An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15360 entries, 13214 authors and 1892 subjects. Updated: September 23, 2021

RHAZES [Muhammad ibn Zakariyā al-Rāzī (Persian: محمد زکریای رازی‎ ]

14 entries
  • 2192

Opera medica, sive Practica cum textu noni ad Almansorem.

Milan: Philippus de Lavagnia, 1472.

A commentary on Rhazes with notes and additions. For bibliographical and other details regarding this, the first large medical book to be printed, see the essay by Arnold C. Klebs in: Essays on the history of medicine presented to Karl Sudhoff on his seventieth birthday, 1923, London, 1924. ISTC No. if00119000.



Subjects: MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Italy, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Persian Islamic Medicine
  • 39

Liber nonus ad Almansorem (cum expositione Silani de Negris).

Padua: B.V.C.P.F.F. (Bartholomaeus de Valdezoccho), 1476.

The Almansor, so named after the prince to whom it was addressed, was a popular textbook and one of the first general medical texts to be printed. Rhazes ranks with Hippocrates and Galen as one of the founders of clinical medicine. Six copies of this work are recorded by the ISTC: London: British Library (purchased by William Osler in 1915 and bequeathed by him); Munich: UB; Florence: Facoltà di Medicina, Padova: C; Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution, Dibner Library; St. Petersburg, Russia:. Aka.  ISTC No. ir00181500. When Osler purchased his copy it was thought to be the only copy surviving. For its full collation see the Bibliotheca Osleriana, No. 451.

Salani de Negris, whose commentary on Rhazes is included in this edition, and whose name is cited in this spelling by the ISTC, appeared to be virtually unknown except for this edition when I attempted to identify him further in July 2020.



Subjects: MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Persian Islamic Medicine, Persian (Iranian) Islamic Medicine
  • 6313

Liber ad Almansorem sive Tractatus medicinae I-X. Add: Liber divisionum; De aegritudinibus juncturarum; De aegritudinibus puerorum; De secretis sive aphorismi; De sectionibus et ventosis; Synonyma. Galenus: De medicinis experimentatis. Mesue (the elder): Aphorismi. Hippocrates: secreta; Capsula eburnea; De humana natura; De aere et aqua et regionibus; De pharmaciis. Tabula de herbis medicis.

Milan: Leonardus Pachel and Uldericus Scinzenzeler, 1481.

Rhazes was the first to devote an entire treatise to diseases of children. Although he lived so many years before the advent of printing, he was still regarded as an authority in the 15th century and his works were among the earliest medical books to be printed. Sudhoff included the above work in his Erstlinge der pädiatrischen Literatur, Munich, 1925.  ISTC No. ir00175000.

As with several 15th century printed medical compendia, this work contains texts by authors in addition to Rhazes, including Galen, and Hippocrates.



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Roman Empire, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Persian Islamic Medicine, PEDIATRICS, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines
  • 40

Rhazes: Liber Elhavi sive Ars medicinae. Translated by Feragius Salernitanus. Edited by Joannes Bugatus.

Brescia: Jacobus Britannicus, 1486.

The Al-Hawi, or Continens, a great encyclopedia of medicine. The above first Latin translation by Feragius Salernitanus is the largest and heaviest of the medical incunabula. The original manuscript was in Arabic. ISTC No. ir00178000. Digital facsimile from the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek at this link.



Subjects: Encyclopedias, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Italy, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Persian Islamic Medicine, Medicine: General Works
  • 6495.7

Maimonides: Aphorismi secundum doctrinam Galeni. Add: Mesue: Aphorismi. Rhasis: De secretis in medicina. Hippocrates: Capsula eburnea.

Venice: Franciscus (Plato) de Benedictis, for Benedictus Hectoris, 1489.

The most popular and influential medical work by Maimonides, the most famous of early Jewish physician/philosophers. This is a collection of about 1500 aphorisms derived from Galen, and divided into 24 treatises. In the 25th and final treatise Maimonides discusses Galen’s teleological ideas from the Biblical standpoint. See also No. 53. The collection also includes translations of works by Mesue and Hippocrates by Gerard of Cremona, and a translation of Rhazes by Aegidius Lusitanus (Aegidius de Scalabis).  ISTC no. im00077000. Digital facsimile from the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek at this link.



Subjects: Jews and Medicine, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Jewish Medicine
  • 3666.84

Practica. IN: Liber nonus ad Almansorem (cum expositione Joannis Arculani). Ed: Hieronymus Surianus and Elyanorus Sanseverinus.

Venice: Stagninus, 1493.

Arcolani's Practica, published in this edition of Rhazes with Arcolani's commentary, includes the first documentation for the use of gold for filling diseased teeth. There are also several chapters on diseases of the teeth, and material on the anatomy and physiology of the teeth.  ISTC no. ir00180000. Digital facsimile from the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek at this link.



Subjects: DENTISTRY › Dental Anatomy & Physiology, DENTISTRY › Dental Pathology, DENTISTRY › Dental Restoration, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Italy, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Islamic or Arab Medicine
  • 39.1

Rhazes: Liber ad Almansorem sive Tractatus medicinae I-X. Liber divisionum. De aegritudinibus juncturarum. De aegritudinibus puerorum. De secretis sive aphorismi. Antidotarium. De praeservatione ab aegritudine lapidis; Introductorium medicinae. De sectionibus et ventosis. Synonyma. De animalibus. Add:Tabula de herbis medicis; Maimonides: Aphorismi; Mesue (the elder): Aphorismi; Hippocrates: Secreta; Prognosticatio secundum lunam; Capsula eburnea; De humana natura; De aere et aqua et regionibus; De pharmaciis; De insomniis; Avenzohar: De cura lapidis.

Venice: Bonetus Locatellus, for Octavianus Scotus, 1497.

The best edition of the Opuscula of Rhazes, containing the second printing of the celebrated Liber ad Almansorem, not to be confused with Liber nonus ad Almansorem, as well as De aegritudine puerorum (No. 6313), and other works by Rhazes. This edition also contains the first edition of Rhazes’ De proprietatibus membrorum et nocumentis sexaginta animalium

The Liber ad Almansorem first appeared in its entirety in 1481 with 14 other titles, including the first printed edition of Hippocrates On Airs, Waters, and Places, a pioneering work in anthropology. When republished in 1497, additional works by Rhazes, Maimonides and Avenzoar were included for a total of 23 separate titles. (Works by Hippocrates, Mesue, and Maimonides also included here were previously published in 1489, a later edition of which was issued in 1500, and 1508.)  ISTC No. ir00176000. Digital facsimile from the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek at this ink



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, ANTHROPOLOGY, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Islamic or Arab Medicine, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Persian Islamic Medicine
  • 11111

Alexandrū Trallianū Iatrū Biblia Dyokaideka. Alexandri Tralliani medici libri XII. Rhazae De pestilentia libellus ex Syrorum lingua in Graecam translatus. Edited by Jacques Goupil.

Paris: Robert Estienne, 1548.

First edition of the Greek text of the works of Alexander of Tralles, together with an edition of Rhazes on the plague. Both texts were edited by Jacques Goupil. The work was issued by the distinguished scholar printer, Robert Estienne. Digital facsimile from Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link.



Subjects: BYZANTINE MEDICINE, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans), MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Persian Islamic Medicine
  • 5417

De variolis et morbillis liber.

London: J. Brindley, 1747.

Includes a Latin translation of Rhazes’s commentary on smallpox. Mead favored inoculation, and his great authority and influence contributed to a more general acceptance of this measure. English translation entitled A discourse on the small pox and measles, London, 1748.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Measles, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox
  • 2527.99
  • 5404

De variolis et morbillis commentarius.

London: G. Bowyer, 1766.

The first medical description of smallpox was written by Rhazes, about the year 910… The above work is the first edition of the Arabic text with a parallel Latin translation by the English pharmacist and scholar, John Channing, concerning whom see E. Savage-Smith, "John Channing: Eighteenth-century apothecary and arabist," Pharmacy in history, 30 (1988) 63-80. For an English translation see Medical Classics, 1939, 4, 22-84. A translation was also published by the Sydenham Society, 1848. See Nos. 2527 & 5441. In his Treatise on the smallpox and measles, Rhazes stated that survival from smallpox infection prevented an individual from ever acquiring the disease again. His explanation for why the disease does not strike the same individual twice is the first theory of acquired immunity.

 



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Persian Islamic Medicine
  • 5441

A treatise on the smallpox and measles. Translated from the Arabic by William Alexander Greenhill.

London: Sydenham Society, 1848.

Rhazes differentiated measles from smallpox. Reprinted in Med. Classics, 1939, 4, 22-84. For original publication see No. 5404. The first English translation appeared in No. 5417. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Measles, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Persian Islamic Medicine
  • 8363

Trois traités d'anatomie arabes par Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi, 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas, et 'Ali ibn Sina. Text inédit de deux traités. Traduction de P. de Koning.

Leiden: Brill, 1903.

Parallel Arabic and French texts. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Medieval Anatomy (6th to 15th Centuries), ISLAMIC OR ARAB MEDICINE, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Islamic or Arab Medicine, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Persian Islamic Medicine
  • 8260

Al-Rāzī, On the treatment of small children (De curis puerorum). The Latin and Hebrew Translations, edited and translated by Gerrit Bos and Michael McVaugh.

Leiden: Brill, 2015.

One of the few texts on pediatrics that circulated during the Middle Ages, this short Latin tretise is the translation of a lost Arabic original attributed--perhaps mistakenly--to Rhazes.



Subjects: MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Persian Islamic Medicine, PEDIATRICS
  • 8290

The Sanskrit, Syriac and Persian sources in the Comprehensive Book of Rhazes. By Oliver Kahl.

Leiden: Brill, 2015.

Razi's Kitab al-Hawi, a vast medical-pharmaceutical encyclopedia, was compiled from multiple sources. For each identified source this study provides Razi's Arabic text with an English translation. When possible, the original version of the quoted text is provided.

"All text material appears in full Arabic with English translation whilst the traceable Indian fragments are represented here, for the first time, in both the original Sanskrit and corresponding English translations. The philological core of the book is framed by a detailed introductory study on the transmission of Indian, Syrian and Iranian medicine and pharmacy to the Arabs, and by extensive bilingual glossaries of relevant Arabic and Sanskrit terms as well as Latin botanical identifications" (publisher).



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › India, Iranian Medicine, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Syria and Syriac Texts, PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology, Persian (Iranian) Islamic Medicine