An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15011 entries, 12906 authors and 1846 subjects. Updated: June 10, 2021

RAY, John

10 entries
  • 11878

Catalogus plantarum circa Cantabrigiam nascentium: In qua exhibentur quotquot hactenus inventae sunt, qua vel sponte proveniunt, vel in agris seruntur; un cum synomyis selectioribus, locis natalibus & observationibus quibusdam oppido raris. Adjiciuntur in gratiam tyronum, index Anglo-latinus, Index locorum, etymologia nominum, & explicatio quorundam terminorum.

Cambridge, England: Impensis Guilelmi Nealand, Bibliopola, 1660.

This study of the plants around Cambridge includes some of the classification work of Joachim Jungius, whose classification system did not begin to be published until 1662. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 9286

Catalogus plantarum Angliae, et insularum adjacentium: tum indigenas, tum in agris passim cultas complectens.

London: J. Martyn, 1670.

Includes some ethnobotanical notes regarding medical remedies. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY › Catalogues of Plants, BOTANY › Ethnobotany, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom)
  • 7089

Ornithologiae, libri tres....Totum opus recognovit, digessit, supplevit, Joannis Raius.

London: John Martyn, Regiae Societatis typographi, 1676.

Ray and Willughby were the first ornithologists to discard the Aristotelian principles of classification by function, replacing them with a morphological system based on beak form, foot structure and body size that reflected the true relationships even better than Linnaeus's Systema naturae of sixty years later. The credit for this system almost certainly belongs to Ray, who edited and supplemented the Ornithologiae from notes left at Willughby's death, and who, during their years of partnership, had done the major part of the observations and records. In an attempt to bring order out of the chaos of tradition, Ray collated his and Willughby's observations against those recorded by all previous writers, eliminating duplicate species, species vaguely described or reported on hearsay, and species that were clearly fabulous. Revised English translation by Ray with the addition of 3 treatises on fowling, the care of songbirds, and falconry, London, 1678. Digital facsimile of the 1678 edition from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 7088

De historia piscium libri quatuor.

Oxford: e theatro Sheldoniano [for the Royal Society], 1686.

A large folio volume with 187 engraved plates considered the first modern encyclopedia on fish, this was largely the work of John Ray, prepared and expanded from Willougby's notes, more than a decade after his death. The work was published by the Royal Society at considerable expense; the Society's President, Samuel Pepys, personally underwrote 79 of the engraved plates, and other members sponsored the remaining plates. Despite its importance and sumptuous production, the work was slow to sell, and the Society, still owning a large number of copies 50 years after publication, authorized a re-issue of the original sheets with a cancel title in 1743..



Subjects: Encyclopedias, ZOOLOGY › Ichthyology, ZOOLOGY › Illustration
  • 7090

Historia plantarum.... 3 vols.

London: Mary Clark for Henry Faithorne & Sam. Smith & Benj. Walford, 16861704.

This massive catalogue begins with an extensive general botanical treatise covering plant physiology, plant nutrition and, most importantly, Ray's principles and methodology of botanical classification. Ray adopted Jung's morphological system and terminology, with extensions and modifications based upon his own work and that of Grew and Malpighi. He gave a more precise definition of the flower, adopting the terms "petal" and "pollen," and favored Grew's idea that the stamens were male sex organs. He stressed that breeding true from seed was the essential test of a natural species, but admitted the possibility of limited transmutation. Historia plantarum was a monument to Ray's learning, and prepared the way for Linnaeus, but it enjoyed only small success, being handicapped by its massive size, its lack of illustrations (the Royal Society was unwilling to incur the expense), and the political upheavals occuring at the time of its publication. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY, BOTANY › Catalogues of Plants, BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 11185

The wisdom of God manifested in the works of the creation.

London: Printed for Samuel Smith, 1691.

Digital facsimile of the much-enlarged 1692 second edition from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences › Natural Theology
  • 299

Synopsis methodica animalium quadrupedum et serpentini generis.

London: S. Smith, 1693.

This work contains the first really systematic classification of animals. Much of its general arrangement of animals survives in modern systems of classification.



Subjects: ZOOLOGY, ZOOLOGY › Classification of Animals, ZOOLOGY › Herpetology
  • 8853

Vol. 1: Travels through the low countries, Germany, Italy and France, with curious observations, natural, topographical, moral, physiological, & c. Also, A catalogue of plants, found spontaneously growing in those parts, and their virtues. Vol. 2: A collection of curious travels and voyages. Containing Dr. Leonhart Rauwolff's journey into the eastern countries, viz. Syria, Palestine, or the Holy Land, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Chaldea, & c. Translated from the original high Dutch, by Nicholas Staphorst. And also, travels into Greece, Asia, Minor, Egypt, Arabia Felix, Petraea, Ethiopia, the Red Sea, & c. Collected from the observations of Mons. Belon, Prosper Alpinus, Dr. Huntingdon, Mr. Vernon, Sir George Wheeler, Dr. Smith, Mr. Greaves, and others. To which are added three catalogues of such trees, shrubs and herbs as grow in the Levant. By the Rev. John Ray, F. R. S. (2 vols.)

London: For J. Walthoe..., 1738.

This is the second and best edition in 2 volumes of works that were first issued separately in 1673 and 1693 respectively. For Rauwolf see No. 7327. Digital facsimile of the 1738 edition from the Medical Heritage Library, Internet Archive, at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Middle East, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12703

Select remains of the learned John Ray, M.A. and F.R.S. with his life by the late William Derham, D. D. Canon of Windsor, and F.R.S. Published by George Scott, M.A. and F.R.S.

London: J. Dodsley, 1760.

Because Derham died in 1735 this biography would have been written in the early part of the 18th century after the death of Ray in 1705. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, BOTANY › History of Botany, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences › Natural Theology
  • 11205

John Ray, 1627-1705: A bibliography, 1660-1970: A descriptive bibliography of the works of John Ray ... with introductions, annotations, various indexes, and a supplement of new entries, additions and corrections by the author, Sir Geoffrey Keynes.

Amsterdam: G. Th. van Heusden, 1976.

This is the "best" edition. The original edition issued in London by Faber & Faber in 1951 was a far superior example of book production, printed on thick greenish paper.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Individual Authors, BOTANY › History of Botany, NATURAL HISTORY › History of Natural History, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences