also No. 4735.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Degenerative Disorders
  • 484.1

Spermatozoa observed within the mammiferous ovum.

Phil. Trans., p. 33 (only), 1843.

Barry was the first to observe the spermatozoon within the ovum.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Reproduction, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2218

A system of clinical medicine.

Dublin: Fannin & Co., 1843.

Graves was one of the founders of the Irish school of medicine and one of the most important figures in Irish medicine at the middle of the 19th century. Second edition of the book (as Clinical lectures on the practice of medicine) in 1848.

Subjects: Medicine: General Works
  • 2219

Lectures on the principles and practice of physic. 2 vols.

London: J. W. Parker, 1843.

First published in the Medical Times & Gazette, 1840-42, Watson’s famous lectures appeared in book form and formed the most important treatise of medicine for a quarter-century. Watson wrote in a fine style, and his book was reorganized as a sound guide to clinical medicine. Watson suggested (vol. 2, p. 349) rubber gloves for antisepsis; he also instructed his students to wash their hands in a solution of chloride of lime before assisting at deliveries.

Subjects: Medicine: General Works
  • 1232

Beiträge zur Lehre vom Mechanismus der Harnsecretion.

Marburg: N. G. Elwert, 1843.

Ludwig wrote a classic monograph on renal secretion. He theorized that urine formation could be explained purely in terms of the laws of physics and chemistry, and that under the hydrostatic pressure of the blood in the capillaries of the glomerulus, protein and cell-free fluid is separated from the blood by a simple physical process of filtration. This theory contradicted Bowman’s contention that the glomerulus secretes fluid. See also Ludwig’s habitation thesis, from which the above work was expanded: De viribus physicis secretionem urinae adjuvantibus. Marburg, Elwert, 1842. Digital facsimile of th 1843 work from Goethe Univerität at this link.

Subjects: Genito-Urinary System › Kidney: Urinary Secretion, NEPHROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology
  • 1677

Bibliotheca epidemiographica.

Jena: F. Mauke, 1843.

A second edition was published in 1862. Digital facsimile of the second edition from the Medical Heritage Library at the Internet Archive, at this link.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, EPIDEMIOLOGY › History of Epidemiology
  • 2294

Experimental and practical researches on the structure and function of blood corpuscles; on inflammation; and on the origin and nature of tubercles in the lungs.

Trans. prov. med. surg. Ass., 11, 233-306., 1843.

Addison gave an important account of the process of inflammation. See L.J. Rather, Addison and the white corpuscles: An aspect of nineteenth-century biology. London, Wellcome Institute, 1972. See also No. 3059.

  • 2420

Die ältesten Schriftseller über die Lustseuche in Deutschland, von 1495 bis 1510.

Göttingen: Dietrich, 1843.

Gives texts of German tracts on syphilis published between 1495 and 1510.

  • 3059

Experimental and practical researches on inflammation and on the origin and nature of tubercles of the lungs.

London: John Churchill, 1843.

Addison made important observations on the blood corpuscles. He is by some considered “the world’s first hematologist”. He gave the first description of leucocytosis, so named by Virchow in 1858, and he anticipated Cohnheim’s conception of inflammation. He was first to observe diapedesis. See Lancet, 1907, 1,182-83. See also No. 2294.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY, HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders
  • 3060

Essai d’hématologie pathologique.

Paris: Fortin, Masson & Cie, 1843.

The first monograph on hematology in its "modern" sense. Andral established analysis of the blood on the basis of exact knowledge of the blood components. He analysed the blood fibrin and albumin. He recognized several forms of anemia, including that due to lead poisoning. English translation, 1844.

  • 3259

A nasal operation for the removal of a large tumour filling up the entire nostril and extending to the pharynx.

Amer. J. med. Sci., n.s. 5, 87-91, 1843.

Removal of a fibrous growth from the nostril by division of the nasal and maxillary bones, July 8, 1841. Preliminary note in the same journal, 1842, 3, 257.

Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Rhinology, SURGERY: General › Surgical Oncology
  • 2753

Account of observations… on patients whose urine was albuminous.

Guy’s Hospital Reports, n.s. 1, 189-316, 1843.

An early description of a case of subacute bacterial endocarditis is reported on pp. 227-32 (Case 8).

  • 2754

Mémoire sur les signes stethoscopiques du rétrécissement de l’orifice auriculo-ventriculaire gauches du coeur.

Arch. gén. Méd. 4 sér., 1, 1-16, 1843.

First description of the presystolic murmur in mitral stenosis. Partial English translation in No. 2241.

Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Heart Valve Disease, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Auscultation and Physical Diagnosis
  • 2977.1


Edinb. med. surg. J., 60, 276-302, 1843.

An important account of dissecting aneurysm. Peacock collected all previously published cases and added a few of his own to a total of 19.

  • 4035

Recherches sur la nature, le siège et le développement du Porrigo decalvans ou phytoalopécie.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris),17, 301-03, Paris, 1843.

First accurate description of Microsporon audouini, the fungus of Willan’s porrigo decalvans, tinea tonsurans, “Gruby’s disease”.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses, Mycology, Medical
  • 3446

An experimental and critical inquiry into the nature and treatment of wounds of the intestines.

Louisville, KY: Prentice & Weissinger, 1843.

Reports of a series of experiments upon dogs to determine the best way to treat intestinal wounds. First published in West. J. Med. Surg., 1843. 7, 1-50, [81]-141, [161]-224.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Esophagus: Stomach: Duodenum: Intestines, SURGERY: General › Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery
  • 3681.2

Nouveaux éléments complets de la science et de l’art du dentiste. Suivis d’une notice historique et chronologique des travaux imprimés sur l’art du dentiste. 2 vols

Paris: Labé, 1843.

Desirabode may have been the first to discuss the use of fluoride compounds for caries prevention. See No. 3692.1. English translation of 2nd ed., Baltimore, 1847.

Subjects: DENTISTRY, DENTISTRY › Dental Pathology › Tooth Decay
  • 4993

Neurypnology, or, the rationale of nervous sleep.

London: John Churchill, 1843.

Braid inaugurated modern hypnotism, the word itself being introduced by him. His theories were adopted by Broca, Charcot, Liébeault, and Bernheim; thus he founded the French School. New edition, edited with an introduction biographical and bibliographical embodying the author's later views and further evidence on the subject by Arthur Edward Waite  (London: George Redway, 1899).



Subjects: PSYCHOTHERAPY › Hypnosis
  • 5310

Natural history, pathology and treatment of the epidemic fever at present prevailing in Edinburgh and other towns.

London: John Churchill, 1843.

The epidemic of relapsing fever in Edinburgh in 1843 was well described by Cormack. He was first editor of the Association Medical Journal which later became the British Medical Journal.

  • 5311

Notice of a febrile disorder which has prevailed at Edinburgh during the summer of 1843.

Edinb. med. surg. J., 60, 410-18, Edinburgh, 1843.

Relapsing fever was given its name by Craigie, in his description of the Edinburgh epidemic.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Lice-Borne Diseases › Relapsing Fever
  • 5353

Nuovo verme intestinale umano (Agchylostoma duodenale), constituente un sesto genere dei nematoidei proprii dell’uomo.

Ann. univ. Med. (Milano), 106, 5-51, 1843.

Dubini first found the hookworm of ankylostomiasis in 1838. His account of 1843, describing it, named it Agchylostoma duodenale, a name etymologically erroneous. Partial English translation in Kean (No. 2268.1).

  • 5857

Die Krankheiten und Missbildungen des menschlichen Auges und deren Heilung. 2 vols.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1843.

Himly was professor of ophthalmology at Jena and later at Göttingen. He introduced clinical teaching in ophthalmology.

  • 5858

Schriftnummerprobe für Gesichtsleidende.

Darmstadt: J. P. Diehl, 1843.

Küchler introduced test readings of print at a distance, for examination of patients.

Subjects: Optometry › Vision Tests
  • 5650.2

Numerous cases of surgical operation without pain in the mesmeric state.

London: Hippolyte Baillière, 1843.

Elliotson was one of the first in England to perform surgical operations with the aid of hypnotism. He was a great friend of Dickens and Thackeray, but his views on hypnotism were bitterly opposed by Thomas Wakley, editor of the Lancet, whose onslaughts eventually led to his downfall.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Hypnosis (Mesmerism)
  • 6034

Case of ovarian tumors – both the right and the left being removed at the same operation.

N. Y. J. Med., 1, 168-70, 1843.

First successful double oöphorectomy. Communicated in a letter to the editor by J. M. Foltz.

  • 6035

Contributions to the pathology and treatment of disease of the uterus.

Lond. Edinb. month. J. med. Sci., 3, 547-56, 701-15, 1009-27; 4, 208-17, London & Edinburgh, 1843, 1844.

Simpson introduced many important procedures into gynecology and obstetrics; among them may be mentioned his use of the uterine sound for diagnosing retro-positions of the uterus

  • 6176

Cases of puerperal convulsions, with remarks.

Guy’s Hosp. Rep., 2 ser., 1, 495-517, 1843.

Lever, of Guy’s Hospital, was the first to report the finding of albuminous urine in connection with puerperal convulsions.

  • 6333

Traité clinique et pratique des maladies des enfants. 3 vols.

Paris: Germer Baillière, 1843.

  • 5268

Recherches et observations sur une nouvelle espèce d’hématozoaire, Trypanosoma sanguinis.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris),17, 1134-36, 1843.

Gruby discovered trypanosomes in the frog. He first suggested the name “trypanosome” to describe the parasite.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Triatomine Bug-Borne Diseases › Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) , PARASITOLOGY › Trypanosoma, VETERINARY MEDICINE › Veterinary Parasitology
  • 7448

The botany of the Antarctic voyage of H. M. Discovery Ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839-1843.

London: Reeve Brothers, 18431859.

Part 1: Flora of Lord Auckland and Campbell's Islands (1843-45); Part 2: Flora of Fuegia, the Falklands, Karguellen's land, etc. (1845-47); Part 3: Flora of New Zealand. 2 vols. (1851-53); Part 4: Flora of Tasmania. 2 vols. (1853-59). Digital facsimiles at the Internet Archive at this link. (See also No. 7446).

Subjects: BOTANY, BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, Biogeography, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Australia, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Latin America, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › New Zealand, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 7696

Six ethnographic maps illustrative of "The natural history of man".

London: J.-B. Baillière, 1843.

An atlas of six large hand-colored folding maps originally issued to accompany Prichard's popular work, The natural history of man, first issued in 1843. The maps were revised and re-issued in 1851 and 1861.

Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY, Cartography, Medical & Biological
  • 8807

Practical observations on the principal diseases affecting the health of the European and native soldiers in the north-western provinces of India with a supplement on dysentery.

Calcutta: Wm. Thacker & Co., 1843.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 9167

The zoology of the voyage of the H.M.S. Sulphur, under the command of Captain Sir Edward Belcher during the years 1836-42. Edited and superintended by Richard Brinsley Hinds. Vol. 1: Mammalia by J.E. Gray; Birds by J. Gould; Fish by J. Richardson. Vol. 2.: Mollusca by R. B. Hinds.

London: Smith, Elder, 18431844.

Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists, ZOOLOGY › Ichthyology, ZOOLOGY › Malacology, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 9168

The regions of vegetation; being an analysis of the distribution of vegetable forms over the surface of the globe in connexion with climate and physical agents.

London: Printed by G. J. Palmer, 1843.

Digital facsimile of the copy presented by Hinds to Charles Darwin, with Darwin's annotations, from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link. This work also appeared as a section of Edward Belcher's Narrative of a voyage round the world performed in Her Majesty's Ship Sulphur....2 vols. (London, 1843). Digital facsimile of Belcher's work from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY, Biogeography, Biogeography › Phytogeography, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 9256

The Zoist: A journal of cerebral physiology & mesmerism, and their applications to human welfare. Edited by John Elliotson. 13 vols.

London: Hippolyte Baillière, 18431856.

The most comprehensive source about British mesmerism of the period, and an invaluable reference for contemporary ideas and developments not only in mesmerism (hypnosis) but also in phrenology, neurology and psychiatry. “It was round The Zoist, and hence of course round Elliotson, that British mesmerism centered during its period of most active expansion, from 1843 until the early 1850s.... More serious and more educated adherents subscribed, contributed and sent in cases; interested outsiders turned to it to find out more.... Setting aside articles on phrenology, mesmeric cures of disease fill the greatest percentage of its pages, followed by cases of surgical operations performed with mesmeric anesthesia” (Gault, A history of hypnotism, 207-208). One of the most prolific contributors to the journal was Scottish surgeon James Esdaile, who performed over a hundred painless operations on mesmerized patients in the 1840s while stationed in India; a partial list of these operations, including the amputation of an arm and breast and the removal of 17 scrotal tumors, is included in the 1846 volume of The Zoist. Digital facsimiles of all volumes are available from Google Books. The link to vol.1 is here.

Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Phrenology, Mesmerism, NEUROLOGY, PSYCHIATRY, PSYCHOTHERAPY › Hypnosis
  • 10234

Ensaio sobre a topographia medica de Lisboa. ou consideraçoens especiaes relativas a' sua historia; meteorologia; geognosia; agoas potaveis; zoologia, quanto aos animaes mais utei, e em quanto ao homem sua parte hygienica e medica; a população, e suas respectivas observaçoens, &c.

Lisbon: Typographia de M.J. Coelho, 1843.

Subjects: Bioclimatology, Biogeography, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Portugal
  • 10377

Catalogue of Reptiles contained in the Museum of the Medical Department of the Army, Fort Pitt, Chatham.

Chatham, England: Printed by James Burrill, 1843.

Chiefly specimens collected by medical officers stationed in Canada, Australia, and India, as well as other colonies.  Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE, MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern, ZOOLOGY › Herpetology
  • 10390

Diseases of the lungs from mechanical causes; and inquiries into the condition of the artisans exposed to the inhalation of dust.

London: John Churchill, 1843.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 10512

A flora of the state of New-York, comprising full descriptions of all the indigenous and naturalized plants hitherto discovered in the state; with remarks on their economical and medicinal properties. 2 vols.

Albany, NY: Carroll and Cook, 1843.

For a long time this was the most comprehensive botany of any U.S. state. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › New York
  • 10737

Medical history of the expedition to the Niger during the years 1841-42, comprising an account of the fever which led to its abrupt termination.

London: John Churchill, 1843.

McWilliam included a history of yellow fever, pathology, description of symptoms, sequences, causes, treatment. He also described the state of medicine among the Africans. He specifically described the ventilation of the ships, which was carried out on the plan adopted by David Boswell Reid for the houses of parliament, and an abstract of meteorological observations, and a brief account of the geology of the Niger, condensed from the notes of William Stanger. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Yellow Fever, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists, Ventilation, Health Aspects of
  • 12451

A treatise on food and diet: With observations on the dietetical regimen suited for disordered states of the digestive organs; and an account of the dietaries of some of the principal metropolitan and other establishments for paupers, lunatics, criminals, children, the sick, &c.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1843.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 12660

Sierra Leone: A Description of the manners and customs of the liberated Africans; with observations upon the natural history of the colony, and a notice of the native tribes.

London: James Ridgway, 1843.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Sierra Leone, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12749

Die rheumatische Schweile. Ein Beitrag zur Pathologie und Therapie des Rheumatismus.

Weimar, 1843.

Froriep described what would later be known as fibromyalgia, describing it as "rheumatism with painful, hard places" that could be felt in many locations on the body. He characterized the condition as muskelschwiele (muscle callus).

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain, RHEUMATOLOGY
  • 12941

A history of British birds. 3 vols. plus 2 Supplements. (5 vols.)

London: John van Voorst, 18431856.

According to its preface, Yarrell's British Birds was first published "in thirty-seven parts of three sheets each, at intervals of two months; the first Part was issued in July 1837 and the last in May 1843. The sheets were then collected into two volumes, with the addition of "many occurrences of rare birds and of some that were even new to Britain". The additional birds were listed and briefly described in the Preface and "the new subjects have been engraved on single leaves, so paged, that the bookbinder may insert these separate leaves among the birds of the genus to which each respectively belongs."

British Birds was illustrated with drawings by Alexander Fussell. Yarrell thanked him for "nearly five hundred of the drawings on wood here employed". The artist of the remaining drawings (the title-page asserts there are 520 in the book) is not identified. Yarrell also thanked John Thompson and his sons for the "very long series of engravings" of the drawings,

At the time of its release, Yarrell's Birds was considered the best work on the subject both scientifically and artistically. "It quickly became the standard reference work for a generation of British ornithologists, replacing Thomas Bewick's book of the same name through its increased scientific accuracy, but following Bewick in its mixture of scientific data, accurate illustrations, detailed descriptions and varied anecdotes, as well as in the use of small 'tail-piece' engravings at the ends of articles. This made the book attractive to the public as well as to specialists. Yarrell, a newsagent without university education, corresponded widely with eminent naturalists including Carl LinnaeusCoenraad Jacob Temminck and Thomas Pennant to collect accurate information on the hundreds of species illustrated in the work" (Wikipedia article on A History of British Birds, accessed 6-2020).

Fifty copies were issued on large paper.

Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 11
  • 6485.93

Suśrutas. Áyruvédas. Id est medicinae systema a venerabili d'hanvantare demonstratum a Suśruta discipulo compositum. Nunc primum ex Sanksríta in Latinum sermonem vertit, introductionem, annotationes et rerum indicem adjecit Dr. Franciscus Hessler. 3 vols.

Erlangen: Ferdinand Enke, 18441850.

First translation of the Suśruta Samhitā into Latin, and the first publication of this text in the West. Suśruta is said to have lived in the 6th or 5th centuries, BCE. The principal medical contribution of the ancient Hindus was in the field of surgery, and the greatest early Hindu surgeon was Suśruta, a quasi-legendary character about whose dates there is some confusion. His collection, or "Samhitā," is one of the two foundation works of ancient Indian medicine, the other being the Charaka Samhitā, a work devoted to medicine.

The Suśruta Samhitā includes the earliest description of plastic surgery; this is contained in chapter XVI of the first volume, which is devoted to the repair of torn earlobes and damaged noses, and includes the first recorded description of the pedicle flap method, subsequently named the "Indian" method. Suśruta is also credited with the description of 127 surgical instruments, and his descriptions of the operative techniques for abscesses, lithotomy, amputation, treatment of fractures and dislocations, hernia reduction and removal of foreign bodies were especially useful.

"The Suśruta-samhitā, in its extant form, in 184 chapters contains descriptions of 1,120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources. The text discusses surgical techniques of making incisionsprobingextraction of foreign bodiesalkali and thermal cauterizationtooth extractionexcisions, and trocars for draining abscessdraining hydrocele and ascitic fluidremoval of the prostate glandurethral stricture dilatation, vesicolithotomy, hernia surgerycaesarian sectionmanagement of haemorrhoidsfistulaelaparotomy and management of intestinal obstructionperforated intestines and accidental perforation of the abdomen with protrusion of omentum and the principles of fracture management, viz., traction, manipulation, apposition and stabilization including some measures of rehabilitation and fitting of prosthetic. It enumerates six types of dislocations, twelve varieties of fractures, and classification of the bones and their reaction to the injuries, and gives a classification of eye diseases including cataract surgery" (Wikipedia article on Sushruta, accessed 05-2017).

The Sanskrit text was published as: Suśruta Samhita. The system of Hindu medicine taught by Dhanwantari. Compiled by Suśruta. Edited by Pandit-Kulapati Jibananda Vidyasagara. 5th ed. Calcutta: Vidyasagara, Pandit-Kulapati Jibananda Vidyasagara, 1909.



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › India, Medicine: General Works, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures › Cataract, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines, PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY, SURGERY: General
  • 806

Neurologische Erlauterungen.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. (Lpz.), 463-72, 1844.

Remak was first to describe the intrinsic ganglia of the heart.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Anatomy of the Heart & Circulatory System
  • 993

Versuche um auszumitteln, ob die Galle im Organismus eine für das Leben wesentliche Rolle spielt.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 127-59, 1844.

Proof of the indispensability of bile to digestion.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 679

Notiz über eine neue Reaction auf Galle und Zucker.

Ann. Chem. Pharm. 52, 90-96., 1844.

Pettenkofer’s test for bile. Previously there had been no means of recognizing the presence of the bile salts.

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, BIOCHEMISTRY › Clinical Chemistry
  • 63

Thomae Sydenham, M. D., Opera omnia. Edidit Gulielmus Alexander Greenhill.

London: Sydenham Society, 1844.

Sydenham has been called the “Father of English Medicine”. His reputation rests on his first-hand accounts of such conditions as the malarial fevers of his times, gout, scarlatina, measles, etc. A better edition of the above (editio altera) appeared in 1846. The original work, printed in 1685, is called editio altera; although no earlier edition is known to exist. An edition of Sydenham’s Opuscula was published in Amsterdam, 1683. See K. Dewhurst’s Dr Thomas Sydenham, his life and original writings., London, Wellcome Institute, 1966. Digital facsimile of the 1844 edition from the Internet Archive at this link; of the 1846 edition from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: Collected Works: Opera Omnia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Measles, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria, Internal Medicine, RHEUMATOLOGY › Gout (Podagra)
  • 1264

Recherches expérimentales sur les fonctions du nerf spinal, étudié spécialement dans ses rapports avec le pneumogastrique.

Arch. gén. Méd., 4 sér., 4, 397-426; 5, 51-93, 1844.

Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses, Neurophysiology
  • 1859

Mémoire sur l’alcool amylique.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 19, 634-41, 1844.

Discovery of amyl nitrite.

  • 2077.1

Rambles and recollections of an Indian official. 2 vols.

London: J. Hatchard & Son, 1844.

Lathyrism, a disease occuring in India, and parts of Africa, was known to Hippocrates. Sleeman, an Indian official and major general who presided over the suppression of Thuggee, had no special knowledge of medicine, but gave the first detailed account of lathyrism in vol. 1. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 1501

Untersuchungen zur Kenntniss des körnigen Pigments der Wirbelthiere in physiologischer und pathologischer Hinsicht.

Zürich: Meyer u. Zeller, 1844.

Includes a description of “Bruch’s membrane” of the choroid.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1740

Principles of forensic medicine.

London: H. Renshaw, 1844.

Subjects: Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine)
  • 3260

Sur une opération de laryngotomie pratiquée dans un cas de polype du larynx.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 18, 593, 709, 1844.

First removal of a laryngeal polyp.

Subjects: OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Laryngology
  • 218

Vestiges of the natural history of creation. And: Explanations: a sequel to “Vestiges….” 2 vols.

London: John Churchill, 18441845.

This outspoken statement of a belief in evolution, published anonymously to protect Chambers’s reputation as a publisher, anticipated Darwin’s Origin by 16 years and generally prepared the public for Darwin’s theories. For a scientific book in the Victorian era, it became a sensational best seller. Authorship was not revealed until the 12th edition (1884) 13 years after Chambers’s death. Facsimile reprint, Leicester, Univ. Press, 1969. See M. Millhauser, Just before Darwin: Robert Chambers and ‘Vestiges’, Middletown, Wesleyan University Press, [1959].

  • 2755

Observation d’hydropneumopéricarde accompagnée d’un bruit de fluctuation perceptible à l’oreille.

Arch. gén. Méd. 4 sér., 4, 334-39, 1844.

First adequate description of pneumopericardium.

  • 4036

Recherches surles cryptogames qui constituent la maladie contagieuse du cuir chevelu décrite sous le nom de Teigne tondante (Mahon). Herpes tonsurans (Cazenave).

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 18, 583-85, 1844.

Gruby discovered a fungus, Trichophyton tonsurans, in ringworm of the scalp.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses, Mycology, Medical
  • 4037

Pemphigus chronique, générale; forme rare de pemphigus foliacé; mort: autopsie; altération du foie.

Ann. Mal. Peau, 1, 208-10, 1844.

First description of pemphigus foliaceus, “Cazenave’s disease”. The article is unsigned.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 3447

Mémoire sur une tumeur cancéreuse affectant l’iliaque du colon; ablation de la tumeur et de l’intestin; réunion directe et immédiate des deux bouts de cet organe. Guérison.

Bull. Acad. roy. Méd. (Paris), 9, 1031-43, 1844.

First intestinal resection for cancer.

Subjects: Colon & Rectal Diseases & Surgery, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Esophagus: Stomach: Duodenum: Intestines, ONCOLOGY & CANCER, SURGERY: General › Surgical Oncology
  • 3448

Practical observations on organic obstruction of the oesophagus; preceded by a case which called for oesophagotomy and subsequent opening of the trachea.

Amer. J. med. Sci., n.s. 8, 309-31, 1844.

First esophagotomy for relief of stricture of the esophagus.

Subjects: Thoracic Surgery
  • 4852

Exstirpation of the os coccygis for neuralgia.

New Orleans med. surg. J., 1, 58-60, 18441845.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 5746

Nouvelle méthode pour l’opération du bec-de-lièvre.

J. Chir. (Malgaigne), 2, 1-6, 1844.

Malgaigne’s two-flap method for repair of cleft lip. English translation by R. Ivy in No. 5768.2.

  • 5746.1

Lettre (Deuxième lettre) sur l’opération du bec-de-lièvre, considérée dans ses divers états de simplicité et de complication.

J. Chir. (Malgaigne), 2, 257-65; 3, 5-20., 1844, 1845.

Mirault modified Malgaigne’s technique for cleft lip repair by discarding the medial flap and bringing the lateral flap of mucosa across. Abridged English translation by R. Ivy in No. 5768.2.

  • 5311.1

On some of the characters which distinguish the fever at present epidemic from typhus fever.

Edinb. med. surg. J., 61, 201-25, 1844.

Henderson, professor of pathology at Edinburgh, gave a good account of relapsing fever seen during the epidemic in 1843. He was one of the first to differentiate it from typhus.

  • 5597

Elémens de pathologie chirurgicale. 5 vols.

Paris: Germer Baillière, 18441859.

Nélaton was a great teacher and operator at the Hôpital St. Louis. He invented several surgical instruments. The description of “Nélaton’s tumor” of bone appears in vol.. 2, p. 46,  and on p. 441, “Nélaton’s line”.

  • 5598
  • 5746.2

A treatise on operative surgery

Philadelphia: Carey & Hart, 1844.

Pancoast was Professor of Anatomy and Surgery at Jefferson Medical College. He was a fine operator and devised a number of new surgical operations and instruments. This was work contains 80 fine lithographed plates, and among its important contributions was the first extensive section on plastic surgery in an American surgical textbook. A relatively small number of copies were issued with the plates colored by hand. See No. 5746.2.

Subjects: PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY, SURGERY: General , SURGERY: General › Notable Surgical Illustrations
  • 267.1
  • 3060.1

Cours de microscopie. 1 vol. and atlas.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 18441845.

Donne's and Foucault's work was the first biomedical textbook to be illustrated with images made from photomicrographs, in this case daguerreotypes of blood cells. Among its noteworthy images are the first microphotographs of human blood cells and platelets, and the first photographic illustration of Trichomonas vaginalis, the protozoon responsible for vaginal infections, which Donné had discovered in 1836. The text volume of the Cours contains the first description of the microscopic appearance of leukemia, which Donné had observed in blood taken from both an autopsy and a living patient. His observations mark the first time that leukemia was linked with abnormal blood pathology. Foucault, who later achieved fame as a physicist, initally studied medicine, which he abandoned for physics due to an extreme fear of blood. Foucault initially directed his attention to the improvement of Louis Daguerre's photographic processes. For three years he was experimental assistant to Donné in his course of lectures on microscopy.


Subjects: HEMATOLOGY, HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, IMAGING › Photography / Photomicrography , MICROBIOLOGY, Microscopy, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia
  • 7300

Comparative analysis of recent and fossil bones.

Edinb. New Phil. J. 37, 285-288, 1844.

The presence of fluorine in fossil bones was first reported in 1803 by Italian chemist Domenico Morichini, and by the 1840s scientists had determined that (a) fluorine occurs in teeth and bone; (b) the fluorine content of teeth and bones is variable; and (c) the fluorine content of fossil teeth and bone is higher than that of fresh tissues. Middleton’s article discusses the possiblity of fluorine dating: “Having lately devoted some time and attention to the analyses of bones, both recent and fossil, I trust some of the results at which I have arrived may not be unacceptable . . . I took up the subject with the view of ascertaining, if possible, the law by which fluoride of calcium becomes augmented or developed in fossil bones, as, should this be established, an important step would, I conceived, be thereby made towards the ascertainment of geological time” (p. 285). Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 8306

The seven books of Paulus Aegineta: Translated from the Greek, with a commentary embracing a complete view of the knowledge possessed by the Greeks, Romans, and Arabians on all subjects connected with medicine and surgery by Francis Adams. 3 vols.

London: Sydenham Society, 18441847.

Book VI is entirely devoted to operative surgery. Adams himself says that it “contains the most complete system of operative surgery which has come down to us from ancient times”. Book IV contains much information on surgical diseases. The work also includes the first clear description of lead poisoning. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Late Antiquity, BYZANTINE MEDICINE, SURGERY: General , TOXICOLOGY › Lead Poisoning
  • 8534

Histoire des médecins juifs anciens et modernes. Tome premier (All Published.)

Brussels: Société Encyclographique des Sciences Médicales, 1844.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Jews and Medicine › History of Jews and Medicine
  • 8810

Pathologia Indica, or, The anatomy of Indian diseases, medical and surgical: Based upon morbid specimens from all parts of India in the museum of the Calcutta Medical College; illustrated by detailed cases, with the prescriptions and treatment employed, and comments, physiological, practical and historical.

Calcutta: W. H. Carey, 1844.

Significantly expanded second edition, in two parts (Calcutta: Thacker & Co., 1848).  Digital facsimile of the 1848 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, INDIA, Practice of Medicine in, MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological , PATHOLOGY, TROPICAL Medicine
  • 8832

Crania Aegyptiaca: or, observations on Egyptian ethnography, derived from anatomy, history and the monuments. From the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. IX.

Philadelphia: John Pennington & London: Madden & Co., 1844.

Morton argued that blacks and whites had been racially distinct since the Egyptian First Dynasty and drew the following conclusions, long since debunked:


"1. The valley of the Nile, both in Egypt and in Nubia, was originally peopled by a branch of the Caucasian race.

"2. These primeval people, since called Egyptians, were the Mizairmites of Scripture, the poster ity of Ham, and directly affiliated with the Libyan family of nations.

"3. In their physical character the Egyptians were intermediate between the indo-European and Semitic races.

..."8. Negroes were numerous in Egypt, but their social position in ancient times was the same as it now is, that of servants and slaves" (pp. 65-66).

  • 8884

First [Second] report of the commissioners for inquiring into the state of large towns and populous districts [Appendix- Part II].

London: William Clowes & Sons, 18441845.

The publication of Chadwick's 1842 Report inspired the creation in 1843 of the Royal Commission for Inquiry into the State of Large Towns and Populous Districts, in which Chadwick once again played a leading role, drafting the major part of the Commission's first report and supplying the administrative and operational proposals for the second. The Commission's two reports revealed the unhealthy sanitary and social conditions prevailing among the towns and proposed a number of recommendations to be embodied in new legislation, the most important being a proposal to grant the national government power to supervise the execution of all general measures for regulating the sanitary condition of larger urban communities.

  • 8917

Observations on the volcanic islands, visited during the voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle, together with some brief notices on the geology of Australia and the Cape of Good Hope. Being the second part of the geology of the voyage of the Beagle.

London: Smith, Elder, 1844.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, EVOLUTION
  • 9067

Historia fisica y politica de Chile, segun documentos adquiridos en esta Republica durante doce años de residencia en ella .... 28 vols. text plus 2 vols. atlas. (30 vols.).

Paris: En la Imprenta de E. Thunot y Cª; text Paris: en casa del Autor & Santiago, Chile: en el Museo de Historia Natural de Santiago, 18441871.

Gay, a French botanist, was commissioned in 1830 by the government of Chile to carry out a thorough scientific survey of the country, and to produce a detailed description of its geography, geology and natural history. To accomplish this, Gay traveled from province to province for 11 years. In 1839 he was persuaded to add political history to the project, but only the section of the work covering the history of Chile up to the time of the discovery and conquest are his work; later, when he became too busy writing the volumes on natural history, the task of writing the political history was handed over to Francisco de Paula Noriega. The five volumes of history covering the discovery to 1810 constitute the first reasonably complete picture of Chilean history written with modern historiographical methodology. The text is divided as follows: Historia, 8 vols.; Documentos, 2 vols.; Agricultura, 2 vols.; Botánica, 8 vols.; and Zoología, 8 vols. (Richard Ramer).

  • 9169

The botany of the voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur under the command of Captain Sir Edward Belcher....Edited and superintended by Richard Brinsley Hinds. The botanical descriptions by George Bentham.

London: Smith, Elder, 1844.

Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 9823

Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition. During the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842. 5 vols. plus atlas.

Philadelphia: Printed by C. Sherman, 1844.

The United States Exploring Expedition was the first United States scientific expedition by sea. Wilkes' six ships ranged from Tierra del Fuego, Chile, and Peru, to Samoa, Fiji, Tahiti, Hawaii, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, and Singapore. Two of its most notable achievements were the extensive survey of the American northwest coast and the exploration of some 1500 miles of the Antarctic coast, proving the existence of the seventh continent- Antarctica. Equally important, the Expedition collected and described natural history specimens from all parts of the globe - specimens that eventually came to the fledgling Smithsonian Institution, making it the National Museum of the United States. 

"With the help of the expedition's scientists, derisively called "clam diggers" and "bug catchers" by navy crew members, 280 islands, mostly in the Pacific, were explored, and over 800 miles of Oregon were mapped. Of no less importance, over 60,000 plant and bird specimens were collected. A staggering amount of data and specimens were collected during the expedition, including the seeds of 648 species, which were later traded, planted, and sent throughout the country. Dried specimens were sent to the National Herbarium, now a part of the Smithsonian Institution. There were also 254 live plants, which mostly came from the home stretch of the journey, that were placed in a newly constructed greenhouse in 1850, which later became the United States Botanic Garden" (Wikipedia article on United States Exploring Expedition, accessed 02-2018).

The official edition was limited to 100 copies. However, Wilkes, secured copyright for his Narrative of the expedition, under which privilege he published several editions of that part of the reports. Later, also, the authors themselves, or publishers who were willing to undertake it, were allowed to issue an additional 150 copies of the various reports, and under this arrangement, from 100 to 150 copies of most of the volumes were published in addition to the 100 copies provided for under act of Congress of Aug. 26, 1842, which provided: "That there shall be published ... an account of the discoveries made by the Exploring Expedition under the command of Lieutenant Wilkes ... which account shall be ... published in a form similar to the voyage of the Astrolabe, lately published by the government of France."

Digital facsimiles of the 1845 printing of the Narrative plus all the remaining supplementary scientific volumes (23 vols. in all, completed in 1874) from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.


Subjects: NATURAL HISTORY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 10132

Psychopathia sexualis.

Leipzig: Leopold Voss, 1844.

The first medical text exclusively devoted to sexuality, though Kaan's views reflected religious, and other prejudices of the time. Digital facsimile of the 1844 edition from at this link.

Translated into English by Melissa Haynes, edited by Benjamin Kahan, as Heinrich Kaan's "Psychopathia Sexualis" (1844). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2016.  "Heinrich Kaan's fascinating work—part medical treatise, part sexual taxonomy, part activist statement, and part anti-onanist tract—takes us back to the origins of sexology. He links the sexual instinct to the imagination for the first time, creating what Foucault called "a unified field of sexual abnormality." Kaan's taxonomy consists of six sexual aberrations: masturbation, pederasty, lesbian love, necrophilia, bestiality, and the violation of statues. Kaan not only inaugurated the field of sexology, but played a significant role in the regimes of knowledge production and discipline about psychiatric and sexual subjects. As Benjamin Kahan argues in his Introduction, Kaan's text crucially enables us to see how homosexuality replaced masturbation as the central concern of Euro-American sexual regulation...." (publisher).

Subjects: SEXUALITY / Sexology
  • 10446

The theory and treatment of fevers. Revised and corrected by Ferdinando Stith.

Arrow Rock, MO: Published by the Author, 1844.

The first medical treatise published in Missouri and the first medical treatise published west of the Mississippi River.

"John Sappington provided medical services, was a financial lender, and imported and exported goods to the Missouri area. He established two stores near Arrow Rock that sold goods, loaned money, processed salt, and milled lumber.[3] Once he had achieved financial success, Sappington was able to be more experimental with his medical practice. He focused his energy on the bark of the cinchona tree, the substance used to create quinine. Malariascarlet feveryellow fever, and influenza, were prominent along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. Sappington developed a preventative pill using quinine that was soon in demand across the country. It was marketed as an anti-fever pill, but Sappington also instructed some of his relatives to take the pills to prevent malaria.[3] Most physicians were still treating malaria by bloodletting the patient and administering calomel.[1] Sappington’s pill to prevent malaria—and also used to cure malaria—was controversial due to its novelty and unfamiliarity.[4] The pill remained in high demand, however, and many other physicians began to develop their own anti-malaria pills after Sappington published the formula in his medical treatise, “Theory and Treatment of Fevers.”[5] He is often regarded as the first physician to successfully and effectively use quinine to treat malaria.[4] "(Wikipedia article on John Sappington, accessed 04-2018).

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Cinchona Bark, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Missouri
  • 10749

Die Krankheit des Gehirn’s und Rückenmark’s bei Kindern, durch Krankheitsfälle aus dem ersten Kinderspitale erläutert.

Vienna: Witwe & Sommer, 1844.

The first book on child neurology. Unusual for a medical book of this type, it includes a lithographed frontispiece, a lithographed title page, and four hand-colored plates.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Child Neurology
  • 11148

Die männlichen und weiblichen Wollust-Organe des Menschen und einiger Säugetiere.

Freiburg im Breisgau : Adolph Emmerling, 1844.

Kobelt provided the first comprehensive and accurate description of the function of the clitoris.Digital facsimile from digi.ub.uni-heidelberg at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, SEXUALITY / Sexology
  • 11521

Recherches sur la composition du sang dans l’état de santé et dans l’état de maladie.

Paris: Fortin, Masson & Cie, 1844.

Becquerel and Rodier analyzed the blood components present in various diseases including typhoid fever, tuberculosis, Bright’s disease, anemia, heart disease and syphilis, as well as in pregnancy and childbirth. Their statistical analyses of blood’s iron, fibrin and ash content were still being referred well into the 20th century.

  • 11526

Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis Terras per annos 1772, 1773 et 1774 suscepto. By Johann Reinhold Forster. Edited by Hinrich Lichtenstein.

Berlin: Officina Academica, 1844.

Forster was the naturalist on James Cook's second Pacific voyage, during which he was accompanied by his son Georg. 

His Descriptiones animalium was completed within a month of returning to England with Cook, but remained unpublished until it was  edited by Hinrich Lichtenstein and published in 1844. It contains some very detailed descriptions of the Cape animals, Promontorium Bonae Spei (pp. 362–410), also a listing of the animals of Madeira and Ascension.

"From a scientific point of view, Forster’s most important work would have been the Descriptiones animalium - but these were only rediscovered and published in 1844 by Hinrich Lichtenstein (1780–1857), the director of the Berlin Natural History Museum. The Descriptiones were a zoological survey and description of the animal species discovered on the world voyage with Cook. In the manuscript, Forster had ordered the animals according to their geographical origin, and described them using the Linnaean method. As the manuscript remained unpublished during his lifetime, Forster could not reap the fruits of his labor and even had to watch other naturalists such as Johann Friedrich Gmelin and John Latham claim the first descriptions of animals he had actually already recorded“ (Mariss, Johann Reinhold Forster and the making of Natural History of Cook’s Second voyage …. 2019, 25).

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists, ZOOLOGY
  • 11646

A new view of insanity: The duality of the mind proved by the structure, functions and diseases of the brain and by the phenomena of mental derangement and shown to be essential to moral responsibility. With an appendix: 1. On the influence of religion on insanity. 2. Conjectures on the nature of the mental operations. 3. On the management of lunatic asylums.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1844.

"From the seventeenth century there were shifts in some of the basic assumptions about how the brain and mind functioned, and there are some useful markers along the way to an era of more systematic studies. Descartes is the most convenient base. He had earlier firmly separated mind and matter in his philosophy, and is still chiefly known for that. But at the end of his life (1649) he tried to reconcile them by the device of a specific 'seat of the soul' in the brain through which information passed between brain and mind. Symmetry of the operation of the hemispheres was assumed. This theory had currency into the eighteenth century. At the end of that century Franz Gall of Austria and France was assigning discrete faculties to numerous parts of the brain on no strong evidence, and nothing the double form of the brain, without claiming independent action of the hemispheres. Hewett Watson in 1836 discussed duality more directly than had been the case before, and Arthur Wigan in 1844 asserted the duality of the mind roundly and treated the two hemispheres, not consistently, as two independent brains. He was not satisfied with independence, however, and tried various ways of allowing for joint action by the two sides of the brain, as well as for substitution, with one side having the power to act on behalf of both in cases of disease or injury. He also considered that one hemisphere, usually the left, was generally dominant; but he did not see the two hemispheres as differently constituted" (From the Abstract of B. Clarke, "Arthur Wigan and The Duality of the Mind,Psychol Med Monogr Suppl. 1987,11, 1-52.) Digital facsimile the 1844 edition from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY, Neurophysiology, PSYCHIATRY
  • 11666

Voyage scientifique à Naples avec M. Magendie en 1843.

Paris: B. Dusillion, 1844.

Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Italy, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12136

Life in the sickroom: Essays by an invalid.

London: Edward Moxon, 1844.

"Life in the Sickroom is one of many first-hand accounts of the experience of being ill written by an invalid.  Martineau was ill for six years, but she found taking on the identity of an invalid a reprieve from the stresses of daily life.  What is interesting about her account, then, is that rather than depicting the difficulties of being ill, she portrays life in the sickroom as a time of rest and reflection, a welcome repose that can lead to time for thought and greater insight. Nor was she unusual in this respect.  Miriam Bailin points out that many Victorians valued illness for the rest and repose it could offer from the stresses of daily life, and that it is perhaps not surprising that the cult of the invalid developed in the wake of the Industrial revolution alongside the “coexistent imperatives of self-discipline, will-power and industriousness” (12). 

Martineau dedicates her work to fellow-invalids whom she imagines will be sympathetic to her experiences in the sickroom, and to her claim that suffering can afford invalids greater insight, especially about the transience of this world. This type of dedication is typical of Victorian writing about invalidism.  As Maria Frawley points out, many Victorian invalids who wrote first-person narratives about their experiences portrayed themselves as lonely sufferers seeking from their “own bed of affliction to console others, envisioned as similarly confined to their sickrooms and in need of solace” (11).  In the following two excerpts, from the chapters on “Life to the Invalid” and the “Power of Ideas in the Sick-Room,” Martineau reflects on invalid’s heightened ability to grasp truisms that may seem farther off to the healthy:  that wealth and status are unimportant, and that it matters less what we do than what we are" (, accessed 4-2020).

Digital facsimile of the second edition (1844) from the Internet Archive at this link.


Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Autobiography, LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology
  • 12695

On superstitions connected with the history and practice of medicine and surgery.

London: John Churchill, 1844.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: Chemistry › Alchemy, Magic & Superstition in Medicine
  • 12895

The anatomy, physiology and pathology of the human teeth; with the most approved methods of treatment; including operations, and the method of making and setting artificial teeth. With thirty plates. by Paul B. Goddard, M.D..., aided in the practical part by Joseph E. Parker, dentist.

Philadelphia: Carey & Hart, 1844.

Probably the first comprehensive and comprehensively illustrated general treatise on dentistry published in the United States.
It is prefaced with a rather comprehensive historical summary.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: DENTISTRY › Dental Anatomy & Physiology, DENTISTRY › History of Dentistry, DENTISTRY › Prosthodontics
  • 13074

Pharmacopoea Castrensis Ottomano. Pharmacopée militaire Ottomane.

Istanbul (Constantinople): Henri Cayol, 1844.

The first original pharmacopoeia printed in the Ottoman Empire, with an original text by the Austrian physician Karl Ambros Bernard. The text of this pharmacopeia was in French and Latin, accompanied by Italian terms. The book was printed for the use of the Ottoman Army as part of a project by the sultan to reorganize the army based upon European models.
The printer, Henri Cayol, established the first lithographic press in Istanbul in 1831. However, he printed this work by letterpress, since Cayol used lithography for Ottoman characters only.

(Thanks to Antiquariat Daša Pahor for this reference.)

  • 543.1

Physiologie pathologique. 2 vols. & atlas.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1845.

One of the earliest and most important atlases of pathological histology. Lebert’s work played an important role in introducing the cellular idea of pathology, laying the groundwork for Virchow’s theories.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), PATHOLOGY
  • 807

Experimenta, quibus probatur nervos vagos rotatione machinae galvanomagneticae irritatos, motum cordis retardare et adeo intercipare.

Ann. univ. Med. (Milano), 3 ser., 20, 227-33, 1845.

The discovery of the inhibitory power of the vagus. Also published in Wagner’s Handwörterbuch der Physiologie, 1846, 3, 45-51. Partial translation in J. F. Fulton’s Selected readings in the history of physiology, 2nd ed., 1966. p.296.

  • 865

On the coagulation of blood and other fibriniferous liquids.

Lond. med. Gaz., n.s. 1, 617-21, 1845.

Buchanan extracted the fibrin ferment of blood. He showed that it was capable of coagulating blood and other serous fluids not in themselves coagulable.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Coagulation
  • 412

On a hitherto undescribed structure in the human hair sheath.

Lond. med. Gaz., 36, 1340-41., London, 1845.

“Huxley’s layer” and “membrane” of the root sheath of hair follicles.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, DERMATOLOGY
  • 1860

Mémoire sur la digitale pourprée.

J. Pharm. Chim. 3me. sér., 7, 57-83, 1845.

Isolation of an active principle in digitalis, amorphous digitalin, more potent than the plant itself.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Digitalis, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Cardiovascular Medications
  • 145.58

Recherches mathématiques sur la loi d’accroissement de la population.

Mem. Acad. Roy. Belg., 18, 1-38., 1845.

In his second paper on population growth Verhulst introduced the term, logistic. He modified his equation so its early part is exponential and becomes logistic only after a definite length of time. Verhulst published a second paper on this subject: Deuxième mémoire sur la loi d’accroissement de la population. Mem. Acad. Roy. Belg., 1847, 20, 1-32.

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology, DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics
  • 2077.2

Du hachische et de l’aliénation mentale: Études psychologiques.

Paris: Fortin, Masson & Cie, 1845.

Moreau's experments may have been the first medical experiments with a psychotropic agent in the treatment of mental illness. English translation by G. J. Barnett as Hashish and mental illness (New York: Raven Press, 1973).

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY, PSYCHIATRY › Psychopharmacology, TOXICOLOGY
  • 1502

Die Farbenerscheinungen im Grunde des menschlichen Auges.

Heidelberg: K. Groos, 1845.

An important description of colour phenomena in the fundus oculi. This paper won for Kussmaul the Karl Friedrich Medal of the University of Heidelberg.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1503

Beitrag zur physiologischen Optik.

Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1845.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1504

On the vision of objects on and in the eye.

Edinb. med. surg. J., 64, 38-97, 1845.

An introduction to the then little-known subject of catoptrics.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, Optics
  • 2421

Geschichte der Lustseuche. Erster Theil. Die Lustseuche im Alterthume.

Halle: J. F. Lippert, 1845.

French translation, 1847; English translation as The plague of lust, being a history of venereal disease in classical antiquity, and including: Detailed investigations into the cult of Venus, and phallic worship, brothels, the nousos thelēia (Femine disease) of the Scythians, Paederastia, and sexual perversions amongst the ancients, as contributions towards the exact interpretation of their writings. Translated from the Sixth (unabridged) German edition by An Oxford M.A. 2 vols. (Paris: Charles Carrington, 1901). Digital facsimile of the 1839 edition from the Hathi Trust at this link; of the 1901 English translation at this link.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece › History of Ancient Medicine in Greece, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › History of Infectious Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis, SEXUALITY / Sexology › History of Sexuality / Sexology
  • 2294.1

Anatomical and pathological observations.

Edinburgh: Myles Macphail & London: Simpkin, Marshall, 1845.

John Goodsir’s paper on “Centres of nutrition” anticipates to a certain extent the cell doctrine afterwards developed by Virchow (see No. 2299). Virchow dedicated the first edition of his Cellularpathologie to Goodsir. Goodsir’s paper on the bone-forming properties of certain corpuscles found within osseous tissue represent the foundation of the study of osteogenesis, as distinct from descriptive osteology.

Harry Goodsir, brother of John Goodsir, "served as surgeon and naturalist on the ill-fated Franklin expedition. His body was never found, but forensic studies in 2009 on skeletal remains earlier recovered from King William Island in Canada suggest that they may be those of Harry Goodsir" (Wikipedia article on Harry Goodsir).

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, PATHOLOGY
  • 3061

Case of hypertrophy of the spleen and liver, in which death took place from suppuration of the blood.

Edinb. med. surg. J., 64, 413-23, 1845.

First definite description of leukemia as a blood disorder; a case under the care of Sir R. Christison but reported by Bennett. On p. 400 of the same journal is a report of a case by D. Craigie, referring to a patient seen in 1841 but not recognized as leukemia until Craigie heard of Bennett’s case in the same hospital. Bennett published a monograph on leucocythemia in 1852, in which he included the first illustrations of the microscopic appearance of the blood in leukemia.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia
  • 3062

Weisses Blut.

N. Notiz. Geb. Natur- u. Heilk, 36, 151-56., 1845.

Only six weeks after Bennett, Virchow independently published a report on the necropsy of a case of leukemia. He gave the condition its present name. For translation, see Major, Classic descriptions of disease, 3rd. ed., 1945, p. 510.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia
  • 1968

Neuralgia - introduction of fluid to the nerve.

Dublin med. Press, 13, 167-68, 1845.

Rynd, an Irish physician, invented the hollow needle used in hypodermic syringes. The description of his instrument is given in Dublin Quart. J. med. Sci., 1861, 32, 13.

  • 3619

On diseases of the liver.

London: J. Churchill, 1845.

Budd was Professor of Medicine at King’s College, London. Section III of the above book includes a description of that form of cirrhosis to which the name “Budd’s disease” has been applied. In the second edition, 1852, p. 484, Fasciolopsis buski, the fluke causing fasciolopsiasis, is described. George Busk (1807-1886) found specimens in the liver at necropsy and drew Budd’s attention to them.

Subjects: HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Liver, PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Liver Flukes
  • 3991

Versuch einer auf pathologische Anatomie gegründeten Eintheilung der Hautkrankheiten.

Z. k. k. Ges. Aerzte Wien, 2, 34-52, 143-155, 211-31, 1845.

Hebra’s classification of skin diseases was based upon their pathological anatomy.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, DERMATOLOGY › Dermatopathology
  • 3991.1

A synopsis of the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of the more common and important diseases of the skin.

Philadelphia: T. Cowperthwait & Co, 1845.

First comprehensive American work on dermatology.

  • 4324

The knee-joint anchylosed at a right angle – restored nearly to a straight position after the excision of a wedge-shaped portion of bone, consisting of the patella, condyles and articular surface of the tibia.

Amer. J. med. Sci., n.s. 10, 277-84, 1845.

Buck’s operation, “one of the more spectacular surgical feats by an American surgeon in the first half of the nineteenth century” (Rutkow). The paper is reprinted in Med. Classics, 1939, 3, 791-99.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Knee
  • 4325

A treatise on corns, bunions, the diseases of nails, and the general management of the feet.

London: Simpkin, Marshall, 1845.

Durlacher, surgeon chiropodist to Queen Victoria, gave the first description of anterior metatarsalgia (p. 52), to which the name “Morton’s metatarsalgia” has been given (see No. 4341). Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton, Podiatry
  • 4168

Mémoire sur un moyen très simple et très sur de pratiquer le cathétérisme dans les cas même les plus difficiles.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 20, 70-72, Paris, 1845.

Maisonneuve introduced a hair catheter.

Subjects: UROLOGY
  • 4168.1

Sur les cathéters coudés, sur la manière de les introduire et sur les avantages qu’on peut rétirer de leur emploi.

Gaz. Hôp. Paris, 2 sér., 7, 13-15, Paris, 1845.

Mercier introduced the coudé catheter in 1836 and the bicoudé about 1841.

Subjects: UROLOGY
  • 4929.1

Lehrbuch der ärztlichen Seelenkunde.

Vienna: C. Gerold, 1845.

Feuchtersleben introduced the terms psychosis, psychiatrics, and psychopathology. The book includes a short history of psychiatry. English translation, Sydenham Society, 1847.

  • 4930

Die Pathologie und Therapie der psychischen Krankheiten.

Stuttgart: A. Krabbe, 1845.

Griesinger put an end to the moralistic theory of insanity as advanced by Heinroth. He was the first in Germany to abandon violence in the treatment of the insane; his book remained an authority on the subject for 30 years. English translation, London, 1867.

  • 5746.4

Die plastische Chirurgie.

Berlin: August Hirschwald, 1845.

Fritze and Reich studied under Dieffenbach. This is the first extensively illustrated general treatise on plastic surgery published in Europe. Some copies have the plates hand-colored.

  • 5354

Bericht über die Leistungen im Gebiete der Helminthologie während des Jahres 1843 und 1844.

Arch. Naturgesch., 2, 202-55, 1845.

Siebold classified the hookworm as belonging to the Strongyloidae (pp. 220-21).

  • 5598.1
  • 5746.3

Die operative Chirurgie. 2 vols.

Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus, 18451848.

Dieffenbach’s most comprehensive work, covering in addition to reconstructive procedures, virtually all other types of procedures including amputations, paracentesis, laparotomy, hysterectomy, dental extractions, etc.

Subjects: DENTISTRY, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Amputations: Excisions: Resections, PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY, SURGERY: General
  • 5859

Anatomische Untersuchungen über die sogenannten leuchtenden Augen bei den Wirbelthieren.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 387-406., 1845.

Von Brücke studied the luminosity of the eye in animals, and by passing a tube through a candle flame, was able to see the fundus. See also the same journal, 1847, 225-27.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ophthalmoscopy, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 5860

Ueber die Hornhautflecken.

J. Chir Augenheilk., 34, 1-90, 1845.

First description of corneal opacity.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye
  • 6036

A practical treatise on inflammation, ulceration, and induration of the neck of the uterus.

London: John Churchill, 1845.

Bennet was the first to differentiate between benign and malignant uterine tumors.

  • 6711.1

American medical biography…

Greenfield, MA: L. Merrlam & Co, 1845.

Biographies of American physicians who died after publication of Thacher (No. 6710). Reprint, New York, Milford House, 1967.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.) › American Northeast
  • 6517

Kinderfahrten, eine historisch-pathologische Skizze.

Berlin: A W. Schade, 1845.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › History of Medieval Medicine, PEDIATRICS › History of Pediatrics
  • 6561

Storia della medicina italiana. 5 vols.

Naples: Filiatre-Sebezio, 18451848.

Reprinted Bologna, 1966.

  • 6384

Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Medicin und der Volkskrankheiten.

Jena: F. Mauke, 1845.

As an historian, Haeser was eclipsed only by his fellow-countryman Sudhoff. A third edition, in three volumes, appeared in 1875-82 and was reprinted, Hildesheim, G.Olms, 1971.

Subjects: History of Medicine: General Works
  • 7169

Commentary on the Hindu system of medicine.

Calcutta: Thacker and Co. & London: Smith, Elder, 1845.

Wise was a physician and surgeon in the Bengal Medical Service. Digital facsimile from The Medical Heritage Library, Internet Archive, at this link.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › India, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, INDIA, Practice of Medicine in
  • 7330

Nuove ricerche microscopiche sulla tessiture intima della retina nell’ uomo, nei vertebrati, nei cefalapodi, e negli insetti precedute da alcune riflessioni sugli elementi morfologici globulari del sisteme nervoso.

Nuovi Annali delle Scienze Naturali de Bologna, July & August, Bologna, 1845.

Pacini was the first to provide an accurate description of all the layers of the retina. Digital facsimile of the separate (offprint) edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, OPHTHALMOLOGY
  • 7694

Dr. Heinrich Berghaus’ Physikalischer Atlas: oder, Sammlung von Karten, auf denen die hauptsächlichsten Erscheinungen der anorganischen und organischen Natur nach ihrer geographischen Verbreitung und Vertheilung bildlich dargestellt sind. 2 vols.

Gotha: Justus Perthes, 18451849.

Berghaus created a new genre of thematic atlases. He issued this work gradually in eighteen installments from 1837 to1848. The  first edition of the complete atlas consists of ninety maps in two vols., dated 1845 and 1848, with individual maps dated from 1837 to 1848. It was arranged in eight sections: meteorology and climatology, hydrology and hydrography, geology, terrestrial magnetism, botany, zoology, anthropology, and ethnography. One map showed the distribution of epidemic diseases. This was the first thematic atlas to include a disease map. Berghaus issued an enlarged second edition from 1849 to 1852.

Subjects: Biogeography, Cartography, Medical & Biological, Geography of Disease / Health Geography
  • 7769

The viviparous quadrupeds of North America. 2 vols. of plates in folio; 3 vols. 8vo text.

New York: J. J. Audubon, 18451854.

The largest and most significant color plate book produced in America during the 19th century. 

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), NATURAL HISTORY, NATURAL HISTORY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy
  • 8223

Kosmos. Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung. 5 vols. and atlas.

Stuttgart: Cotta, 18451862.

This work includes founding material in geography, plant geography, orography, climatology and meterology, among other sciences, and citations to 9,000 sources. The atlas was issued without Humboldt's participation, and published by Krais & Hoffmann (1851). The fifth volume comprising the lengthy index, was issued after Humboldt's death. 

There were several English translations: by A. Prichard in 2 vols., London: H. Baillière, 1845; by Mrs. Eliz. Sabine, 4 vols, London: Longmans, 1846-58, and the most complete in 5 vols. by E. C. Otté (vols 1-3), Otté and B. H. Paul (vol. 4), and Otté and W. S. Dallas (vol. 5), London, 1849-52. The best introduction to the work is that to Vol. 1 by Nicolaas A. Rupke, Cosmos: A Sketch of the Physical Description of the Universe, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. There are numerous digital facsimiles available.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, Biogeography, Geography of Disease / Health Geography, NATURAL HISTORY
  • 9546

Necrose der Kieferknochen, in Folge der Einwikrung von Phosphor-Dämpfen. Ein Beitrag zur Ätiologie der Knochen-Krankheiten.

Medicinische Jahrbücher, 3, 257-384., Vienna: Braumüller & Seidel, 1845.

The production of matches with white phosphorus in German-speaking countries started in 1833. Between 1839 and 1845 Lorinser saw nine cases of what he called "phosphorimus chronicus" in workers with white phosphorus, also known as yellow phosphorus, without proper safeguards. This disease, later called phosphorus necrosis of the jaw or "phossy jaw," was most commonly seen in workers in the match-stick industry in the 19th and early 20th century. Lorinser's long paper was the first published account of this disease.


  • 9556

The sanitary condition of the laboring population of New York with suggestions for its improvement.

New York: Harper & Brothers, 1845.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.) › American Northeast, PUBLIC HEALTH, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › New York
  • 10349

Déontologie médicale ou des devoirs et des droits des médecins dans l'état actuel de la civilisation.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1845.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Ethics, Biomedical
  • 10459

Des hallucinations, ou histoire raisonnée des apparitions, des visions, des songes, de l'extase, du magnétisme et du somnambulisme.

Paris: Germer Baillière, 1845.

This study underwent at least three editions in French and also appeared in several English translations, the first of which appears to have been translated anonymously and publlished in Philadelphia in 1853 from the second "enlarged and improved Paris edition". Digital facsimile of the 1845 edition from the Internet Archive at this link, of the English translation at this link

Subjects: Mesmerism, PSYCHIATRY
  • 10479

Entstehung, Berlauf und Behandlung der Krankheiten der Künstler und Gewerbetreibenden. Nach dem neuesten Standpunkte der Medizin, Chemie, Mechanik und Technologie, so wie nach den Mittheilungen berühmter Gewertsärzte des In-und Auslandes und eigenen Forschungen bearbeitet.

Berlin: Carl Friedrich Amelang, 1845.

See Karbe, "The significance of A.C.L. Halfort's work on The development, course and treatment of diseases in artists and tradesmen (Berlin 1845)," Z. Gesamte Hyg. 21 (1975) 74-8. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & MEDICINE , OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & MEDICINE › History of Occupational Health & Medicine
  • 10760

Hortus suburbanus Calcuttensis. A catalog of the plants which were cultivated in the Hon. East India Company's Botanical Garden, Calcutta and in the Serampore Botanical Garden, known as Dr. Carey's Garden, from the beginning of both establishments (1786 and 1800) to the end of August 1841; drawn up according to the Jussieuan arrangement, and mostly in conformity with the second edition (1836) of Lindsay 's Natural System of Botany.

Calcutta: Bishop's College Press, 1845.

Catalogue of the thousands of plants which were cultivated in the East India Company’s Royal Botanical Garden in Shibpur (near Calcutta, founded in 1786) and ‘Dr. William Carey’s’ botanical garden in Serampore, Bengal (established in 1800), which were considered to be by far and away the most important institutions of their kind in all Asia, if not the tropical world. The gardens conducted pioneering studies into rare and exotic plants, as well and important experiments in economic and medical botany. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India
  • 11698

Accidents: Popular directions for their immediate treatment; with observations on poisons and their antidotes.

Providence, RI: Printed for the Author by Knowles &Vose, 1845.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine › Resuscitation, Household or Self-Help Medicine
  • 11960

Hortus cantabrigiensis, or, An accented catalogue of indigenous and exotic plants, cultivated in the Cambridge Botanical Garden. By the late James Donn, curator....With the additions and improvements of the successive editors, F. Pursh, J. Lindley, G. Sinclair. The thirteenth century, now further enlarged improved, and brought down to the present time by P. N. Don.

London: Longman, 1845.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens
  • 930

On the capacity of the lungs, and on the respiratory functions, with a view of establishing a precise and easy method of detecting disease by the spirometer.

Med.-Chir. Trans., 29, 137-252, 1846.

Invention of the spirometer, making possible the determination of the vital capacity of the lungs. Hutchinson’s work first appeared in summary form in Lancet, 1844, 1, 390-391, 567-70.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Spirometer, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 544

The microscopic anatomy of the human body, in health and disease.

London: S. Highley, 18461849.

First English textbook on microscopical anatomy. His description of the concentric corpuscles of the thymus (p. 9) led to the term “Hassall’s corpuscles”.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), MICROBIOLOGY
  • 808

Ueber die peristaltische Bewegung des Oesophagus, nebst einigen Bemerkungen über diejenigen des Darms.

Z. rat. Med., 5, 76-132, 1846.

Includes (pp. 76-77) a description of what is probably the first perfusion of the isolated heart.

  • 331

Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie. 2 vols.

Berlin: Veit & Co., 18461848.

Vol. 2 was published in 1846; Vol. 1 in 1848. Digital facsimiles of both vols. from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link. Siebold was the author of  Vol. 1, on invertebrates; he introduced the taxa Arthropoda and Rhizopoda, and defined the taxon Protozoa specifically for single-celled organisms. Vol. 1 was translated into English and edited with notes and additions by Waldo I. Burnet as Comparative anatomy (London: Trubner & Co.; Boston: Gould and Lincoln, 1854). Digital facsimile of the English translation from Google Books at this link.

  • 4527

Klinische Ergebnisse.

Berlin: A. Förstner, 1846.

Includes (p. 75) a classic description of facial hemiatrophy – “Romberg’s disease”.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System
  • 4637

Primi cenni sulla corea elettrica.

Ann. univ. Med. (Milano), 117, 5-50, Milan, 1846.

First description of electric chorea, “Dubini’s chorea”, the myoclonic form of epidemic encephalitis.

Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Encephalitis, NEUROLOGY › Movement Disorders › Chorea
  • 413

Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen.

Prague: F. Ehrlich, 1846.

Hyrtl’s Lehrbuch passed through 22 editions and was translated into the principal modern languages.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century
  • 1319

On the nerves of the uterus.

Phil. Trans. 136, 213-35, 1846.

Beck showed that in man the thoracic sympathetic chain receives communications from the last cervical, thoracic, and upper 1 or 2 lumbar ganglia.

Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 79

The works. Edited with an introduction and notes by George Gulliver.

London: Sydenham Society, 1846.

Hewson was a pupil of the Hunters. In 1769 his memoir on the lymphatics in fishes won for him the Copley Medal of the Royal Society. See also Nos. 863, 1102. The editor of this edition provided a detailed historical introduction, a biography of Hewson and a bibliography of Hewson's writings. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, HEMATOLOGY
  • 2031

De historia medicamentorum.

Leiden: S. & J. Luchtmans, 1846.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology
  • 1459

Der Tastsinn und das Gemeingefühl. In: Wagner’s Handwörterbuch der Physiologie, Braunschweig, 3, Abt. 2, 481-588.


English translation of Tastsinn, Academic Press, 1978.

Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY › Sensation / Perception
  • 2295

Microscopic examination of some of the principal tissues of the animal frame, as observed in the tongue of the living frog, toad, etc.

Phil. Mag., 29, 271-87, 397-405., 1846.

Waller observed the penetration and migration of leucocytes through the endothelial vessel walls.

  • 2323

Ueber die Ansteckung und Verbreitung der Scrophelkrankheit bei Menschen durch den Genuss der Kuhmilch.

Leipzig: C. E. Kollmann, 1846.

Klencke showed the possibility of the transmission of tuberculosis to man by cow’s milk. In 1843 he succeeded in inoculating rabbits with tuberculosis.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis
  • 2612.1

The nature and treatment of cancer.

London: Taylor & Walton, 1846.

The earliest account of the recognition of fragments of malignant tissue. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link

  • 3062.1

Particulars of a case in which enormous enlargement of the spleen and liver, together with dilatation of all the blood vessels of the body, were found coincident with a peculiarly altered condition of the blood.

Lancet, 2, 43-44., London, 1846.

Leukemia diagnosed during life as the result of a blood examination.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia
  • 3261

A treatise on diseases of the air-passages.

New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1846.

Green was the “father of laryngology” in America, and this is the first American treatise in otorhinolaryngology. He was the first successfully to introduce medicaments into the larynx, trachea, and bronchi for local treatment, using a probang, a curved instrument of whalebone 25 cm. long tipped with a tiny sponge. His claims in this connexion were the subject of bitter controversy in the U.S.A. It is possible that he somewhat exaggerated the efficacy of the methods he used and advocated.

Subjects: OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Laryngology
  • 3589

A practical treatise on abdominal hernia.

Longman, 1846.

Subjects: SURGERY: General › Hernia
  • 2755.1

Lectures on subjects connected with clinical medicine, comprising disease of the heart. Second edition, 2 vols.

London: Longman, 1846.

Includes (vol. 2, pp. 373-79) a classic description of coronary thrombosis, although not using the term. The patient was Thomas Arnold, the educationist, and the report was signed by Joseph Hodgson and by S. Bucknill, Arnold’s physician.

  • 2756

Observations on some cases of permanently slow pulse.

Dublin Quart. J. Med Sci. 2, 73-85., 1846.

Stokes’s celebrated account of heart block with syncopal attacks – the Stokes–Adams syndrome (see also No. 2745). Stokes was most interested in the diagnostic value of this condition. The paper is reprinted in Med. Classics, 1939, 3, 727-38. For history of this syndrome see N. Flaxman, Bull. Inst. Hist. Med., 1937, 5, 115-30.

  • 3368.1

Erfahrungen über die Krankheiten des Gehöres und ihre Heilung.

Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1846.

Schmalz demonstrated the clinical significance of Weber’s hearing test (see No. 3368). He was a student of Weber.

Subjects: OTOLOGY › Audiology › Hearing Tests
  • 2902
  • 2995

Lectures illustrative of various subjects in pathology and surgery.

London: Longman, 1846.

Page 361 contains the first description of intermittent claudication in man. This was first reported (in the horse) by “Boullay” [?J. Bouley] in Arch. gén. Méd.,1831, 27, 425.  P. 186: Brodie's test for insufficiency of the valves in varicose veins, later associated with the name of Trendelenburg.

  • 3912.1

Several specimens of cystine exhibited, with the particulars of two cases in which this deposit occurred in the urine.

Trans. path. Soc. Lond., 1, 126-29, London, 18461848.

Cystinuria described.

Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Inherited Metabolic Disorders › Cystinuria, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders
  • 4038

Ueber die Krätzmilben des Menschen, ihre Entwicklung und ihr Verhältniss zur Krätze.

N. Notiz. Geb. Nat. Heilk. 38, col. 105-10; 39, col. 265-70, 1846.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 4039

Pilzbildung in der Pityriasis versicolor.

N. Notiz. Geb. Nat. Heilk. 39, col. 270-71, 1846.

Eichstedt discovered Pityrosporum orbiculare, fungus of pityriasis versicolor (“Eichstedt’s disease”).

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses, Mycology, Medical
  • 4325.1

On the microscopical character of mollifies ossium.

Dublin Quart. J. med. Sci., 2, 85-95, 1846.

Report of the histological examination of bone material containing multiple myeloma from the patient described by Macintyre (No. 4327).

Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Multiple Myeloma, ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton
  • 4937

Traitement moral, hygiène et education des idiots…

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1846.

Séguin was the first to outline a complete plan for the training of mental defectives. A pupil of Itard and Esquirol, he subsequently worked in America, where he published Idiocy: and its treatment by the physiological method. New York, 1866.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neurodevelopmental Disorders › Mental Retardation
  • 5026

Practical remarks on the continued fevers of Great Britain, and on the generic distinctions between enteric fever and typhus.

Monthly J. med. Sci., 7, 347-58, 18461847.

Introduction of the term “enteric fever”, a term for typhoid.  Ritchie carefully differentiated the symptoms of typhus and typhoid.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Salmonellosis › Typhoid Fever, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Lice-Borne Diseases › Typhus
  • 5861

On a luminous appearance of the human eye, and its application to the detection of disease of the retina and posterior part of the eye.

Med.-chir. Trans., 29, 283-96, 1846.

While a student at the London Hospital, Cumming, by shading the eye of a fellow student from the light, was able to look directly into it and obtain both the retinal reflex and the white light from the entrance of the optic nerve. He made the first suggestion for the construction of a device for examining the fundus.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ophthalmoscopy, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 5650.3

Mesmerism in India, and its practical application in surgery and medicine.

London: Longman, 1846.

Esdaile performed a variety of surgical operations on Hindus, upon many of whom he appears successfully to have induced hypnotic anesthesia. However, his similar attempts with Europeans were not so successful.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Hypnosis (Mesmerism), INDIA, Practice of Medicine in
  • 5651

Insensibility during surgical operations produced by inhalation.

Boston med. Surg. J., 35, 309-17, 379-82., 1846.

For an operation performed by John Collins Warren (1778-1856) at Massachusetts General Hospital on 16 October 1846, William T. G. Morton used ether as an anesthetic for the first time. Warren removed a benign angioma under the jaw of his patient. It was immediately recognized that complete anesthesia could be produced by the inhalation of ether vapor. Bigelow, a surgeon who witnessed the operation, left an excellent account in the above paper, which was read before the Boston Society of Medical Improvement on 9 November 1846, an abstract having been previously read before the American Academy of Arts and Sciences on 3 November. Bigelow's paper was first published in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal on November 18, 1846. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Bigelow had offprints printed of this paper, presumably sometime after the original article appeared. The offprint version omits the final seven paragraphs in which Bigelow referred to the patent for the use of ether in surgery that was shared by Morton and Charles Thomas Jackson. A digital facsimile of the offprint version is available from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 5652

Circular. Morton’s Letheon.

Boston, MA: Printed by L. H. Bridgham, 1846.

Unaware of Crawford Long’s results with ether, Morton, having been informed of the anesthetic effects of ether by Charles T. Jackson, promoted its anesthetic effects. To do so he published the above circular, in which he called his anesthetic by the name of “Letheon”. Henry Jacob Bigelow appreciated the significance of the discovery, and Bigelow's paper (No. 5651) soon spread the news throughout the medical world. Digital facsimile of the 5th edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether
  • 5338

Entozoon in the superficial part of the extensor muscles of the thigh of the hog. Abstract

Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Phila., 3, 107-8, 1846.

First description of trichinosis in the pig.

  • 4528

Lehrbuch der Nervenkrankheiten des Menschen. Bd. 1.

Berlin: A. Duncker, 1846.

Romberg inaugurated the modern era in the study of diseases of the nervous system. His Lehrbuch is the first formal treatise in this field. On p. 795 is to be found the original description of “Romberg’s sign”, pathognomonic of tabes dorsalis. English translation, 1853.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System
  • 6856

Therapeutisches Taschenbuch für Homöopathische Aerzte.

Munster: Coppenrath, 1846.

Frequently reprinted. "Bönninghausen's Therapeutic Pocketbook of 1846 was the first homeopathic repertory to grade individual remedies by their strength of relationship with each symptom, and each other. This so-called von Bönninghausen (or von Boenninghausen)-method has remained in use until the present day. He proposed that disparate symptoms associated with a remedy could be grouped as a single overarching tendency, hence the importance of generalities and modalities in his system of case analysis," (Wikipedia article on Clemens Maria Franz von Bönninghausen, accessed 05-2015). The work was translated into English during its first year of publication as Therapeutic Pocket-Book for Homoeopathic Physicians, to be Used at the Bedside of the Patient, and in Studying the Material Medica Pura, Munster: Coppenrath, 1846. The translation was reprinted, and edited by Charles J. Hempel, New York: William Radde, 1847. 

Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Homeopathy
  • 7310

U. S. Patent No. 4848. The United States of America. To all to whom these Letters Patent shall come.... November 12, 1846.

Washington, DC, 1846.

U.S. Patent No. 4848, issued to Charles T. Jackson and William T. G. Morton on November 12, 1846 for the discovery of sulfuric ether as a surgical anesthetic. This was the first truly significant medical patent ever issued. Few copies of this broadside were printed. Though the patent was formally issued on November 12, 1846 it is likely that the patent was first printed (as a broadside) in 1847.

Critics of Jackson's role in the discovery should remember that he shared the patent for the discovery with Morton, as Jackson discovered the scientific effects of ether in surgery while Morton deserves credit for introducing them to the surgical community. However, the patent proved unenforceable and the famous long-running dispute between Morton and Jackson over priority in the discovery ensued.

"Be it known that we, Charles T. Jackson and William T. G. Morton of Boston, in the County of Suffolk, and State of Massachusetts, have invented or discovered a new and useful improvement in surgical operations on animals, whereby we are enabled to accomplish many, if not all operations . . . without any, or with very little pain....

"It has never (to our knowledge) been known until our discovery, that the inhalation of [chemical ethers] (particularly those of sulphuric ether) would produce insensibility to pain, or such a state of quiet of nervous action as to render a person or animal incapable to a great extent, if not entirely, of experiencing pain while under the action of the knife or other instrument of operation of a surgeon, calculated to produce pain.

"This is our discovery, and the combining it with, or applying it to any operation of Surgery, for the purpose of alleviating animal suffering, as well as of enabling a surgeon to conduct his operations with little or no struggling, or muscular action of the patient, and with more certainty of success, constitutes our invention...."

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether, LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences › Medical Patents
  • 7600

A descriptive catalogue of the anatomical museum of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 2 vols.

London: John Churchill, 1846.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological
  • 8587

The young stethoscopist; or, the student's aid to auscultation.

New York: J. & H. G. Langley & Boston, MA: William D. Ticknor and Co., 1846.

Through this book Bowditch established the stethoscope as a diagnostic tool in America. Digital facsimile from the Medical Heritage Library, Internet Archive, at this link.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Stethoscope, PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS › Auscultation
  • 8918

Geological observations on South America. Being the third part of the geology of the voyage of the Beagle.

London: Smith, Elder, 1846.

The third and last of Darwin's geological reports on the Beagle voyage. In it he described the pampas, the plateaus and the Andres, showing how they had been gradually pushed up in the way that Charles Lyell surmised without the introduction of catastrophic events. The descriptions of secondary fossil shells from South America, illustrated in Sowerby's plates, are by Edward Forbes.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Latin America, EVOLUTION
  • 11213

Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society of London. [By Benjamin Robert Wheatley].

London: John Scott, 1846.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link. Between 1907 and 1909 the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society of London  became one of 17 English medical societies that joined to form the Royal Society of Medicine.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Institutional Medical Libraries
  • 11558

On the disorders of the cerebral circulation; and on the connection between affections of the brain and diseases of the heart.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1846.

"Burrows was the first to indicate that the effects of cerebral anemia could be produced not only by obvious anemia itself, but also from a fall in blood pressure. He carried out some of the earliest studies of the physiology of the cerebral circulation" (Fields & Lemak, A history of stroke [1989]18).

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, NEUROLOGY › Neurovascular Disorders, Neurophysiology
  • 11724

Physical education and the preservation of health.

Boston: William D. Ticknor, 1846.

An expanded version of a lecture first delivered and published as a pamphlet in 1830. This is the first edition in book form, and one of the first American works on the value of exercise for the preservation of health. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: PHYSICAL MEDICINE / REHABILITATION › Exercise / Training / Fitness, Sports Medicine
  • 11734

A treatise on the motive powers which produce the circulation of the blood.

New York & London: Wiley and Putnam, 1846.

The author was an American women's rights activist and educator rather than a physician or physiologist. Digital facsimile from U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.

Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1800 - 1899
  • 11914

Animal magnetism superceded: Discovery of a new hypnopoietic.

Lond. med. Gaz., 3, 1085-1086, 1846.

The first publication in England of the discovery of ether anesthesia appeared in the "Medical Intelligence" section of the London Medical Gazette on December 18, 1846. Prior to Fulton & Stanton's discovery of this article it was long assumed that the earliest publication in England was published ten days later, on the last page of The Lancet for Saturday, December 28, 1846. The text of the "Medical Intelligence" entry in the London Medical Gazette is much more substantial than the brief notice in The Lancet. The editor of the London Medical Gazette wrote, "We learn on the authority of a highly respectable physician of Boston, U.S.,[Henry Jacob Bigelow] that a Dr. Morton, a surgeon-dentist of that city, has discovered a process whereby in a few minutes the most profound sleep may be induced, during which teeth may be extracted, and severe operations performed, without the patient being sensible of pain, or having any knowledge of the proceedings of the operator. The process simply consists in causing the patient to inhale the vapour of ether for as short period, and the effect is to produce complete insensibility." See John F. Fulton, "The reception in England of Henry Jacob Bigelow's original paper on anesthesia," New Eng. J. Med., 235 (1946) 745-746.

  • 12461

Bibliotheca historico-naturalis. Verzeichniss der bücher über naturgeschichte, welche in Deutschland, Scandinavien, Holland, England, Frankreich, Italien und Spanien in den jahren 1700-1846 erschienen sind.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1846.

Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History
  • 931

Die Ursache der Lungenveränderung nach Durchschneidung der pneumogastrischen Nerven.

Arch. physiol Heilk, 6, 690-721, 769-804, 1847.

Study of the effect of section of the vagus on respiration. See also No. 933.

Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 329.1

A description of the characters and habits of troglodytes gorilla, a new species of orang from the Gaboon River, by Thomas S. Savage; Osteology of the same by Jeffries Wyman.

Boston J. Nat. Hist., 5, 417-27, 429-30, 432-33, 435, 436-441, 1847.

First description of the gorilla. Savage, an American physician/clergyman, worked extensively as a missionary physician in Africa. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, ZOOLOGY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy › Primatology
  • 611

Ueber die Erhaltung der Kraft, eine physikalische Abhandlung.

Berlin: G. Reimer, 1847.

An epoch-making work which led the way to the acceptance of the fundamental physical doctrine of the conservation of energy.

Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › Biophysics
  • 994

Beobachtung einer tödlichen Peritonitis, als Folge einer Perforation des Wurmfortsatzes.

Z. rat. Med., 6, 12-23, 1847.

Description of “Gerlach’s valve”, sometimes seen at the orifice of the appendix.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 414

Handbuch der topographischen Anatomie. 2 vols.

Vienna: J. B. Wallishausser, 1847.

Hyrtl, professor of anatomy at Vienna, published the first text on topographical anatomy in German. He was for 30 years the most popular lecturer on the subject in Europe, and ranks as one of the greatest of medical scholars.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Topographical Anatomy
  • 61.1

The works of William Harvey. Translated from the Latin, with a life of the author by Robert Willis.

London: Sydenham Society, 1847.

See Sir Geoffrey Keynes’s Life of William Harvey, Oxford, 1966, (2nd printing, with corrections, 1978) and his Bibliography of the writings of William Harvey, 3rd ed., revised by Gweneth Whitteridge and Christine English, Winchester, St. Paul’s Bibliographies, 1988.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Autobiography, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, EMBRYOLOGY
  • 770

Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Einflusses der Respirationsbewegungen auf den Blutlauf im Aortensystem.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 242-302., 1847.

Ludwig changed Poiseuille’s hemodynamometer into the kymograph by the addition of a float and caused this float to write on a recording cylinder. Abridged English translation in Ruskin (No. 3160.1).

  • 2265

Die Krankheiten des Orient’s: vom Standpunkte der vergleichenden Nosologie betrachtet.

Erlangen: J. J. Palm und Ernst Enke, 1847.

Digital facsimile from the Medical Heritage Library, Internet Archive, at this link.

Subjects: Geography of Disease / Health Geography, Nosology, TROPICAL Medicine
  • 2434

Om spedalskhed. Udgivet efter Foranstaltning af den Kongelige Norske Regjerings Department for det Indre. 1 vol. and atlas.

Bergen, Norway: trykt hos C. Grondahl, 1847.

First modern description of leprosy (“Danielssen-Boeck disease’’). Danielssen, physician to the leprosy hospital at Bergen, was the founder of scientific leprology. The extremely rare Atlas  consists of 24 plates and two pages of text. French translation, Paris, J. B. Baillière, 1848; the atlas was also reproduced in French, Rio de Janeiro, in 1946.

  • 2296

Die pathologischen Pigmente.

Virchows Arch. path. Anat., 1, 379-404, 407-86., 1847.

On the origin and chemical composition of extracellular and intracellular pigments, and on the supposed formation of new cells by the membranous envelopment of pigmented blood corpuscles or pigment granules.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, PATHOLOGY
  • 2613

Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte des Krebses.

Virchows Arch. path. Anat.1, 94-201, 1847.

While still a young man Virchow founded the above journal. He wrote a fine paper on cancer and suggested that the exciting cause is local irritation.

  • 203.9

Antiquités celtiques et antédiluviennes. Mémoire sur l'industrie primitive et les arts à leur origine. 3 vols.

Paris: Treuttel & Würtz, 18471864.

Customs inspector at Abbéville and a prolific writer on diverse subjects, Boucher de Perthes found extensive deposits of flint implements in association with the bones of mammoths and other fossil animals. His work presented the first convincing proof that man had been a contemporary of the mammoth. Boucher de Perthes issued a portion of the first volume of this work in Paris, 1846, as De l’industrie primitive ou des arts à leur origine. Partly because he was an amateur not formally trained in science, Boucher de Perthes' discoveries did not generally begin to be accepted by the scientific establishment until 1859-1860. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › France, EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 3117

Puerperal anaemia; or a peculiar anaemic condition, occurring in gestating and lactating females.

N.Y.J. Med., 9, 45-48, 197-98., 1847.

Bennett described the anemia of pregnancy and defined it as resulting from the process of reproduction.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Anemia & Chlorosis
  • 2903

Ueber die acute Entzündung der Arterien.

Virchows Arch. path. Anat., 1, 272-378, 1847.

  • 2978

Observations on aneurism, and its treatment by compression.

London: John Churchill, 1847.

Bellingham introduced the “Dublin method” of treating aneurysm by slow compression.

  • 3449

Case of internal strangulation of intestine relieved by operation.

Med.-chir. Trans., 30, 51-67, 1847.

Records the first operation for intestinal strangulation of the small intestine by Hilton at Guy’s Hospital. No anaesthetic was used; the patient died nine hours afterwards.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Esophagus: Stomach: Duodenum: Intestines, SURGERY: General
  • 4417

Traité des fractures et des luxations. 2 vols. and atlas.

Paris: L'Auteur & J.-B. Baillière, 18471855.

This was Malgaigne’s greatest work. His description of bilateral vertical fracture of the pelvis (“Malgaigne’s fracture”) is in vol. 1, pp. 650-56. English translation of the first volume on fractures, Philadelphia, 1859. The second volume on luxations has not been translated.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations
  • 4417.1

A treatise on fractures in the vicinity of joints and on certain forms of accidental and congenital dislocations.

Dublin: Hodges & Smith, 1847.

The first important work on fractures by an Irish author. It includes the description of “Smith’s fracture”. In his chapter “On fractures of the bones of the forearm in the vicinity of the wrist joint” Smith corrected Colles’s original description (No. 4410) by placing the site of the fracture more distally. “It was Smith who firmly attached Colles’s eponym to the fracture that Colles described” (Peltier).

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations
  • 5524

Scriptores de sudore anglico superstites. Colliget C. G. Gruner. Post mortem auctoris adomavit et edidit H. Haeser.

Jena: F. Mauk, 1847.

A collection of all the important earlier writings on sweating sickness.

Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › History of Epidemiology, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Sweating Sickness
  • 5862

A manual of the principles and practice of ophthalmic medicine and surgery.

London: John Churchill, 1847.

The last important English work on opthalmology published before the invention of the ophthalmoscope. Jones did not appreciate the prototype ophthalmoscope devised by Charles Babbage, and shown to him in 1847. After the success of Helmholtz’s invention (No. 5866) Jones wrote about Babbage’s invention and his role in discouraging it. See No. 5874.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY , OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ophthalmoscopy
  • 5863

Traité théorique et pratique des maladies des yeux.

Paris: Germer Baillière, 1847.

  • 5653

Remarks on the proper mode of administering sulphuric ether by inhalation.

Boston, MA: Dutton & Wentworth, Printers, 1847.

This 44-page pamphlet was the first American manual on the administration of anesthesia. In it Morton announced that his method of producing anesthesia was obtained by the inhalation of sulphuric ether. He subsequently devoted himself to the study of surgical anesthesia and to the dissemination of information concerning it, with the expectation of enriching himself through a government grant, after the patent that he obtained together with Charles Thomas Jackson concerning the discovery proved unenforceable. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this linkSee No. 5660. 

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether
  • 5654

Note touchant l’action de l’ether sur les centres nerveux.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 24, 340-44, 1847.

On 8 March 1847, Flourens announced that chloroform had an anesthetic effect analogous to that of ether. Little notice seems to have been taken of his paper, but later in the year Simpson independently demonstrated the value of chloroform.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Chloroform, ANESTHESIA › Ether
  • 5655

Nouveau procédé pour produire, au moyen de la vapeur d’éther, l’insensibilité chez les individus soumis à des opérations chirurgicales.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 24, 789, 1847.

Pirogov was the first to practise rectal etherization, suggested by Roux earlier in 1847.

  • 5656

Recherches pratiques et physiologiques sur l’éthérisation.

St. Petersburg, Russia: Imprimerie Française, 1847.

Pirogov, the great military surgeon, was with Syme the first in Europe to adopt ether anesthesia, and he left an interesting account of his experiences with it. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

  • 5657

Discovery of a new anaesthetic agent, more efficient than sulphuric ether.

Lond. med. Gaz., 1847, n.s., 5, 934-37; Lancet, 2, 549., 1847.

In an attempt to find an anesthetic less irritating than ether, Simpson discovered the advantages of chloroform. He had previously used ether with great benefit in midwifery, but now substituted chloroform, being the first to do so. Preliminary announcements in Lond. med. Gaz., 1847, n.s. 5, 906.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Chloroform
  • 5657.1

A treatise on the inhalation of the vapour of ether, for the prevention of pain in surgical operations; containing a numerous collection of cases in which it has been applied, with the names of the operators; history of the discovery - description of the apparatus - method of preparing the ether - remarks as to the time when the operation should commence, etc., etc., etc.

London: Webster & Co., 1847.

The first textbook of ether anesthesia, published in March, 1847. Robinson, a British dentist, was the first to use anesthesia in England, after receiving information from Henry Jacob Bigelow and Francis Boott. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link. Facsimile edition, with historical introduction, Park Ridge, Illinois, 1983.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether
  • 5658

On the inhalation of the vapour of ether in surgical operations.

London: John Churchill, 1847.

Includes an account of Snow’s regulating inhaler, the first to control the amount of ether vapor by the patient. This pamphlet, which appeared in October 1847, was the second treatise on ether anesthesia, after Robinson who pubiished in March, 1847.
Snow first published a description and illustration of the regulating inhaler in Lond. med. Gaz., 1847, n.s. 4, 745-52, 923-29. 

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether
  • 5659

On the use of ether in the performance of surgical operations.

(Lond. Edinb.) Month. J. med. Sci., 8, 73-76., 18471848.

Syme was, with Pirogov, the first in Europe to adopt ether anesthesia in surgical operations.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether
  • 5659.1

Die Aether gegen den Schmerz.

Berlin: August Hirschwald, 1847.

First application of ether anesthesia for plastic operations. Dieffenbach made his first use of the anesthetic in reconstructing a nose. He modified Morton’s inhaler. Dieffenbach’s work helped bring about the early acceptance of anesthesia in Germany.

  • 5660

A history of the discovery of the application of nitrous oxide gas, ether, and other vapours, to surgical operations.

Hartford, CT: J. G. Wells, 1847.

In 1844 Wells, a Hartford dentist, successfully used nitrous oxide as a dental anesthetic. To publicize his discovery, he arranged a demonstration at Harvard Medical School in January 1845, but this proved a fiasco. Wells discussed his discovery with a former pupil, W.T.G. Morton (Nos. 5652-53). Morton got the idea of using ether instead of nitrous oxide from Charles Thomas Jackson (1805-80). After Morton and Jackson patented the us of ether as an anesthetic, Morton attempted to discredit Jackson's contribution, but Jackson continued to assert his key role in the discovery. Jackson also played an essential role in the discovery of the American magnetic telegraph, by describing to Samuel F. B. Morse its essential features, leading to Morse's invention. Wells, who was not in very good mental health, eventually committed suicide by opening a vein in his arm and at the same time inhaling ether vapor. Digital facsimile of Wells's pamphlet from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether, ANESTHESIA › Nitrous Oxide, DENTISTRY
  • 5443

Iagttagelser, anstillede under Maeslinge-Epidemien paa Faerøerne i Aaret 1846.

Bibl. Laeger, 3 R., 1, 270-344, 1847.

When only 26 years of age, Panum was sent by the Danish Government to investigate the epidemic of measles then raging in the Faroe Islands. His report on the subject was a valuable contribution to medical literature. A translation of his papers is in Med. Classics, 1939, 3, 829-86. It was also published in translation by the Delta Omega Society, New York, 1940.

  • 6275

Höchst wichtige Erfahrungen über die Aetiologie der in Gebäranstalten epidemischen Puerperalfieber.

Z.k.k. Ges. Aerzte Wien, 4, pt. 2, 242-44; 5, 64-65, Vienna, 18471848, 1849.

Semmelweis, pioneer of antisepsis in obstetrics, was the first to recognize that puerperal fever is a septicemia. He concluded that the doctors and students of Vienna’s First Obstetrical Clinic carried the infection on their hands from the autopsy room to the maternity wards, and instituted a program of hand-washing in chlorinated lime between autopsy work and examination of patients. One month later the First Clinic’s mortality rate had dropped by 10 per cent. Despite this spectacular success Semmelweis refused to communicate his results officially. The above papers were written for Semmelweis by his friend, Ferdinand von Hebra, editor of the Zeitschrifi. (See also No. 6277).

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Puerperal Fever, SURGERY: General › Antisepsis / Asepsis
  • 6922

Thèses de physique et de chimie, Presentées à la Faculté des Sciences de Paris.

Paris: Bachelier, 1847.

Pasteur reported a series of “investigations into the relation between optical activity, crystalline structure, and chemical composition in organic compounds, particularly tartaric and paratartaric acids. This work focused attention on the relationship between optical activity and life, and provided much inspiration and several of the most important techniques for an entirely new approach to the study of chemical structure and composition. In essence, Pasteur opened the way to a consideration of the disposition of atoms in space.” (DSB)

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Crystallization
  • 7249

Première Lettre. Boston, le 13 november 1846.

Compt. rend. l'Acad. Sci., 24, 75-76, 1847.

Jackson, a physician, geologist and chemist in Boston, wrote this letter to Élie de Beaumont in Paris on November 13, 1846, the day after he and William T. G. Morton jointly received U.S. Patent No. 4848 for Improvement in Surgical Operations, a patent for the use of ether as an anesthetic. Inexplicably Jackson did not mail the letter until December 1. de Beaumont received the letter on December 28; however, he delayed opening the letter until the meeting of the Académie des Sciences on January 18, 1847. This  letter, when published, was Jackson's first published record of his co-discovery, with William T. G. Morton, of surgical anesthesia, in which Jackson discovered the anesthetic properties of ether while Morton first the first to apply it in surgery. Discussion of Jackson's letter by Velpeau, Serres and Roux followed in the volume of the Comptes rendus on pp. 76-79.

Even though the patent for the discovery of ether anesthesia was assigned to Jackson and Morton jointly, Morton, who desired to profit financially from ether anesthesia, politicized the discovery in his attempt to gain compensation from the U.S. government, and discredited Jackson's role. Jackson, who desired credit due rather than money, asserted his claim to share in the discovery in several publications, but in the political controversy that ensued, Morton's political skills and Jackson's seeming nearly total lack thereof, caused Jackson's claims and his reputation to become discredited. Morton's supporters became so convinced of the falseness of Jackson's claims that some later asserted that Jackson died insane, when in reality Jackson suffered a severe stroke which prevented him from writing or speaking from around 1873 onward.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether, LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences › Medical Patents
  • 7305

Notice sur des ossements humains fossiles, trouvés dans une caverne du Brésil.

Société royale des antiquaires du nord. Mémoires ....1845-1847, 49-77., Copenhagen, 1847.

Lund, a student of Cuvier, excavated extensively in the region of Lagoa Santa, an area rich in caves and karst formations comprising the northern part of Greater Belo Horizonte in Brazil. Between 1835 and 1843 he  collected, classified and studied more than 20,000 bones of extinct species, such as mastodons and ground sloths, and was the first to describe dozens of species, among them the Saber-tooth cat (Smilodon populator). In 1843 Lund discovered fossilized skulls and bones of 30 humans deep in a flooded cave, intermixed with the remains of extinct species. These were the first documented remains of fossil humans discovered by a trained paleontologist in South America, or anywhere in the Western Hemisphere.Since these individuals were found among the remains of long-extinct species, this finding led Lund to realize that humans and the prehistoric animals had co-existed, something which was in frontal opposition to Cuvier's catastrophic theory.

Lund's first summary of his research appeared in the C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 20 (1845) 1368-1370 as "Sur l'antiquité de la race américaine, et sur les rapports qu'on peut lui supposer avec les races de l'ancien monde." This was a letter from Lund to Elie de Beaumont that Beaumont read to the Académie.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Brazil, EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 7602

A descriptive catalogue of the Anatomical Museum of the Boston Society for Medical Improvement.

Boston, MA: William D. Ticknor and Co., 1847.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological , U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Massachusetts
  • 7882

Surgical operations performed during insensibility, produced by the inhalation of sulphuric ether.

Lancet, 1, 5-8, 16-17, 1847.

The first use of ether as an anesthetic in Britain (for a dental procedure) was conducted in Boott's house at 24 Gower Street on 19 December 1846. Boott issued the second announcement of ether anesthesia published in Britain in The Lancet on January 2, 1847. Jacob Bigelow, the father of Henry Jacob Bigelow, wrote on 28 November to Francis Boott of telling him of Morton's discovery  and enclosing the text of his son's communication as it had appeared in the Boston Daily Advertiser. Boott forwarded Jacob Bigelow's letter and H. J. Bigelow's paper to The Lancet which published them both in their number for 2 January 1847. Appended to the reprint was a letter from Robert Liston to Dr. Boott dated 21 December 1846 saying that on that day he had successfully used ether during an amputation at the knee, thus recording the first surgical operation under ether anesthesia in Europe.  Digital facsimile from the John Snow Archive and Research Companion at this link.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether
  • 8545

Medical botany: or, Descriptions of the more important plants used in medicine, with their history, properties, and mode of administration.

Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847.

The author intended to update and correct the earlier works on American materia medica by Barton, Bigelow and Rafinesque, and to make this information available at a reasonable price. Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Ethnobotany, BOTANY › Medical Botany, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.)
  • 10063

Proceedings of the National Medical Conventions, held in New York, May, 1846, and in Philadelphia, May, 1847.

Philadelphia: American Medical Association, 1847.

The complete proceedings of the founding of the American Medical Association. This version also contains the text of the Code of Ethics written by Isaac Hayes and adopted by the AMA. In updated forms, this remains the most widely followed medical code of ethics in the United States. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession, Ethics, Biomedical, Medical Societies and Associations, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › New York, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Pennsylvania
  • 10336

Southern ichthyology; or a description of the fishes inhabiting the waters of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Pt. 2, 1847, Pt. 3, 1848.

New York: Wiley & Putnam, 18471847.

Holbrook never published part one of this work.

  • 10384

Die Krankheiten der Arbeiter in den Phospherzündholzfabriken, insbesondere das Leiden der Kieferknochen durch Phosphordämpfe. Vom chemisch-physiologischen, medicinisch-chirurgischen und medicinisch-polizeylichen Standpunkt. Text plus atlas of 9 plates.

Erlangen: Carl Heyder, 1847.

An early illustrated work on phosphorus poisoning in the match industry. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 11808

Flora medico-farmaceutica. 6 vols.

Torino: Tipografia di Giuseppe Cassone, 18471852.

Digital facsimile of the complete set from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Medical Botany, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines
  • 11913

Some account of the first use of sulphuric ether by inhalation in surgical practice. [Read before the Boston Society for Medical Improvement, April 12, 1847.]

Boston, 1847.

Hayward's case report of the first major operation performed under ether anesthesia, which he performed at the Massachusetts General Hospital on November 7, 1846, three weeks after Warren's first operation using ether on October 16, 1846. For the first experiment with ether as a surgical anesthetic Warren chose a minor operation-- the removal of a small vascular tumor. Hayward followed Warren's initial experiment the following day with second minor operation using ether for removal of a small lipoma of the arm on October 17, 1846.

Though both operations were successful, Morton was initially unwilling to disclose the nature of his new anesthetic agent, as he wished to patent it, and no further public trials were permitted for a period of three weeks. In early November Henry Jacob Bigelow informed Morton that his initial demonstrations would be unconvincing to the surgical establishment unless his anesthetic agent could be used successfully during the performance of a "capital" or major operation, after which Morton asked Hayward if he might use his anesthetic agent during an amputation of the thigh that Hayward was schedule to perform. Hayward wrote:

"The patient was a girl of 20 years of age, named Alice Mohan, who had suffered for two years from a disease of the knee, which terminated in suppuration of the joint and caries of the bones. For some months before the operation her constitutional symptoms had become threatening, and the removal of the limb seemed to be the only chance for her life. The ether was administered by Dr. Morton. In a little more than three minutes she was brought under the influence of it; the limb was removed and all the vessels were tied but the last, which was the sixth, before she gave any indication of consciousness or suffering. She then groaned and cried out faintly. She afterwards said that she was totally unconscious, and insensible up to that time, and she seemed to be much surprised when she was told that her limb was off. She recovered rapidly, suffering less than patients usually do after amputation of the thigh, regained her strength and flesh, and was discharged well on the 22nd of December."

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link. Hayward's paper was published from a different setting of type in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal on April 21, 1847.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether, SURGERY: General
  • 12870

Experiences relatives aux effets de l'inhalation de l'ether sulfurique sur le systême nerveux. (Mémoire lu à l'Académie Royale de Medicine)

Paris: Victor Masson, 1847.

The first scientific analysis of the effects of ether anesthesis. Though ether anesthesia was invented in America, its inventors and early users were either scientifically untrained like Morton, or men of practical scientific or medical skills like Jackson, Warren and Bigelow. Thus, the first scientific studies of how ether anesthesia actually worked took place in France where anesthesia attracted the attention of the neurophysiologist, Longet, and his colleague, Pierre Flourens. At the time many scientists believed that ether anesthesia's effects on the nerves were analogous to those of asphyxia. While Flourens correctly distinguished between the two states, Longet, in a series of animal experiments, determined that "death from overdosage [of ether] appeared to be due to a kind of asphyxia undoubtedly connected with the etherization of the medulla oblongata (bulbe) itself" (Duncum pp. 160-61).

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether
  • 12954

On the inhalation of the vapour of ether.

London Medical Gazette, 4, 498-502, 539-542, 1847.

Appearing in March, 1847, this was Snow's first publication on anesthesia. It contains the first description and illustration of his regulating inhaler, the first such device to control the amount of ether vapor received by the patient.
When ether anesthesia was introduced to England in late 1846 Snow immediately began experimenting with the process, and eventually became the first physician to limit his practice to anesthesiology. As the earliest specialist in clinical anesthesiology, Snow was also the first to perform experiments on the physiology of the anesthetized state, the results of which laid the foundations for the development of anesthesiology as a science. In the present paper Snow noted that the amount of ether vapor absorbed by air varied according to air temperature and provided a table of the proportion of ether to air at temperatures ranging from 38 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether
  • 545

Bone or osseous tissue.

J. Anatomy. 5th ed., cxxxii-clxiii., London, 1848.

The discovery of the “fibers of Sharpey” is reported on pp. cxlii-cxliii.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century
  • 809

Über die Herznerven des Frosches.

Arch. Anat. Physiol wiss. Med., 139-43, 1848.

  • 330

On the archetype and homologies of the vertebrate skeleton.

London: J. Van Voorst, 1848.

Owen’s vertebral theory of the origin of the skull, later refuted by Thomas Huxley and others.

  • 610

Untersuchungen über thierische Elektricität. 2 vols.

Berlin: G. Reimer, 18481884.

A pupil of J. Müller, Emil du Bois-Reymond was the founder of modern electrophysiology. He introduced faradic stimulation and made an exhaustive investigation of physiological tetanus. Above is a collective edition of his writings on the subject. Extracts were translated into English in H.B. Jones, On animal electricity … London, 1852, and more extensive portions in C.E. Morgan, Electrophysiology and therapeutics, New York, 1868. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 612

Ueber die Wärmeentwickelung bei der Muskelaction.

Arch. Anat. Physiol, wiss. Med, 144-64., 1848.

Helmholtz showed the muscles to be the principal source of animal heat.

  • 995

De l’origine du sucre dans l’économie animale.

Arch. gén. Méd., 4 sér., 18, 303-19, 1848.

Bernard’s first communication regarding his investigation of the glycogenic function of the liver. Reprinted, with translation, in Med. Classics, 1939, 3, 552-80.

Subjects: HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology
  • 680

Quantitative Bestimmung des Zuckers im Harn.

Arch. physiol. Heilk., 7, 64-73., 1848.

Fehling’s test for sugar in the urine.

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, BIOCHEMISTRY › Clinical Chemistry
  • 681

Untersuchung der Ochsengalle.

Ann. Chem Pharm., 65, 1-37; 67, 1-60; 70, 149-97., 1848, 1849.

  • 865.1

Beobachtungen über eine eiweissartige Substanz in Krystallform.

Müller’s Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 197-251, 1848.

Reichert obtained hemoglobin crystals in the guinea pig. Digital facsimile from ECHO at this link.

  • 64

The works of Thomas Sydenham. Translated from the Latin edition of Dr. Greenhill with a life of the author by R.G. Latham. 2 vols.

London: Sydenham Society, 18481850.

Best English translation of Sydenham’s works.

Subjects: Collected Works: Opera Omnia, Internal Medicine
  • 1861

Vorläufige Notiz über eine neue organische Base im Opium.

Ann. Phys. Chem. (Lpz.), 66, 125-28, 1848.

Isolation of papaverine.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Opium › Papaverine
  • 3563

Disease of the appendix caeci cured by operation.

Lond. med. Gaz., n.s. 7, 547-50, 1848.

First recorded successful operation for peritonitis due to abscess in the appendix. Hancock was surgeon to Charing Cross Hospital, London.

Subjects: SURGERY: General , SURGERY: General › Appendicitis
  • 2979

Untersuchungen über die Natur der krankhaften Veränderungen der Arterienwände, die als Ursachen der spontanen Aneurysmen zu betrachten sind.

Arch. physiol. Heilk., 7, 359-402, 530-60, 1848.

  • 3450

On the existence of Entophyta in healthy animals, as a natural condition.

Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. (Philad.), 4, 225-33, 18481849.

Discovery of the bacterial flora of the intestines.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Esophagus: Stomach: Duodenum: Intestines
  • 4326

On a new substance occurring in the urine of a patient with mollities ossium.

Phil. Trans., 138, 55-62, 1848.

Bence Jones described the myelopathic albumosuria (Bence Jones proteinuria) seen in Macintyre’s patient (No. 4327). Preliminary notes in Lancet, 1847, 2, 88, and Proc. roy. Soc. Lond., 1847, 5, 673.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton
  • 3683

A course of lectures on dental physiology and surgery.

London: John W. Parker, 1848.

Tomes invented a set of anatomically correct forceps for tooth extraction, thereby elevating this device, which had been previously neglected, to dentistry’s most important extraction instrument. This book was revised and expanded from lectures originally published in the Medical Gazette at irregular intervals between 1845 and 1847.
Tomes persuaded the Royal College of Surgeons to grant a Licence, was a co-founder of the Odontological Society in 1856, and founded the (Royal) Dental Hospital in 1858. He played a leading part in the movement which led to the passing of the Dentists Act, 1878.

Subjects: DENTISTRY, DENTISTRY › Dental Anatomy & Physiology, DENTISTRY › Dental Instruments & Apparatus
  • 5730

Ether and chloroform: a compendium of their history, surgical use, dangers and discovery.

Boston, MA: D. Clapp, 1848.

Bigelow’s speedy publication of Morton’s discovery (No. 5651), and his subsequent advocacy of ether as an anesthetic assured its adoption throughout the civilized world. The above work deals with the priority claims of Morton and Charles Thomas Jackson, with Bigelow taking Morton's side in the dispute. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Chloroform, ANESTHESIA › Ether, ANESTHESIA › History of Anesthesia
  • 5599

Contributions to the pathology and practice of surgery.

Edinburgh: Sutherland & Knox, 1848.

Syme, one-time colleague of Liston, succeeded to the latter’s extensive practice in Scotland. He came to London for a short time as Professor of Surgery at University College, but soon returned to Scotland. He was a popular teacher and a fine, conservative surgeon, one of the first to adopt ether anesthesia and to welcome the antiseptic principles laid down by his son-in-law, Lister.

Subjects: SURGERY: General , SURGERY: General › Antisepsis / Asepsis
  • 5661

A treatise on etherization in childbirth.

Boston, MA: W. D. Ticknor & Co., 1848.

Channing was an early advocate of anesthesia in obstetrics. In his book, and in several earlier papers, he brought the importance of this branch of anesthesia into the foreground.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether, ANESTHESIA › Obstetric Anesthesia
  • 5662

Die Versuche mit dem Schwefeläther, Salzäther und Chloroform.

Erlangen: C. Heyder, 1848.

Introduction of ethyl chloride in anesthesia.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA, ANESTHESIA › Chloroform
  • 5663

On the inhalation of chloroform and ether. With description of an apparatus.

Lancet, 1, 177-80, 1848.

Snow’s chloroform inhaler.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Chloroform, ANESTHESIA › Ether, ANESTHESIA › Inhalers, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Anesthesia Inhalers
  • 5441

A treatise on the smallpox and measles. Translated from the Arabic by William Alexander Greenhill.

London: Sydenham Society, 1848.

Rhazes differentiated measles from smallpox. Reprinted in Med. Classics, 1939, 4, 22-84. For original publication see No. 5404. The first English translation appeared in No. 5417. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 5454

Yellow fever contrasted with bilious fever – reasons for believing it a disease sui generis – its mode of propagation – remote cause – probable insect or animalcular origin.

New Orleans med. surg. J., 4, 563-601, 1848.

Nott advanced the theory that yellow fever was caused by minute animalcula. Reproduced in part in R. H. Major, Classic descriptions of disease, 3rd ed., 1945, p. 122.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Yellow Fever
  • 6334

Lectures on the diseases of infancy and childhood.

London: Longman, 1848.

In its day this was the best English work on the subject, and was translated into several languages. West was one of the founders of the Hospital for Sick Children, Gt. Ormond Street, London.

  • 270

Het mikroskoop. 4 vols.

Utrecht, 18481854.

Exhaustive history of the microscope. The work was translated into German, appearing (second edition) in 1866; this last was reprinted Amsterdam, 3 vols., 1970.

Subjects: Microscopy › History of Microscopy
  • 4495

Observations on certain pathological conditions of the blood and urine in gout, rheumatism and Bright’s disease.

Med.-chir. Trans., 31, 83-97; 37, 49-59, 1848, 1854.

The “thread test” in gout was introduced by Garrod. Later he wrote more fully on gout and rheumatism (see No. 4497).

Subjects: RHEUMATOLOGY › Gout (Podagra)
  • 7092

Bibliographia zoologiae et geologiae. A general catalogue of all books, tracts, and memoirs on zoology and geology by Louis Agassiz. Corrected, enlarged and edited by H. E. Strickland. 4 vols. Vol. 4 edited by Strickland and Jardine.

London: The Ray Society, 18481854.

Digital facsimile of the 4 vols. from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History, ZOOLOGY
  • 7314

Die Hautkrankheiten durch anatomische Untersuchungen erläutert.

Berlin: G. Reimer, 1848.

The first textbook of dermatopathology. "Simon dated the preface of his book April 1st, 1848 and wrote (p. vi and vii) that much has been achieved by meticulous clinical description of diseases of the skin but now attention has to be given to the „Bestandtheile des so zusammengesetzten Hautorgans bei den einzelnen Krankheiten", that is, attention to the „parts of which the skin is composed in different diseases", with the aid of anatomo-pathological investigations. His treatise comprises of 400-odd pages and on some matters gives admirably detailed descriptions and sketches. His most important discovery, which made him an immortal of dermatopathology, was the discovery of the demodex folliculorum, the acne mite, in 1842. The coverage of the different areas of dermatopathology was very unbalanced, John Crissey, our grand master of dermato-history has remarked on that. We should keep in mind, however, that sections were made by hand, i.e. with a knife and not by microtome, and there were no stains yet. Especially the epidermal hypertrophies and neoplasms, the blisters of the skin and the parasites were well covered" (, accessed 7-2-2016).  Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, DERMATOLOGY › Dermatopathology, DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses › Demodex Folliculorum, PARASITOLOGY
  • 7318

Beiträge zur Anatomie und Pathologie der menschlichen Haut.

Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1848.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Dermatopathology
  • 7495

Selecta praxis medico-chirurgicae quam Mosquae exercet Alexander Auvert, ...Typis et figuris expressa Parisiis, moderante Ambroise Tardieu.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière & Moscow: Urbain, 18481851.

Auvert was professor in Moscow. This folio atlas includes 120 folio plates of pathology subjects, drawn by Schtschegoleff in Moscow. The text is in Latin throughout. The drawings were engraved in Paris by Oudet, printed in color and retouched by hand, with explanatory text in Latin for each plate. The work was edited for production and publication in Paris by Tardieu. The work was published in 24 parts beginning in 1848, according to the dates on the title pages of the fascicules. The complete work was issued in 1851. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 10056

Code of ethics of the American Medical Association. Adopted May 1847.

Philadelphia: T. K. & P. G. Collins, 1848.

Heavily influenced by Percival's work, the AMA's code of ethics was written by Isaac Hayes. The first leaf of this 30-page pamphlet indicates that it was "Printed for Private Distribution by the Philadelphia Delegation to the National Medical Convention held in Philadelphia in May, 1847" for presentation. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), Ethics, Biomedical, Medical Societies and Associations, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE › Pennsylvania
  • 10176

The dodo and its kindred; Or, the history, affinities, and osteology of the dodo, solitaire, and other extinct birds of the islands Mauritius, Rodriguez and Bourbon.

London: Reeve, Denham, and Reeve, 1848.

The first separate monograph on the dodo, an extinct flightless bird that was endemic to the island of Mauritius, east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. "The closest genetic relative to the dodo was the also extinct Rodrigues solitaire, the two forming the subfamily Raphinae of the family of pigeons and doves. The closest living relative of the dodo is the Nicobar pigeon" (Wikipedia).  Strickland was run over by a train at the age of 42. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Indian Ocean, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 10729

Poisons in relation to medical jurisprudence and medicine.

London, 1848.

Taylor was the leading English toxicologist and medical witness of his time, and his works were revised, edited, and translated into other languages. He "performed an invaluable service in codifying legal precedents and rulings and relevant anatomical and chemical data. He was known to a wider public by his appearance as a witness for the prosecution in celebrated murder trials, including those of Drory, and the poisoners Tawell, Palmer (who first exploited the possibilities offered by life insurance policies), Smethurst and Catherine Wilson. He was a commanding figure in the witness box, unbending and relentless" ( Extensively revised second edition 1859, further extensively revised edition 1875. Digital facsimile of the first U.S. edition (1848) from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine), TOXICOLOGY
  • 11727

Etherization: With surgical remarks.

Boston: William D. Ticknor and Co., 1848.

Warren performed the first surgical operation under anesthesia at Massachusetts General Hospital on October 16, 1846. This work presents his experience with anesthesia in the year following. Digital facsimile from U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether
  • 12083

Mittheilungen über die in Oberschlesien herrschende Typhus-Epidemie.

Berlin: G. Reimer, 1848.

Virchow was one of the first to identify medicine as a social science. He developed a theory of epidemics that emphasized the social circumstances permitting spread of illness. This approach has been called sociological epidemiology. Virchow began this approach in this study of the 1848 typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia  He also applied similar perspectives to a cholera epidemic in Berlin and to an outbreak of tuberculosis in Berlin during 1848 and 1849.

Virchow's analysis of the epidemic emphasized the economic, social, and cultural factors involved, and clearly identified the contradictory social forces that prevented any simple solution. Instead of recommending medical changes such as more doctors or hospitals, he outlined a revolutionary program of social reconstruction, including full employment, higher wages, the establishment of agricultural cooperatives, universal education, and the disestablishment of the Catholic Church.

"For this research, Virchow argued that defects of society formed a necessary condition for the emergence of epidemics. Virchow classified certain disease entities as “crowd diseases" or "artificial diseases"; these included typhus, scurvy, tuberculosis, leprosy, cholera, relapsing fever and some mental disorders. According to this analysis, inadequate social conditions increased the population's susceptibility to climate, infectious agents and other specific causal factors - none of which alone was sufficient to produce an epidemic. For the prevention and eradication of epidemics, social change was as important as medical intervention, if not more so: "The improvement of medicine would eventually prolong human life, but improvement of social conditions could achieve this result even more rapidly and successfully."8 Health workers deluded themselves to think that effects within the medical sphere alone would ameliorate these problems. The advocacy of social solutions thus became the necessary complement of clinical work.

"The social contradictions that Virchow emphasized most strongly were those of class structure. For example, he noted that morbidity and mortality rates, and especially infant mortality rates, were much higher in working-class districts of cities than in wealthier areas. As documentation he used the statistics that Engels cited7 as well as data he gathered for German cities. Describing inadequate housing, nutrition and clothing, Virchow criticized the apathy of government officials for ignoring these root causes of illness. Virchow expressed his outrage about class conditions most forcefully in his discussion of epidemics like the cholera outbreak in Berlin:

Is it not clear that our struggle is a social one, that our job is not to write instructions to upset the consumers of melons and salmon, of cakes and ice cream, in short, the comfortable bourgeoisie, but is to create institutions to protect the poor, who have no soft bread, no good meat, no warm clothing, and no bed, and who through their work cannot subsist on rice soup and camomile tea... ? May the rich remember during the winter, when they sit in front of their hot stoves and give Christmas apples to their little ones, that the ship hands who brought the coal and the apples died from cholera. It is so sad that thousands always must die in misery, so that a few hundred may live well.

"For Virchow, the deprivations of working-class life created a susceptibility to disease. When infectious organisms, climatic changes, famine or other causal factors were present, disease occurred in individuals and spread rapidly through the community. ...(Waitzkin, H. "Classics in Social Medicine. One and a half centuries of forgetting and rediscovering: Virchow's lasting contributions to social medicine," Social medicine 1 (2006) Digital text available from at this link.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link. Translated into English by L. J. Rather in Virchow, Collected papers on epidemiology and public health I (1985) 205-319.


  • 4460

On amputation at the ankle-joint by internal lateral flap.

Monthly J. med. Sci., 9, 951-54, 1849.

“Mackenzie’s operation”, a modification of Syme’s amputation (No. 4459). Mackenzie volunteered for service in the Crimean War and died of Asiatic cholera near Sebastopol.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Amputations: Excisions: Resections
  • 932

Recherches chimiques sur la respiration des animaux des diverses classes.

Ann. Chim. Phys., 3 sér. 26, 219-519, 1849.

First determination of the respiratory quotient.

Subjects: RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 4529

A treatise on the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of neuroma.

Dublin: Hodges & Smith, 1849.

Smith’s large and beautifully illustrated atlas contains the first clear description and illustration of neurofibromatosis, published 33 years before von Recklinghausen’s account of the disorder (see No. 4566). This disease, which affects the skin and nerves, is characterized by light brown dermal spots and fibrous tumors associated with tumors of nerve trunks and fibrous bone lesions. Measuring about 67.5 x 46 cm., this atlas has been called the largest book from the standpoint of format published in Ireland up to this time.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses, NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System, NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System › Neurofibromatosis
  • 996

Du sue pancréatique et de son rôle dans les phénomenès de la digestion.

Arch. gén Méd., 19, 60-81, 1849.

Discovery of the digestive action of the pancreatic juice, especially its role in the digestion and absorption of fats. Reprinted, with translation, in Med. Classics, 1939, 3, 581-617.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology
  • 682

Ueber die endosmotischen Aequivalent und die endosmotische Theorie.

Z. rat. Med., 8, 1-52., 1849.

In this development of his theory of urinary secretion (see No. 1232) Ludwig made important observations on endosmosis.

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY › Cell Biology
  • 683

Sur un réactif propre aux composés protéiques.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 28, 40-42., 1849.

Millon discovered a special reagent for proteids.

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, BIOCHEMISTRY › Clinical Chemistry
  • 14

The genuine works of Hippocrates. Translated from the Greek with a preliminary discourse and annotations by Francis Adams. 2 vols.

London: Sydenham Society, 1849.

Francis Adams, surgeon of Banchory, Scotland, prepared this partial translation to acquaint his contemporaries with “the opinions of an author, whom I verily believe to be the highest exemplar of professional excellence which the world has ever seen”. It was both the first English translation of 18 "genuine" works from the Hippocratic corpus, and the last English edition of the Hippocratic writings intended to serve as actual medical instruction. Other works of the corpus remained untranslated into English until the resumed publication of the Loeb Classical Library edition beginning in 1988. The first four Loeb volumes were published in 1923–1931, and six further volumes between 1988 and 2012. Digital facsimile of the 1849 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession, Medicine: General Works, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations, SURGERY: General
  • 4692

Ueber Hirnsklerose.

Arch. ges. Med., 10, 334-50, 1849.

First important account of multiple sclerosis. Carswell (No. 2291) and Cruveilhier (No. 2286) both gave illustrations of the disease; the latter is also accredited with the first description.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Degenerative Disorders › Multiple Sclerosis
  • 1106

De cursu lymphae in vasis lymphaticis.

Marburg: typ. Elwerti, 1849.

Noll advanced the theory that lymph is formed by the diffusion of fluids from the blood through the vessel walls into the surrounding tissues.

Subjects: Lymphatic System
  • 4732

Recherches faites à l’aide du galvanisme sur l’état de la contractilité et de la sensibilité électro-musculaires dans les paralysies des membres superieures.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 29, 667-70, Paris, 1849.

“Aran–Duchenne disease”, progressive muscular atrophy, with which the name of Cruveilhier is also associated. A fuller account is included in Duchenne’s Électrisation localisée, 1861, 437-547.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Myopathies
  • 1176

Transplantation der Hoden.

Arch Anat. Physiol. uriss. Med., 42-46, 1849.

Berthold showed that transplantation of a cock’s testes to another part of the body prevented atrophy of the comb, the usual sequel to castration. He was thus the first to prove the existence of an internal secretion. English translation in Bull. Hist. Med., 1944, 16, 399-401.

Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 534.61

Tabulae ad illustrandam embryogenes in hominis et mammalium tam naturalem quam abnormem.

Amsterdam: G.M.P., Londinck, 1849.

The 100 plates of this volume contain some of the most accurate and beautiful depictions of human and animal malformations ever published. Text in Dutch and Latin. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 1221

Ueber das Ligamentum pelvoprostaticum oder den Apparat, durch welchen die Harnblase, die Prostata und die Harnröhre an den untern Beckenöffnung befestigt sind.

Müller’s Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 182-96, 1849.

The “cave of Retzius” described.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, Genito-Urinary System
  • 1505

Lectures on the parts concerned in the operations on the eye, and on the structure of the retina.

London: Longmans, 1849.

Bowman did more than any other man to advance ophthalmic surgery in England. The above work is the first to include a sound description of the microscopical anatomy of the eye and the ciliary (“Bowman’s”) muscle. The book consists of several lectures given at the London Ophthalmic Hospital and published in the Lond. med. Gaz. in 1847. Part of it is reprinted in Med. Classics, 1940, 5, 292-336.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures
  • 2123.2

Mémoire sur les modifications physiques et chimiques que détermine dans certaines parties du corps l’exercice des diverse professions, pour servir à la recherche médico-légale de l’identité.

Ann. Hyg. publ. Méd. lég., 42, 388-423; 43, 131-44., 1849, 1850.

In this comprehensive work on occupational marks, Tardieu states that Corvisart, Dupuytren, and Trousseau would take pride in identifying the professions of their patients at first sight, using knowledge of occupational marks and other physical signs of occupations.

  • 3118

Anaemia; disease of the supra-renal capsules.

Lond. Med. Gaz., 43, 517-18., 1849.

Addison included a classic description of pernicious (Addisonian) anemia in his papers on the condition later known as “Addison’s disease”. Although preceded by Combe, his account was more important in bringing the disease to the notice of the medical profession. See also No. 3864.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Anemia & Chlorosis
  • 3368.2

Mémoire sur l’emploi de la fourchette tonique ou du diapason, pour distinguer une dureté d’ouïe nerveuse de celle que est causée par une obstruction.

Brussels: N.J. Gregoir, 1849.

Schwabach’s hearing test (see No. 3389) was earlier employed by Schmalz.

Subjects: OTOLOGY › Audiology › Hearing Tests
  • 3451

Opération de gastrostomie pratiquée pour la première fois le 13 novembre 1849.

Gaz. méd. Strasbourg, 9, 366-77, 1849.

First gastrostomy.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Esophagus: Stomach: Duodenum: Intestines, SURGERY: General › Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery
  • 5106

On the pathology and mode of communication of the cholera.

Lond. med. Gaz., 44, 745-52, 923-29, 1849.

Snow first became interested in cholera at Newcastle-on-Tyne during the epidemic of 1831-1832, and recurrent outbreaks of the disease gave him the opportunity to investigate it in detail. His paper on cholera, published shortly after his (extremely rare) 31-page pamphlet On the Mode of Communication of Cholera (1849)  contained his first demonstration of the specific nature of the disease, which he defined correctly as an infection of the alimentary canal transmitted by ingesting fecal matter from cholera patients, in most cases via contaminated water. Snow proved his theory of cholera transmission by collecting data on a large number of outbreaks and correlating them to local water supplies. He argued, based on his data, that cholera was caused by “a specific living, waterborne, self-reproducing cell or germ” (Dictionary of Scientific Biography)—a conclusion all the more remarkable in that it predated the germ theory of disease by over a decade.

Snow may have been motivated to contribute his paper to the London Medical Gazette because a review of his separately published pamphlet published in that journal on pp. 466-470 of the 1849 volume stated that he had not proved the contagious nature of cholera.

  • 5183.1

Fragments d’helminthologie et de physiologie microscopique.

Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Moscou, 22, 549-73, 1849.

First observations of entozoic amoebae.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Amoebiasis, PARASITOLOGY › Amoeba
  • 5027

On typhoid and typhus fevers, – an attempt to determine the question of their identity or non-identity, by an analysis of the symptoms, and of the appearances found after death in 66 fatal cases observed at the London Fever Hospital from Jan. 1847–Feb. 1849.

Monthly J. med. Sci., 9, 663-80, 1849.

Despite Stewart’s work, there was still controversy as to the identity of typhoid and typhus. Jenner’s paper demonstrated that the etiology of the two was quite different, that one did not communicate or protect against the other, and that epidemics of the two did not prevail simultaneously.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Salmonellosis › Typhoid Fever, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Lice-Borne Diseases › Typhus
  • 5664

An account of the first use of sulphuric ether by inhalation as an anaesthetic in surgical operations.

South med. surg. J., 5, 705-713, 1849.

There is no doubt that Long was the first successfully to use ether vapor as an anesthetic. This was on 30 March 1842, at Jefferson, Georgia. Unfortunately he did not publish his results until others, notably Morton, had independently introduced it. See also the biography of Long by Frances Long Taylor, New York, 1928.

Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether
  • 6177

The heart-clot.

Med. Exam., 5, 141-52, 1849.

Meigs drew attention to embolism as a cause of sudden death in childbed. Previously such deaths had been attributed to syncope.

  • 5216

Mémoire sur l’esthioméne, ou dartre rongeante de la région vulvo-anale.

Mém. Acad. nat. Méd (Paris), 14, 501-96, Paris, 1849.

Huguier gave the name esthiomène to the characteristic induration and discoloration of the affected parts in lymphogranuloma venereum.

  • 5234

On the cryptogamous origin of malarious and epidemic fevers.

Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard, 1849.

Although Hensinger in 1844 had suggested a parasite as the cause of malaria, Mitchell was the first to approach this theory in a scientific spirit. He was Professor of Medicine at Jefferson College, and the father of S. Weir Mitchell.

  • 7689

The history of the cholera in Exeter in 1832.

London: John Churchill & Exeter, England: Adam Holden, 1849.

Includes “Map of Exeter in 1832 Shewing the Localities Where the Deaths Caused by Pestilential Cholera Occurred in the Years 1832, 1833 & 1834.” This map used red horizontal bars to illustrate outbreaks in 1832, red diamonds (1833) and red dots (1834). The top map key numbered sites identified with the city’s response to the epidemic, such as places where contaminated clothes were burned and buried, convalescent homes, druggists, burying grounds, and soup kitchens. In the other legend box, the parishes of Exeter were listed by the percentage of their populations affected by the disease, and each was assigned an alphabetic letter on the map. For Shapter, the evidence in the map was irrefutable: cholera was most contagious in low-lying areas of dense habitation, near the river, where drainage was poor and waste and refuse accumulated—in others words, the disease was miasmatic. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Cartography, Medical & Biological, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Cholera
  • 7693

Physical Atlas. A series of maps & illustrations of the geographical distribution of natural phenomena. Embracing I. Geology. II Hydrography. III Meterology. IV. Natural History.

Edinburgh: William Blackwood, 1849.

30 double-page maps, 15 of which are after the physical atlas of Berghaus. Contributors included Edward Forbes, George Waterhouse, Abbe Boué, etc. Various concern disease.

Subjects: Biogeography, Cartography, Medical & Biological, Geography of Disease / Health Geography
  • 9814

The physiognomy of diseases.

London: James Nisbet & Co., 1849.

Corfe was Resident Medical Officer at London's Middlesex Hospital, Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, and author of works on various medical subjects. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Physiognomy
  • 9981

On the mode of communication of cholera.

London: John Churchill, 1849.

Publication of Snow's 31-page pamphlet on cholera preceded his paper in the London Medical Gazette by about one month. 

  • 10110

Physician and patient; or, a practical view of the mutual duties, relations and interests of the medical profession and the community.

New York: Baker and Scribner, 1849.

"During this era of rampant sectarianism in medicine, doctors frequently became dishonest or abusive as they competed for patients. To deal with this situation, the American Medical Association adopted [in 1847] a code of professional ethics. Hooker wrote a book-length commentary on this code, Physician and Patient.... Published in 1849, this book was the only comprehensive monograph about medical ethics written by an American during the nineteenth century....Reviewers praised Physician and Patient for its balanced analysis of the ethical responsibilities of both physicians and patients" (Chester Burns in ANB 11, 139-140). Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States (See also state listings under U.S.), Ethics, Biomedical
  • 10746

An inquiry concerning the diseases and functions of the brain, spinal cord, and the nerves.

New York: G. Adlard, 1849.

The first American book on neurology, with a lengthy discussion of neuropathology. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY, NEUROLOGY › Neuropathology
  • 11432

Friedrich Tiedemann’s Bücher-Sammlung.

Heidelberg, 1849.

"After resigning his professorship of anatomy and physiology at Heidelberg due to deteriorating eyesight, Friedrich Tiedemann (1781-1861) sold his extensive personal library—over 4,600 volumes, assembled over fifty years—to Dr. Morrill Wyman (1812-1904) of Cambridge. On June 12, 1893, Wyman presented the Tiedemann Collection to the Cambridge Public Library, and Oliver Wendell Holmes said of the gift, “It is a great thing to have such a library as that of Tiedemann as a nucleus for a scientific collection. His wide investigations during his life of eighty years, through many branches of anatomy and physiology, must have caused him to bring together a great number of works of which it would be hard to find duplicates outside of the great European libraries.” After Morrill Wyman’s death, the Cambridge Public Library placed the Tiedemann collection on deposit with the Boston Medical Library in 1904; that deposit was then converted to an outright gift in 1966, following the opening of the Countway building" (

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries
  • 11757

Notes on the influence exercised by trees in inducing rain and preserving moisture.

Madras Journal of Literature and Science, 15, 402448, 1849.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India
  • 11948

Ship fever. An inaugural thesis, submitted for the degree of M.D., at Geneva Medical College, Jan. 1849.

Buffalo med. J., 4, 523-531, 1849.

Elizabeth Blackwell was the first woman to graduate M.D. in the United States. This paper on typhus was her first publication, and is thus the first publication in America by a woman physician educated in the United States. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Turst at this link.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Lice-Borne Diseases › Typhus, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1800 - 1899
  • 12014

Anatomie comparée. Recueil des planches de myologie dessinées par Georges Cuvier ou exécutées sous ses yeux par MM. Laurillard et Mercier.

Paris: Dusacq, 18491856.

Planned by Cuvier as his masterwork on this topic, but unpublished during his lifetime, this posthumous work was published in parts over seven years. The complete work contains 336 plates. Few complete copies exist. Digital facsimile of parts 1-4 from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Comparative Anatomy
  • 12168

Alkoholismus Chronicus eller Chronik Alkoholssjukdom. Ett bidrag till dyskrasiernas kännedom; enligt egen och andras erfarenheit. . . . Första afdelningen.

Stockholm: John. Beckman, 18491851.

The first monograph on alcoholism considered as a disease. Huss was the first to define alcoholism and to give a scientific analysis of its physical, psychological, moral and social effects. Translated into German, 1852.

Subjects: TOXICOLOGY › Alcoholism, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction
  • 12533

Lehrbuch der pharmaceutischen Technik.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg, 1849.

The first textbook of pharmacy.

  • 12534

Practical pharmacy: The arrangements, apparatus, and manipulations, of the pharmaceutical shop and laboratory.

London: Taylor, Walton & Maberly, 1849.

This was a translation and adaptation for the British market of Mohr's Lehrbuch der pharmaceutischen Technik, also published in 1849. It is thus the first textbook of pharmacy in English.

Though Redwood made it clear in the preface that this was an adapted translation from the German, the publisher appears to have found it expedient to "Anglicize Karl Friedrich Mohr's name to Francis Mohr.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

  • 12893

A dictionary of dental science, biography, bibliography, and medical terminology.

Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, 1849.

An encyclopedia in dictionary form, combining all the elements described in the title in one alphabetical sequence. This work underwent numerous later editions. Digital facsimile of the 1849 edition from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: DENTISTRY, Dictionaries, Biomedical
  • 13167

A practical treatise on the domestic management and most important diseases of advanced life. With an appendix, containing a series of cases illustrative of a new and successful mode of treating lumbago and other forms of chronic rheumatism, sciatica and other neuralgic affections, and certain forms of paralysis.

London: T. and W. Boone, 1849.

Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: GERIATRICS / Gerontology / Aging, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Sciatica, NEUROLOGY › Paralysis, RHEUMATOLOGY